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PROPERTY OF THE 



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'/ 




ARTES SCIENTIA VERITAS 



I 



THE CONSTRUCTION 



OF 



18S7 



EOADS AND STKEETS. 



THE CONSTEUCTION 

I "OF 

IADS AND STREETS 

IN TWO PARTS 



HE AET OF CONSTRUCTING COMMON ROADS 

By HENET law, M.I.C.K 

InSSD AN]> Ck)NDENSBD BT D. KiNNBAB ClABK, M.I.C.E. 

feECENT PEACTICE IN THE C0N8TEUCTI0N 
OF ROADS AND STREETS 

IKGLUDDTO PAVB1IBWT8 OF 

STONE, wool), AND ASPHALTE 

By D. KINNEAE CLAEK, M.I.C.E. 

■08 OF " TBAMWAT8 : THBIB COVSTBUOTIOX AlTD WOBKIva ; " EDITOR OF 
\ "BTKAM AKD THB STBAM KSQim," '* CIVIL BKOIKBKBINO," 

: **LOoo]ionyB BKomBs," '*fubl: ttb combustion 

[ AKD BOOSOMY/* BTO, BTO. • 

With giwmxoxi» iilnattidionsf 

THIBD EDITION, CAREFULLY REViajSfii^^^,.,^^, 





'f- ] .V 



'^y 



6r\lls 






^^ 






< 



LONDON 

ROSBY LOOKWOOD AND GO. 

7, BTATIONEBS' HALL COUET, LUDGATE HILL 

1887 

[All rights reserved'^ 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY J. S. VIRTUE AND CO., LIMITED, 

CITY ROAD. 



• • 



ujba^' 



PREFACE. 



dsent work consists of two parts. The first com- 
'*The Art of Constructing Common Boads," by 
enry Law, revised and condensed ; the second 
of **The Becent Practice in the Construction of 
ind Streets," by Mr. D. Kinnear Clark, C.E., in the 
:ation of which he has been indebted for much 
1 to the excellent Beports of Lieutenant-Colonel 
>d, Engineer and Surveyor to the Commissioners 
)rs of the City cf London. The whole is preceded 
istorical sketch of the subject, also by Mr. Clark. 
City of London is a microcosm of the best and 
aried experience in carriage-way construction, 
;he superintendence of the Engineer who has 
iescribed the various structures which have, from 
time, been laid down and tried, in a catholic spirit, 
\ recorded the results of his experience, in a 
f Beports ranging over a period of thirty years 
1848 to 1877. Mr. Clark has endeavoured impar- 
> set forth the merits and disadvantages of the 
of pavement which have come under his observa- 
d he believes that the results of his investiga- 
U be useful to others. 

varieties of wood pavement and of asphalte 
it which have been laid in the Metropolis — 
peciaUy in the City — have been fully described 
is hoped, fairly criticised. Mr. Clark has also 



VI PREFACE. 

added a chapter on the Kesistance to Traction on C 
Roads, in which he has endeavoured to educe th( 
rolling resistance, and has contributed new formula 
fresh data. 

Appended to the text will be found a portion of 
by Sir John Burgoyne on Boiling New-made 
some valuable extracts from Mr. Frederick A. 
Beport on Hoad-rolling, containing several int( 
historical facts ; and finally, a table showing the 
tion of Wood and Asphalte Oarriage-way Pavem 
the City of London, from a recent Report of 



1} 

' Haywood. 



mi 
la 



i ' CONTENTS. 

,{jt 

'^: HISTORICAL SKETCH. By D. K. CLAEK. 



i^ABitry BoadB. — Barrelled Boads. — Macadam's Boads. — Tel 
1 1 ford's Boads.— Length of Metalled Boads, in 1868-69.— 
Boulder Pavement. — London Pavements. — ^Wood Pavements 
in Bossia. — ^Wood Pavements in the United States. — Stead's 
Wood Pavement. — De Lisle's Wood Pavement. — Carey's 
Wood Pavement. — French ICoadB 



PAGV 



PART I.— CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

By HENBY law, O.E. 

ILPTER I. — ^Exploration fob Boads ; — Principle of Selection 
of Boute. — Contour Lines. — Taking Levels. — Bench-marks. 
, —Sections. — Laying out a Bead 21 

H. — Construction op Boads : Earthwork and 
Drainage: — Earthwork. — Trial Pits. — Working Plan. — 
Cuttings and Fillings. — Side Slopes. — ^Excavation in Bock. 
—Slips. — Drainage. — Embankments. — Catch-water Drains. 
—Bead on the Side of a Hill. — Side-cuttings. — Spoil-bank . 40 

ER m. — Besistance to Tragtion on Common Boads : — 
M. Morin's Experiments. — Sir John Macneil's Experiments. 
—Besistance on Liclines. — Table of Besistance on Liclined 
Boads. — Professor Mahan*s Deductions. — Angle of Bepose . 61 
OTE BY THE Editor: — Sir John Macneil on Gradients. — 
Professor Mahan on Gradients. — M. Dumas on Gradients. 
— M. Dupuit on Gradients 63 

IPTER rV. — On the Section op Boads : — Gradients. — Table 
of Gradients and Angles of Boads. — Width and Transverse 
Section of Boads. — Mr. Macadam's Views. — Mr. Walker's 
Views, — Proposed form of Cross Section. —Professor Mahan' s 
Views- — Form of the Bed. — Mr. Hughes's Views, — Drainage 



• a • 



VIU CONTENTS. 



of Roads. — Formation of Drains. — Footpath. — Drainage 
Marshy Soils 

Chapter V. — Construction op Eoads : Foundation and Sup 
btrugturb: — Soft Foundations. — Classification of Roade 
Solidity. — Fouadations of Concrete. — Mr. Penf old's Pract 
— Binding. — Mr. Telford's Practice in Foundations. — Co\ 
ing. — Cementing or Solidifying the Surface. — Angt 
Stones. — Mr. Macadam's Practice. — ^Mr. Telford's Pract 
— Gravel. — Mr. Hughes's Practice. — Chalk Binding 
Faggots. — Mr. Walker on the Use of Iron Scraps 
Binding 

Chapter VI. — On Ebpairino and Improving Roads : — Impro 
ment of the Surface. — Best Season for Repairs. — Format 
of Mud. — Watering Roads. — Tools Used. — Scraping J3 
chines 

Chapter VH. — On Hedges and Fences: — Different Kinds 
Fences. — ^Diy Rubhle. — Post and Railv— Quickset Hedge 
Sir John Macneil and Mr. Walker on Close and H 
Hedging ......... 

Chapter VIII. — Paved Roads and Streets : — Excavation 
Stone Sots. — Curb. — Paving for Inclined Streets. — Si( 
walks and Crossings 

Chapter IX. — On taking out Quantities por Estimates 
Earthwork. — Table of Contents of Cuttings or of Einbai 
ments 



PAET n.— EECENT PEACTICE IN THE 
STEUCTION OF EOADS AND STEEET^ 

By D. K. CLARK, C.E. 

Chapter I. — Materials employed in the Construction < 
Roads and Streets: — For Carriage-ways: Stones.- 
Granite. — ^Table of Crushing Resistance of Gh:anite. — Tab 
of Crushing Strength and Absorbent Power of Varioi 
Stones. — Trap Rocks. — Comparative Wear of Stones. — Tab 
of the Relative Wear of Granites, &c. — For Footpaths : Tab 
of the Composition, Specific Gravity, and Strength of San( 
stones. — Mr. Newlands* Observations. — Asphalte. — Artifici 
Asphalte. — Table of the Crushing Resistance of Timber.- 
Mr. Hope's Experiments on the Wear of W^ood . 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGB 
IhAPTEB II. — OONSTBUCTION OF MoDEBN MaOADAM BoADS : — 

Boning Kods. — First-dass Metropolitan Eoads. — Second- 
class Metropolitan Boads. — Ck>mitr7 Koads . . . .134 

JHAPTER m. — Macadamised Eoadb — ^Weab : — ^Weak or " Elas- 
tic" Boads. — ^Mr. John Farey on Wear of Boads.— Compa- 
Tatiye Action of Feet of Horses and Wheels of Vehicles. — 
Sir John Macneil on the Four-horse Stage-coach, and on the 
Weight of Yehicles and Width of Tyres on Conunon Boads. 
— ^Mr. James Macadam on Weight of Yehicles and Width of 
Tyres. — ^M. Dupuit on Width of Tyres.— Mr. Joseph Mit- 
chell on the Proportion of Yacuity to Solid Material, in 
Broken Stones. — ^Mr. Bokeberg on the same. — Mr. Mitchell's 
Analysis of the Crust of a Macadain Boad. — The Boad- 
roiler. — Arniual Wear of Metalled Boads • • . .138 

/HAPTEB, TV. — ^Macadamised Boads — Cost : — Boada in London, 
Mr. F. A. Paget's Data, with Table. — Suburban Highways. 
— ^Mr. G^rge Pinchbeck's Data. — ^Local Boads . . .151 

Soada in Birmingham. — Mr. J. P. Smith's Data . . .155 

Street* and Boads in Derby, ^"Mx. E. B. Ellice-Clark's Data.— 
Table of Macadamised Streets. — Table showing Estimated 
Cost of Paving. — ^Table ef Ck>mparatiy6 Costs for Granite 
and Macadam 158 

Boads in Sunderland, — Mr. D. Balfour's Data . . . .161 

Boads in Districts near Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Carlisle, — Mr. 
J. H. Cunningham's Data 162 

Shapteb V. — CoNCKBTB BoADS : — Mr. Joseph Mitchell's Con- 
crete Macadam . • 163 

Thapteb YI. — Macadamised Boads in F&ance : — M. Dumas' 
Yiews. — Type Sections of Boads 165 

3hapteb Vll. — Stone Pavements — Crrr op London: — Con- 
struction of Early Pavements. — Colonel Haywood's Beports. 
— Table of Earliest Granite Pavements. — Mr. Kelsey on the 
Cost for Beparation, with Table. — Introduction of Three- 
inch Sets. — Colonel Haywood's Tables of the Lengths of 
London Pavements in 1848, 1851, and 1866.— Mr. William 
Taylor on the Euston Pavement. — Experimental Paving laid 
by Colonel Haywood in Moorgate Street, with Tables. — 
Granites that have been laid in the City of- London. — Bota- 
tion of Granite Paving. — Traffic in the City. — Duration of 
Three-inch Granite Paving in the City, with Table. — Colonel 
Haywood's Estimate of its Duration and Cost, with Table. 
:— Example of London Bridge. — Blackfiiars Bridge. — Typi- 



X CONTEl^TS, 

cal Sections and Plans of a Fifty-feet Street for the City. 
— Southwark Street U 

Chapter Vm. — Stonb Pavbmbnts or Liverpool : — Mr. New- 
lands on the Length of Pavement in 1851. — Tables of Cost 
for Construction of Set Pavements, Boulder Pavements, and 
Macadam 11 

Chapter IX. — Stone Pavements op Manchbstbb: — Early 
Boulder Pavements. — Mr. H. Eoyle on Set Pavements. — Use 
of Pitch Greeting. — Cost. — Macadam It 

Chapter X. — ^Weab op Granite Pavements: — In the City 
of London, with Tables. — Data for Wear and Duration, 
with Table a 

Chapter XI. — Ston? Tramways in Streets: — Mr. Walker's 
Tramways in the Commercial Eoad. — Besistance on Stone 
Tramways. — Granite Tramways in Northern Italy. — Mr. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Jun.'8 Data. — Prices of Work at Milan. 2( 

Chapter XTT. — ^Wood Pavement: — Dimensions of Blocks. — 
Interspaces 2 

Chapter XIII. — Carey*s Wood Pavement: — Carey's Pave- 
ment in the City of London, with Tables of Cost and Dura- 
tion. — Carey's most recent Practice 21 

Chapter XIV. — Improved Wood Pavement: — First Laid in 
the City of London. — Construction. — Asphalte Grouting. — 
Objections to the Flooring.— Most recent Practice . . 21 

Chapter XV. — Other Wood Pavements : — ^ligno-mineral 
Pavement. — Asphaltic Wood or Copeland's Pavement. — 
Harrison's Wood Pavement. — Henson's Wood Pavement. — 
Norton's Wood Pavement. — Mowlem's Wood Pavement. — 
Stone's Wood Pavement. — Gkibriel's Wood Pavement. — 
Wilson's Wood Pavement. — Table of Wood Pavements in 
the City of London 22 

Chapter XVI. — Cost and Wear op Wood Pavements : — Cost 
in the City of London. — Mr. G. J. Crosbie-Dawson's Data.— 

Mr. EUice-Clark's Data 2< 

Wear in the City of London. — Belation of Wear to Traffic 
— Table of Estimated Duration ...... 2^ 

Chapter Xvil. — ^Asphalts Pavements. — First used in Paris. — 
Mode of Construction in the City of London. — Val de 
Travers Compressed Asphalte Pavement. — Val de Travers 
Mastic Asphalte Pavement. — Ldmmer Mastic Asphalte 
Pavement. — Bamett's Liquid Iron Asphalte Pavement. — 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAOB 

Trinidad Asphalte Pavement. — Patent Britidi Asphalte 
Pavement. — ^Montrotier Compound Asphalte Pavement. — 
Sod^te Fran^aifle des Asphaltes. — ^Maestu Compound As- 
phalte. — Stone's Slipless Asphalte. — Bennett's Foothold 
Metallic Asphalte. — lillie's Composite Pavement. — ^McDon- 
nell's Adamantean Concrete Pavement. — Granite Pave- 
ments with Asphalte Joints. — ^Table showing the Extent of 
Asphalte Pavements in the City of London, 1873. — Colonel 
Haywood's Deductions from his Experience. — Table show- 
ing Duration and Repair of Asphalte Pavements in the 
City of London, at March, 1873. — Table showing the Wear 
of Asphalte Pavements in Proportion to Traffic. — Colonel 
Haywood's Conclusions as to the Durability of Asphalte 
Pavements. — Cost and Terms of Contracts for Asphalte 
Pavements, with Table. — ^Yal de Travers Asphalte in 
Manchester 242 

HAPTEB XVJLLl. — Othes Pavements : — ^Metropolitan Com- 
[• pound Metallic Paving. — Cast-iron Paving. — Cellular-iron 
Pavement. — ^Artificial Qranite Pavement. — Compound Wood 
and Stone Pavement. — Concrete Pavement . . • .261 

Sbaptsr AlX. — Comparison of Carbiaob-wat Pavbmbnts : — 
Comi>arative Costs of Pavements. — Cost of Yorkshire Pav- 
ing-stones. — Foot Pavements. — Comparative Slipperiness, 
with Table. — Comparative Convenience. — Beport of Com- 
mittee of the Society of Arts 264 

huPTEB XX. — CLBANsma OP Pavements: — Composition of 
Mud. — ^Dr. Letheby's Analysis, with Table. — ^Moisture in 
Mud. — Cleansing by Machinery and by Manual Labour. — 
Proportion of Qranitic Detritus in Dust from a Qranite 
Pavement. — Comparative Cost of Cleansing Granite and 
Macadam. — Watering with Jet and Hose, with Table — ^Mr. 
J. Lovick's Experiments. — Cleansing in Paris . • . 268 

thuPTER XXI. — ^Mountain Boads :— Principle of Selection of 
Route — ^Major James Browne's Data. — Mr. Dobson on Road- 
making in New Zealand. — Major Browne on the Cost of 
Boads in Lidia, and Method of Construction • • . 282 

tsAPTER XXU. — ^Resistance to Traction on Common Roads : — 
Investigation of Rolling Resistance on Impressible Roads. — 
Work in Compressing the MateriaL — ^Resistance is In- 
versely Proportional to the Cube Root bi the Diameter. — 
M Morin's Deductions. — M. Dupuit's Deductions. — M. De- 
bauve's Data, with Table. — Resistance of M. Loubat's Om- 
nibus. — ^Experiments by Messrs. E^tons and Anderson on 



1 



• * 



Xll CONTENTS. 



APPENDICES. 



Fll 



the Eesistance of Agricultural Carts and Waggons. — Sir 
John Macneil's Exx)eriments on the Eesistance of a Stage- 
coach, with Table. — Formula for Resistance of a Stage- 
coach. — M. Ohari^-Marsaines on the Performance of Flemish 
Horses, mthTable.— Mr. D. K. Clark's Data • . .29 



I. On BoLLuro Nbw-mJlDb Eoads. By General Sir John F. 

Burgoyne, Bart 30 

II. Extracts fbom '' Beport on thb Economy of Koab 
Maintenancb and Horse-draft throuoh Steam 

BOAD-ROLLING, WITH SPECIAL BeFERENCB TO THB ME- 
TROPOLIS." By Frederick A. Paget, C.E. . . .30 

^I. Extract from the Beport op Colonel Haywood, Engi- 
neer and Surveyor to the Commissioners of Sewers, 
City of London, on the Condition of "Wood and 
AsPHALTE Carriage-way Pavements, on the 1st 
February, 1877 32 

INDEX . .83 



CONSTEIJCTION 



OP 



EOADS AND STREETS 



niSTOEICAL SKETCH. 



BY D. K. CLAEK, C.E. 



the middle of last century, communication between 
wns was difficult. The roads were originally mere foot- 
er horse-tracks, across the country, and the few 
leeled carriages in use were of a rude and inefficient 
iption, for which the roads were wholly unadapted. 
roads were necessarily tortuous, every obstacle which 
ground presented being sufficient to turn the traveller 
of his natural direction. Many of these roads were 
led over hills to avoid marshes, which were subse- 
itly drained off or dried up ; others deviated from 
direct course in order to commimicate with the fords 
Erivers now passable by bridges. The inland commerce 
the country was chiefly carried on by transport on the 
of pack-horses, and the old-fashioned term load, 
Lonly in use as a measure of weight, is a remnant of 
custom — ^meaning a horse-load. Gradually, the roads 
le practicable for the rude carriages of the times, 
they were maintained, though in a very defective 
lition, by local taxes on the counties or parishes in 
ich they were situated. So they remained until tum- 
•trusts were established by law, for levying tolls from 

B 



2 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

persons travelling upon the roads. Several of these i 
were estabKshed previous to 1765, and theysubsequ 
became general, when the attention of all classes o: 
community was directed to the state of the highi 
Bills for making turnpike-roads were passed, every ye; 
an extent which seems almost incredible ; and, in add 
every parish was compelled by the force of public opi 
supplemented by indictments and fines recoverah 
common law against the trustees, when the roads 
not .maintained in proper repair. But the turnpikes fo 
a cumbrous system : they were trusts in short lengl 
about fifteen or eighteen miles — and the surveyors 
ployed appear to have been ill-educated, and 
appointed by favour of the trustees rather than fox 
professional knowledge. 

A long period elapsed before any good system of : 
making was established. The old crooked horse-tracks 
generally followed, with a few deviations to render 
easy ; the deep ruts were filled with stones or gra^ 
large and unequal sizes, or with any other mat< 
which could be obtained nearest at hand. The mat< 
were thrown upon the roads in irregular masses, 
roughly spread to make them passable. The best of 
roads would, in our time, be declared intolerable. I 
making, as a profession, was unknown, and sea 
dreamt of; for the people employed to make the roadi 
keep them in repair, were ignorant and incompeten 
their duties. Travelling was uncommon, and funds 
scanty, and higher talent could not be commanded. ] 
neers, except in cases of special difficulty, such as the 
struction of a bridge over a deep and rapid river, ou 
through a hill, or embanking across a valley, prol 
thought that road-making was beneath their consi< 
tion, and it was thought singular that Smeatou si 
have condescended to make a road across the vail 



OLD COUNTRY ROAD. 6 

rent, between MarkTiam and Newark, in 1768. At the 
tiine, civil engineers, according to Sir Henry Parnell, 
. been too commonly deemed by turnpike-trustees as 
ihing rather to be avoided, than as useful and neces- 
to be called to their assistance." By-and-bye, as 
.e became sensible of the value of time, easier and 

rapid means of communication than the old roads 

required : improved bridges were built with easier 
ts ; and, in some cases, cuts were made to shorten the 
[ices, though the general lines of the old roads were 
rved. The roads, no doubt, were somewhat im- 
>d in this way, but there was no general system or 
rt between the district trustees. 
•. Arthur Young, in his *' Six Months' Tour," pub- 
i in 1770, writes of some of the roads in the north of 
and : — ** ToWigan, Turnpike. — I know not, in the 
B range of language, terms suflB.ciently expressive to 
ibe this infernal road. Let me most seriously caution 
ravellers who may accidentally propose to travel this 
>le country, to avoid it as they would the devH, for a 
lond to one they break their necks or their limbs by 
hrows or breakings down. They will here meet with 
which I actually measured four feet deep, and float- 
rith mud only from a wet summer ; what therefore 

it be after a winter ? The only mending it receives 
mbling some loose stones, which serve no other pur- 

than jolting a carriage in the most intolerable 
ler. These are not merely opinions, but facts ; for I 
illy passed three carts, broken down, in those eighteen 
I of execrable memory." ** To Newcastle. Turnpike. 

more dreadful road cannot be imagined. I was 
;ed to hire two men at one place to support my chaise 

overturning. Let me persuade all travellers to avoid 
terrible country, which must either dislocete their 
% with broken pavements, or bury them in muddy 

s2 



HISTORICAL NOTICE. 



sand." Even so much later as the year 1809, the i 
answered to the description of Mr. Young. Mr. 
Ward, writing in that year,* states that the convea 
tion, as shown in Fig. 1, was the most prevalent ii 




Fig. 1.— Common Conrex Uoad, in 1809. 

country. Under the impression that the higher the 
was made, the more easily the road would be dra; 
the materials were heaped up about the centre till 
sides became dangerous, by their slope, for the passaj 
carriages. The carriages, therefore, ran entirely upoi 
middle till it was crushed and worn down, and then a i 
supply of materials was laid on, and the road was a 
restored to its dangerous shape. The sides of the : 
were but little used, except in simmier, or until the h 
waggons had crushed the middle into a surfeice appar( 
compact and smooth. In some places, the rough mate 
were laid in a narrow line, not exceeding seven or € 
feet in breadth, along the middle of the road, and 
sludge collected from the scrapings of the road 
ditches was placed on each side, like banks, to proven* 
stones from being scattered by the wheels. The high 
vex form was so exceedingly defective as to defeat 
object for which it was constructed. Carriages were foi 
for safety or for convenience, to keep to the middle, 
it was speedily ploughed into deep ruts, which held 
rain-water, even when the convexity approached to 
form of a semicircle. The central elevation, there 
was not kept dry ; and the central pressure of the ti 
forced the material upon the sides, where they lay 1 

* Third Eeport from Parliamentary Committee on Tumpikei 
Highways, 1809. 



OLD COUNTEY BOAD. 



aconnected, and obstructed the course of water from 
Lddle. The condition of such a road, ploughed and 
3grated, is illustrated in section by Fig. 2, when it 





Fig. 2.— An Indicted Eoad.— xxs nrsi suiie. xeax 1809. 

probably, indicted. It was common for the parish- 
^or after harvest to make a contract with a stout 
rer, who took job-work, for the reparation of the 
•with a special injunction "to be sure that he threw 
le road high enough, and made the stones of the 
.useway, or foot pavement, go as far as they could." 
iligent operator fell to work ; nor was he stopped by 
[uinoctial rains in September, for the work must be 
as contracted for, before the Michaelmas sessions. 
3Cordingly produced something, Fig. 3. The clods 





"Fig. 3. — The Indicted Boad thrown up, xo uu^e uu tue xnaicimenti 
under the direction of a Parish Survenior. Its second state. 

Txshes were thrown into the bottom, and the soft soil 
1 nourished the vegetation, and all other materials, 
or soft, were laid down, forming a convexity of con- 
ible elevation, according to order: — ^barrelling the 
as it was called. The whole was duly surmounted with 
»nes from the old broken footpath, with a little gravel 
t over them, just to keep them together. Finished 



6 HISTORICAL NOnCX. 

thus, say ]>y Sutunlay night, then on the following Mob 
it was subinittcd for inspection to two magistrateSy on t 
way t<) tho quarter sessions. How could they posi 
refuse to speak the truth ? they certified ** that it was; 
fcctly smooth when they saw it, and that a rast deal 
])Ouu done since the last time they were there." 
liC'sides tear and wear, decomposition immediately 1 
])lace in the chaotic mass, and, in the second or 1) 
year after the repair, the rood was reduced to the condil 
shown in Fig. 4, in its last and worst state. 
Although it aj^pears that the practice of road-maU 





Tig. i.— The name Road, in its third year af^er repair, or its last and'trontrt 

even at the commencement of the present centoiyi l 
sadly deficient, it is, nevertheless, fair to add that pefli 
of intelligence were aware of the first requisite fm 
good road. Mr. Foster, of Bedfordshire, in 1809, i| 
that it was desirable, ** first, to lay a substantial £901 
tion of the hardest stone or coarsest gravel that coiiU 
procured, and then to coat it with a finer and more II 
surface." 

It followed, from the imperfect condition of the lOi 
that the wheels of vehicles were required to be of gf 
width, in proportion to the weight carried on each wb 
The following table shows the proportions and the dii 
bution of weight on the wheels, according to the regi 
tions of the Act which was in force in the early part of 
century. The rolling widths are the slant widihi 
conical wheels : — 



MACADAM 8 ROADS. 



No. 1. — Weight, Horsb-power, and Wheels op Vehicles 
ON Common Roads. 1809. 



»dth of wheel. 



inohes. 

• • 

rolling 16 

• • 
rolling 11 

Stage coach 



Otoss 
weight. 



Nnmbei 
of horses. 



10 
8 
8 
6 
6 
4 
4 





Weight 

on the 

road at 


Draught of 


each horse. 


each 




wheeL 


cwt. lb. 


cwt. 


16 


40 


16 42 


32J 


15 


30 


18 37 


27J 


16 


22} 


17 66 


17i 


20 


20 



Preranre 
per inch 
of width. 



lbs. 
280 
404 
373 
513 
420 
653 
1120 



ere, it is apparent that the pressures per inch of width 
rres increased as the width diminished. In the opinion 
lie practical men of that day — carriers and others — 
pressure should have been limited to about 4 cwt., 
i48 Ibs.y per inch wide ; and it was maintained that 
minimum width of wheel for any vehicle should be 
[iches. 

bout the year 1816, Mr. James L. Macadam, who had 
nany years previously given his attention to the state 
le roads, assumed the direction of the roads of Bristol, 
he put in practice the leading principle of his system 
oad-making, namely, '*to put broken stone upon a 
I, which shall unite by its own angles so as to form a 
I, hard surface," **It follows," he adds, "that when 
material is laid upon the road, it must remain in tlie 
ition in which it is placed without ever being moved 
n ; and what I find fault with in putting quantities of 
•'el on the road is that, before it becomes useful, it 
t move its situation, and be in constant motion."* 
principle was to substitute small angular stones, such 

^ Report of the Select Committee on the Highways of the King- 
1819," p. 22. 



8 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

as resulted from the breakage of larger stones, for rotmc 
stones ; so as to form a sort of mosaic or interlocking 
tem. This is the distinctive novelty of the system 
Macadam, and its value has been established by univt 
experience. 

Mr. Macadam also maintained that no greater convezii 
should be given to the surface of the road, in transvc 
sections, than was suflB.cient to cause rain-water to 
readily into the side channels. The surface of the 
was kept even and clean by the addition of proper 
materials when necessary, distributed equally in 
layers immediately after rain, in order that the new mi 
rials might bind and incorporate properly with the ol 
Macadam's system of construction consisted in sim] 
laying a stratum of flints, or other hard materials, H 
or 1 1 inches thick, broken equally into small pieces al 
2 inches in diameter, and spread equally over the intendc 
road-surface. The broken *' metal" became consolidai 
by carriages passing over it. Without any specialty 
professional training, except the faculty of acute obe 
vation. Macadam effected great improvement of the si 
face of the roads immediately under his charge ; and, 
his business-like and extended views on road-admi] 
tration, he established for himself a world-wide n 
tation. He professed to be a road-maker only, and 
devoted his whole time and attention to the propagation 
his system. He found the roads in the Bristol dial 
loaded with two or three feet of materials, of large anil 
irregular size, which had for years been accumulai 
on the surface. The heaps were utilised as quarries 
stones partiedly broken on the spot ; the stones he excaval 
separated from the mud, and reduced by breakage to a iinii 
form size, 6 ounces in weight. After having been so broken, 
the stones were relaid, and were carefully and regularly 
raked and levelled during the process of consolidation. In 



Telford's roads. 



y, with the addition of effective drainage -where 
ry, he was enabled to make a good surface on roads 
►reviously were ahnost impassable. As nearly every 
Ld more metal upon it than was necessary, he, and 
veyors appointed by him, established economy in 
struction and maintenance, as well as in the admi- 
on of the finances, and his system became generally 
L 

1st Mr. Macadam deserved well as the pioneer of 
Dad-construction, it may be observed that he had 
nticipated in the promulgation of the system of a 
■ly broken -stone covering by Mr. Edgeworth, an 
)roprietor, whose treatise on roads, of which the 
edition was published in 1817,* contains the results 
experiments on the construction of roads, with some 
rules. He advocated the breaking of the stones to 
I size, and their equal distribution over the surface. 

recommended that the interstices should be filled 
h small gravel or sharp sand — a practice which, 
L it was condemned by Macadam, is now adopted 
best surveyors. 

e Macadam's time, the practice of road -making has 
jreatly improved by the use of the roller for com- 
Lg and settling new materials, and of preparing at 
comparatively smooth and hard surface for traffic. 
3rd first directed his attention in 1803-4, to the 
iction of roads. He was employed chiefly in the 
iction of new roads — hundreds of miles of roads in 
ottish Highlands ; also the high road from London 
yhead and Liverpool, and the great north roads, 

1 in consequence of the increased communication 
reland after the Union, and which were excellent 
\ for roads throughout the kingdom. Telford set 

Ji Essay on the Construction of Roads and Carriages/' 2nd 
1817. 

b3 



10 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

out the roads according to the wants of the district throuj 
which they were made, as well as with a view to mti 
distant communication; and the acclivities were so 1| 
out, that horses could work with the greatest efifect i 
drawing carriages at rapid rates. As a notable install 
of the wonderful improvements that were effected by !S 
ford's engineering skill applied to the laying out of oj 
roads, an old road in Anglesea rose and fell between i 
extremities, 24 miles apart, through a total vertical h^ 
of 3,540 ffc. ; whilst a new road, laid out by Mr. Telfij 
between the same points, rose and fell only 2,257 ft,. 
1,283 ft;, less than the undulations of the old road, wb^ 
the new road was more than 2 miles shorter. 

The road was formed by a substratum, or rough hai 
set pavement, of large stones as a foundation, with sd 
cient interstices between the stones for drainage, ll 
materials laid on this foundation were, like Macf 
materials, hard and angular, broken into small pieces, 
creasing in size towards the top, where they formed a 
hard surface, whereon the carriage wheels could run 
but little resistance. Telford's system was aftei 
studied by his assistant, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) M« 

The pressure of public opinion, acting through 

than a century, has resulted in a network of fully 160,( 

miles of good carriageable roads in the United 

dom, according to the following data supplied by 

Vignoles: — * 

Length of Metalled Roads in 1868-69. 

United Kingdom 
France 
Prussia 
Spain 

The rolling of Macadam or broken-stone roads, thoui 

* Address of the President of the Institution of Civil Engine) 
January llth, 1870. 



Length of Boad. 


Area. 


Populatian. 


Milps. 


Square miles. 


Numbers. 


. 160,000 


122,519 


30,621,431 


. 100,048 


210,460 


38,192,064 


. 55,818 


139,675 


23,970,641 


. 10,886 


198,061 


16,673,481 



BOULDER PAVEMENT. 11 

it seems to have been first applied in 1830, appears to 
jhave been but imperfectly appreciated in' England until 
Lt the year 1843, when, according to Mr. F. A. Paget, 
le first published recommendation in the English lan- 
lage of horse road-rolling, as a measure of economy, was 
led by Sir John Burgoyne.* Boad-rolling is now very 
leraUy practised, by horse-power or by steam-power, f 
The first Act for paving and improving the City of 
idon was passed in 1532. The streets were described, 
this simply-worded statute, as "very foul, and full of 
and sloughs, so as to be mighty perillous and noyous, 
well for all the king's subjects on horseback, as on foot 
ith carriages " (litters). 

Previously to the introduction of the turnpike -road 

)m, the streets of the metropolis and other large towns 

ere paved with rounded boulders, or large irregular 

^bbles, imported from the sea-shore. They usuedly stood 

6 to 9 inches in depth for the carriage-way, and about 

inches deep for the footpaths. Such a road could not be 

with a very even surfeice ; the joints were neces- 

ly very wide, and afforded receptacles for filth. The 

igularity of the bases of the stones caused a diflGloulty 

securing a solid and equal support; and, imder the 

LC, ruts and hollows were speedily formed. The boulder 

^ement was succeeded by a pavement composed of 

locks of stone which, though ordinarily of tolerably 

[jood quality, and measuring 6 or 8 inches across the sur- 

|Im», were so irregular in shape that even their surfaces 

Mi not fit together. They formed a rubble causeway, 

• See a paper by Sir John Burgoyne **0n Rolling new-made 

IfioadB,'* in tJie Appendix. 
t The history of Horse Eoad-HoUing and of Steam Koad-KoUing, is 
en by Mr. Frederick A. Paget in his instructive ** Report on the 

Iconomy of Road Maintenance and Horse-draught through Steam 

Boad-roUing ; with Special Reference to the Metropolis, 1870." 

Addressed to the Metropolitan Board of Works. 




12 HISTORICAL NOTICB. 

in whicli the stones were but slightly hammer-dressel- 
Wide joints were made ; and far from being dree 
square down from the surface, they most frequently oi 
came into contact near the upper edges; and, tap( 
downwards, their lower ends were narrow and irre| 
leaving an insufficient area of flat base to support weigbl 
With such irregular forms, considerable spaces were \m 
avoidably left between the fitones, which were filled bjj 
the paviours with loose mould, sand, or other soft material 
of which the bed or subsoil was composed. Another grea 
deficiency in the construction of the pavement, was causei 
by inattention to the selection and arrangement of tiii 
stones according to size — large and small stones wen 
placed alongside of each other, and, as they acted us 
equally in their resistance to pressure, they created a coil 
tinual jolting in wheel-carriages, and, adding percussiT? 
action to pressure, became powerful destructive agentt 
Again, the bed on which the stones were placed, beii 
loose matter, for the most part, was easily converted 
mud when water sank through between. It was unavoi 
ably loosened by the paviour's tool, to suit the vj 
depths and narrow bottoms of the stones, and to fill 
the chasms between the stones. The mud was worked 
to the surface, and the stones were left imsupported. 
consequence of these defects, the surface of the paveme 
soon became very uneven, and not unfrequently simk d 
much as to form hollows, which rendered it not onb 
incommodious but dangerous to horses and carriages. : 
Such was the system of pavement met with in Londoi 
fifty years ago. Mr. Telford, in 1824, clearly pointed oil 
the deficiencies of the system ; and in his Report (referred 
to in the foot-note)* he reconmiended first, a bottoming 

♦ See Mr. Telford's " Report respecting the Street Pavements, &o 
of the Parish of St. George's, Hanover Square," printed in Sir Heor, 
Parnell's *< Treatise oq Boads," p. 348, 2nd Edition. 



LONDON PAVEMENTa 13 

iation, of broken stones, 12 inches deep ; seoond, 
liar paying-stones of granite, worked flat on the 
*aight and square on all the sides, so as to joint 
ith a base equal to the face, forming, in fact, an 
causeway. The dimensions of the stones were 
ended to be as follows : — 

Wid*h. Depth. Length. 

Inches. Inches. Incfies. 

streets of the 1st class 6 to 7} 10 11 to 13 

„ 2nd „ 6 to 7 9 9 to 12 

„ 3rd „ 4J to 6 7 to 8 7 to 11 

s of such dimensions as those recommended by 
frequently having a depth of 12 inches, have 
enerally employed in street -paving. In some 
)B, they have been laid on concrete, with the joints 
with lime and sand, to insure a great degree of 
r. They have been proved to possess great dura- 
•of which many instances will be adduced — but 
ve been, for several reasons, generally abandoned 
or of narrower paving-stones, 3 or 4 inches in 
hough many secondary streets in London and else- 
remain, at this day, paved with 6-inch stones, 
dam* 8 system was introduced in some streets where 
flQ.c was light, but it did not equal the granite 

ments formed of blocks of wood appear to have 
rst employed in Eussia, where, according to the 
ciy of Baron de Bode,* it has been, though rudely 
ed, used for some hundreds of years. After long 
►eated trials of various modes of construction, wood 
nt consisted, according to the approved method, of 
nal blocks of fir wood, 6 inches across and 7 inches 
[)lanted, with the fibre vertical, close to each 
)n a sound and level bottom ; a boiling mixture of 



# u 



Wood ravement," by A. B. Blackie, 1842. 



14 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

pitch and tar vraa poured over them, and a small qnsEtil 
of river sand was strewed over tlie tar. "The fabricatid 
of these blocks," wrote Baion de Bode, "is eztremd 
simple and espeditious. It is accomplished by faetecid 
six strong blades into a strong bottom of cast-iron, n 
pressing the ready-cut pieces of wood through theSO 4 
blades bj means of a common or hydraulic press. H 
bottom of the press being open, these cut blocks dr(^ ( 
the floor, completely formed for immediate use. Eed.l 
ia considered the best ; but hobs of it must be used whi 
it has blue stripes on its edges, as that ia a proof that 
is in a state of decay. The blocks must be perfectly drii 
beforo they are used, and squeezed as close together i 
possible between the abutments, one on each side of tJ 
street or road, so as to keep the pavement from moving 
In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland, wood was, 
the time of Mr. Blackie's writing, and it may be now, . 
general use for the pavement of streets and highways. 

In the United States, likewise, wood pavement was !• 
down experimentally — in Kew York in 1835-6, and aha 
the same time in Philadelphia. In New York, it was !■ 
in three different forms. A hundred yards was laid ^ 
Broadway, consisting of hexf^^oil 
blocks of pitch-pine, 6 inches acrci 
and & inches deep. No pitch or t 
was applied to this pavement ; it » 
simply strewed occasionally with grai 
or sand for a month after it was lai 
— 6t«id-B Wood It had lain for two years, according 
anmt^oimot report, without having required ai 
repair ; though it appears that very few carta passing ov 
it carried more than half a ton of load, of which the wide 
wheel did not exceed three inches in width. An eqn 
length of pavement was laid in "William Street, a m.in 
thoroughfare, in the end of 1836 ; the pavement consist 




'WOOD FA.VEHBNT. 15 

nch square blocks of pine, 12 inchea deep. The 
epecimen waa I&id in Mill Street, in the middle of 
oonsieting of the same size and kind of blocks as 
laid in WUliam Street, on a foundation of sand 
down very hard. It is stat^ in Mr. Blackie'a 
hiet that the pavement of square blocks -iras laid on 
8 — ^probably in William Street, 

. David Stead waa the first constructor of wood 
lent in England. He patented his Byetem in May, 
— consisting of hexagonal blocks of Scotch fir or 
ay fir, from 6 to 8 inches across, and from 3^ to 
les deep, according to the traffic of the thoroughfare in 
. they were to be laid. Each block was of the form 
1 in Fig. 5, chamfered at the upper edges. The 
d having been well beaten and levelled, it was 
3d with three inches of gravel, upon which the 
I were placed, and which waa designed to .carry 
the water which might penetrate below the surface. 
lavement, when completed, looked substantial, and 
ited the appearance shown in Fig. 6. When the 
! were grooved across, they appeared together as in 
. Mr. Stead's pavement was, 
'eral inetances, laid on a bed 
Crete. In Manchester, where 
) thus laid, in &ont of the 
Infirmary, the concrete bed 
hree inches deep, and was 
ised of three parts of email 
a stones, | inch in diameter, ^g_ g, 

d with Ardwick lime and stead's Wood PayemaitlBaa. 

n cement. The lime was mited with sand in the 
rtdon of one to two ; and the cement as one to 
T. The concrete was laid upon a hard, well-beaten 
nibetratum. 
Stead also laid pavements experimentally, consist- 





16 UISTORIOAL NOTICS. 

ing of rotmd blocks of vood — sections of trees — plao 
vertically, and laid together as in Fig. 8. Tlie interepac 
vers filled vtth sifted gravel or sharp sand. 

The first example of wood-pavii 
in London, was laid in the C 
Bailoy, in 1639, on Stead's syste 
It yraa laid haphazard on the t 
of the roadway. The pavement ( 
not wear well ; the blocks setti 
down irregularly in the nnprepai 
Biead'i woodSneniRit, ims. foundatiou. At the end of th 
years and two mouths, in 1842, the pavement was lift 
and removed to pave the yard of the Sessions Hou 
there it decayed, and a large crop of Amgi appeared in 
places not touched by the traffic. 

Mr. Stead's system of wood pav 

ras laid in several other localitiei 

I London about the same time as 

piece which was laid in the 
' Bailey, and also in Woolwich Dc 
I yard. It was laid also in Salft 
Liverpool, and Leeds. 

Shortly after Mr. Stead's atten 
during the period from 1840 to It 
seven other wood pavements, of various design, were . 
iu the City ; but they did not last, for the most part, n 
than three or four years. Om 
these was t^e invention of the C< 
de Lisle, patented in the nam( 
Hodgson, in December, 1839; th« 
ts^De Lui^«w3 vention was acquired by the Mt 
politan Wood Pavement Compi 
The formation of the blocks was called the " Stereot 
of the Cube." The upper and under siufacee of the bio 
Fig. 9, are cut diagonally to the direction of the gi 




Etud ■ Wood PBTeniB 
Bound iOocka. 



TP»T1 



m 



WOOD PAVEMEST. 17 



ig parellelopipeds, which are placed alternately in 
led positions, and vhea put together present a pave- 

having the appearance of 
.0. In each block, two holes 
ut on each side to receive 
B or trenaib, designed to 
he bloeka together. 
. Carey's wood pavement, 
ted in 1839, was one of the 
st pavemestB that were tried, 
t proved to he the hest at 
me. It was first laid in the City, in the Poultry, 
41, where it lasted six years; and it was shortly 
rarde laid in many other streets. It consisted of 
3 of wood 6 or 7 inches wide, from 12 to 14 
3 in length, and 6 inches deep, shown in aide 
tion, Fig, 11. The four-sided blocks of wood 

of wedge-form, in and out, sidewise and endwise 
!ally, BO as to form salient and re-entering angles, 
» interlock on all the four sides, each block with its 
ibour, when laid. It was anticipated that, by this 
igement, each block would receive snpport from its 
ibours, and woiUd be prevented from shifting or 
ng from its position, since the pressure of the load 
was to come upon each block in succeasion would bo 
ibuted and dispersed over 
eighbouring blocks. Later 
tience has demonstrated 
hings : — that lateral sup- 

of this kind wai 



Fig- 11 — Carer'B \ 



A; and that, following the experience of stone-set 
ig, the wood blocks of narrower dimensions answered 
T, and, with suitable interspaces, afforded the necessary 
lold for horses. 
iphalte, a natural, brittle compound of bitumen and 



18 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

limestone, found in volcanic districts, was introduced ft 
France, for foot-pavements, in 1836. It has, since t 
time, been extensively employed in the City of London 
the pavements of carriage-ways. 

In France, the art of the construction of roads, a hun(3 
years ago, was far in advance of English practice. ] 
viously to 1775, the causeway was generally 18 feet w 
with a depth of 18 inches at the middle and 12 inche 
the sides, according to the profile, Fig. 12. Stones were 




Fig. 12.— Section of Flinch Roads. Previous to 1775. 

flat, by hand, in two or more layers, on the bottom of 

excavation ; on this foundation, a layer of small stones 

placed and beaten down, and the surface of the road 

formed and completed with a finishing coat of stones bro 

smaller than those immediately beneath. As the re 

were, down to the year 1764, maintained by statute lab 

with which the reparations could only be conducted in 

spring and the autumn of each year, it was necessaij 

make the thickness of the roads as much as 18 inches, i 

they might endure during the intervals between rep« 

"With less depth, they would have been cut through i 

totally destroyed by the deep ruts which were formed 
six months. 

The suppression of statute labour (la corvSe), in iJ 

was the occasion of a reformation in the design of cai 

ways, whereby the depth was reduced to such dimensi 

as were simply strong enough for resisting the weigh' 

the heaviest vehicles. The depth was reduced to a unifc 

dimension of 9 or 10 inches from side to side, and the < 

was diminished more than one half. Writing in 11 

M. Tresaguet, engineer-in-chief of the generality of 

moges, stated that roads constructed on the improved { 



BOADS IN FRANCE. 19 

istedfor ten years, imder a system of constant maintenance^ 
nd that they were in as good condition as when first con- 
tracted. The section of these roads, as elaborated by M. 
Cresagnet, is shown in Fig. 13. The form of the bottom is 




Vig, lS.--iSectioii of French Boada, elaborated by M. Tr^eaguet. 1775. 

k 

I parallel to the surface, at a depth of 10 inches below it. 
Larg^ boulder stones are lai4 at each side. The first bed 
Kmsisted of rubble stones laid compactly edgewise, and 
beaten to an even surface. A second bed, of smaller stones, 
^as laid by hand upon the first bed. Finally, the finishing 
tiyer, of small broken stones, broken by hand to the size of 
jiralnuts, was spread with a shovel. Great care was taken 
in the selection of stone of the hardest quality for the 
lipper surface. The rise of the causeway was 6 inches in 
e width of 18 feet, or 1 in 36. 

Tresaguet*s method, here illustrated, was generally 
ted by French engineers in the beginning of the 
nt century ; although, on soft ground, they placed a 
of flat stones on their sides under the rubble work, 
this case, the thickness was brought up to 20 inches. 
9 rise of the causeway was as much as l-25th, and 
lOften equal to l-20th of the width. 

' But, if the design was good, the maintenance was bad. 
e and unbroken stones were thrown into the holes and 
and neither mud nor dust was removed. About the 
1820, the system of Mr. Macadam attracted some 
ntion in France; and the peculiar virtue of angular 
ken stone in closing and consolidating the surface was 
gnised. About the year 1830, it is said, the system of 
acadam was officially adopted in France for the con- 
btroction of roads; and M. Dimias, eng^eer-in-chief of 




20 HISTORICAL NOTICE. 

the Fonts et Chaussees, writing in 1843,* stated tliat il 
system of Macadam was generally adopted in France, ai 
that the roads were maintained, by continuous and watc 
fill attention in cleansing the roads and with consta 
repair, in good condition — ^realising his motto, " The maa 
mum of beauty." But the employment of rollers for ti 
preliminary consolidation and finishing of the road, h 
been an essential feature in their construction and the 
maintenance ; for it has long been held in France that 
road unrolled is only half finished. It appears, accordii 
to Mr. F. A. Paget, that the Jiorse-roUer was introduce 
in France in 1833. At all events, in 1834, M. Poloncea 
struck by the viciousness of the mode of aggregating 
rolling the material of the road by the action of wheel 
proposed, in the first place, to consolidate the bottom 1 
a 6-ton roller, and to roll the material in successive laye 
consecutively, and thus to complete in a few hours wh 
might, in the ordinary course of wheel -rolling, requi 
many months to perform. 

« "AnnaleB des Fonts et Chauss^es," 1843 ; tome 5, page 348. 



PART I. 

CONSTETJCTION OF KOADS- 

BY HENBY LAW. 



CHAPTER I. 
EXPLORATION OF ROADS. 

s part of tlie work is confined to the art of constructing 
imon roads, in situations where none previously existed, 
L to the repair of those already made. Before entering 
) the details of their construction, it is desirable to go 
) the subject of the exploration of roads, or the manner 
irhich a person should proceed in exploring a tract of 
ntry, for the purpose of determining the best course for 
>ad, and the principles which should guide him in his 
d selection of the same. 

hippose that it is desired to form a road between two 
;ant towns, a and b, Fig. 14, and for the present neglect 












^ 



N 



\ 
\ 
\ 



D B 

Fig. 14.— Laying ont a Road. 



•gather the consideration of the physical features of the 
>rvening country ; assuming that it is equally favour- 



22 EXPLORATION OF ROADS.' 

able, frhatevep line is selected. Now, at first Bight^ 4 
would appear that, under such circumstances, a perfc 
straight line drawn from one town to the other, would 
the best that could be chosen. But on a more 
examination of the locality, it may be found that there' 
a third town, o, situated somewhat on one side of 
straight line drawn from a to B ; and, although 
primary object is to connect the two latter, it may, n< 
theless, be considerably better if the whole of the 
towns were put into mutual connection with each o1 
Now this may be effected in three different ways ; any 
of which might, under certain circumstances, be the 
In the first pla«e, a straight road might, as originaUy 
gested, be formed from a to b, and, in a similar mamu 
two other straight roads from a to o, and from b to o. 
would be the most perfect way of effecting the object n 
view, the distance between any two of the towns b( 
reduced to the least possible length. It would, howei 
be attended with considerable expense, and it would 
requisite to construct a much greater length of road 
according to the second plan, which would be to form, 
before, a straight road from a to b, and from o to coi 
a road which should join the former at a point D, so as 
be perpendicular to it ; the traffic between a or b and i 
would proceed to the point d, and then turn off to o. SJ 
this arrangement, while the length of the roads would 11 
very materially decreased, only a slight increase would Ij 
occasioned in the distance between o and the other twi 
towns. The third method would be to form only the tm 
roads a c and o b. In this case, the distance between a aal 
B would be somewhat increased, while that between A aoj 
c, or B and c, would be diminished ; the total length < 
road to be constructed would also be lessened. 

As a general rule, it may be taken that the last of thefi 
methods is the best, and most convenient for the public 



LAYING OUT A ROAD. 23 

; is to say, if the pnysical character of the country 
B not determine the course of the road, it will generally 
found "best not to adopt a perfectly straight line, but to 
ty the line so as to pass through the principal towns 
■r its general course. The public may thus be con- 
fed from town to town with greater facility and less 
Ipense than if the straight line were adopted, and the 
kmoLB were to communicate with it by means of branch 
pds. On the first system, vehicles established to convey 
IBsengers or goods between tib.e two terminal towns, 
paid pass through all those which were intermediate; 
Inlst, if the straight line and branch-road system were 
fcpted, a system of branch coaches would be required 
ir meeting the coaches on the main line. 
Ill laying out a road in an old country, in which the 
pmtion of the several towns, or other centres of industry, 
quiring road accommodation, is already determined, 
lire is less liberty for the selection of the line of road 
um in a new country, where the only object is to establish 
ke easiest and best road between two distant stations. In 
ie first case, the positions of the towns, and other in- 
ibited districts situated near the intended road, are to be 
iken into consideration, and the course of the road may, 
> a certain extent, be controlled thereby ; whilst, in the 
Ksond case, the physical character of the country would 
kaie be investigated, and it alone would constitute the 
Kis for the selection of a new route. 
Whichever of these two cases may be dealt with, in the 
lection and adoption of the line of road between two 
»iits, a careful examination of the physical character of 
« country should be made, and the line of the route 
itermined in accordance with physical conditions. 
One of the first points which attract notice in making an 
amination of an ordinary tract of country, is the uneven- 
S8 or undulation of its surface j but if the observation be 



24 EXPLORATION OP ROADS. 

extended a little further, one general principle ol 
formation is perceived even in the most irregular com 
Tlie country is intersected in various directions by i 
increasing in size as they approach their point oi 
charge ; towards these main rivers, lesser rivers apj 
on both sides, running right and lefb through the 001; 
and into these, again, enter still smaller streanu 
brooks. Furthermore, the ground falls in every dip 
towards the natural watercourses, forming ridges, 
or less elevated, running between them, and sepai 
from each other the districts drained by the streams. 
It is the first business of a person, engaged in 1 
out a line of road, to make himself thoroughly acqui 
with the features of the country ; he should possess 
self of a plan or map, showing accurately the course 
the rivers and principal watercourses, and upon tl 
should further mark the lines of greatest elevation, < 
ridges separating the several valleys through which 
flow. It is also of peculiar service when the plan oca 
contour lines showing the comparative levels of an 
points, and the rates of declivity of every portion < 
country's surface. The system of showing upon plai 
levels of the ground by means of contour-ltnes, is c 
much utility, not only in the selection of roads and 
lines of communication, but also for settling the li 
the drainage of towns, as well as of their water-si 
and of the drainage and irrigation of lands, and for 
other purposes. A contour-plan of the City of Lor 
(Fig. 15) illustrates the application of the system oJ 
tour levels. It will be observed that, upon this plan, 
are a number of fine lines traversing its surface in v{ 
directions, and, where they approach the borders 
map, having figures written against them : these lin< 

* This plan is taken from a Report on the Health of Towi 
is made from levels 'aken from Mr. Butler Williams. 



26 EXPLORATION OF ROADS. 

termed eontour-UneSy and they denote that the level of di0 
ground is identical throughout the whole of their ootuses 
that is to say, that every part of the ground over which 
line passes, is at a certain height above a known 
point, the height being indicated by the figures writ 
against the line. At the point a, for example, in Smil 
Market, a line with the figures 57 is attached, whidi ii 
cates that the ground at that spot is 57 feet above 
point to which aU the levels are referred. If the oouise 
the line be traced, it is found that it cuts Newgate Si 
at the point b, passes thence to the bottom of Patem( 
Eow at the point i, through St. Paul's Churchyard at o, 
Oheapside at d. It then curves round towards the 
from which it first started, and crosses Aldersgate 
twice, at e and f; and, after intersecting Eore Si 
Oripplegate, in the point a, it again meets the boun( 
of the City at h. It is thus shown that, tracing 
course of this line, each of those points stands at the 
height, namely, 57 feet above a certain fixed point, 
the datum. This point is, in the present instance, 10 
below the top of the cap-stone at the foot of the step, on' 
east side of old Blackfriars Bridge. Each interval b< 
the lines in Fig. 8, indicates a difference of level of 
inches ; and by counting the nimiber of these lines wl 
intersect a street or road within any given distance,, 
rise or fall in the street is at once ascertained by 
multiplication. Thus, looking at the line of Bisho] 
Street, near the north end, the contour-line 45 is seen, 
dicating that that point in the street is 45 feet above 
datum, and nine lines are found intersecting the 
between that point and the top of Comhill. It is 
lated, therefore, that this point is (1*5 X 9 =) 13-5 
above the other end of the street, or 58*5 feet above 
datimi. The rate of inclination of the ground may also 
estimated by the relative proximity or distance apart 



LAYING OUT A ROAD. 27 

lies. Thus, on the northern side of the City, where 
»iind is comparatiyely level, the lines are far apart ; 
Ay on the side next the Thames, and again on each 

the line of Farringdon Street, which marks the 
of the vaUey of the old river Fleet, where the sur- 
veiy hilly, the contour lines lie close together. 
plan, Fig. 16, shows an imaginary tract of coimtry, 
strate more clearly the mode of showing by means 
x)iir-lines, the physical features of a country. The 
1 line, E F o H I, is supposed to be an elevated ridge, 
[ng the valley shown in the plan; the fine black 
\xe contour-lines, indicating that the ground over 
they pass is at the altitude above some known 
kxpressed by the figures written against them in the 
L. It will be observed that these lines, by their 
r or less distance, have the effect of shading, and 
apparent to the eye, the undulations and irregu- 
1 in the surface of the country, 
lying out a line of road, there are three cases which 
ire to be treated, and each of these is exemplified in 
in, Fig. 16. First, the two places to be connected, as 
ms A and b on the plan, may be both situated in the 
ralley, and upon the same side of it ; that is, that 
•e not separated from each other by the main stream 
irains the valley. This is the simplest case. Secondly, 
jh both in the same valley, the two places may be 

opposite sides of the vaUey, as at a and c, being 
bed by the main river. Thirdly, they may be situ- 
L different valleys, separated by an intervening ridge 
ind more or less elevated, as at a and d. In laying 
extensive line of road, it frequently happens that aU 
sases have to be dealt with : frequently, perhaps, 
its course. 

most perfect road is that of which the course is 
ly straight, and the surface perfectly level ; and, all 

c 2 




nff. U.— Omtoar nan of ■ TiMl qt CooDtTr. 




LAYING OUT A BOAD. 29 

•liher things being the same, that is the best road which 
anfiwexs nearest to this description. 

^ Now, in the first case : — That of the two towns situated 
tbe same side of the main valley, there are two methods 
ich may be pursued in forming a communication be- 
>n them. A road following the direct line between 
fihown by the thick dotted line a b may be made ; or, 
Khe may be adopted which should gradually and equally 
Sndine from one town to the other, supposing them to be 
difiEerent levels, or which should keep, if they are on the 
le level, at that level throughout its entire course, fol- 
ig aJl the sinuosities and curves which the irregular 
ation of the country might render necessary for the 
ilfilnient of these conditions. According to the first 
Lod, a level or a uniformly-inclined road might be made 
one to the other, forming embankments and cuttings 
where necessary ; or these expensive works might be 
^•voided, and the surface of the road made to conform to 
that of the country. Now, of all these, the best is the 
^straight and xmiformly-inclined, or the level road, although 
the same time it is the most expensive. If the importance 
the traffic passing between the places is not sufB.- 
to warrant so great an outlay, it will become a matter 
oonaideration whether the course of the road should be 
straight; its surface being made to imdulate with the 
fSace of the country; or whether, a level or equally- 
line being adopted, the course of the road should 
made to deviate from the direct line, and follow the 
iding course which such a condition is supposed to 

itate. 
In the second case, that of two places situated on oppo- 
\mbB sides of the same valley, there is, in like manner, the 
choice of a perfectly straight line to connect them, which 
would probably require a heavy embankment if the road 
were kept level ; or steep inclines, if it followed the surface 



30 EXPLORATION OF ROADS. 

of the country ; or, by winding the road, it may be oairiel 
across the valley at a higher point, where, if the level roal 
were taken, the embankment would not be so high, or, if 
kept on the surface, the inclination would be reduced.. 

In the third case, there is, in like manner, the alterna- 
tive of carrying the road across the intervening ridge in a 
perfectly straight line, or of deviating it to the right oc 
the left, and crossing at a point where the ridge is loflil 
elevated. 

The proper determination of the question, which of these 
courses is the best under certain circimistances, involves a 
consideration of the comparative advantages and disad" 
vantages of inclines and curves. What additional increase 
in the length of a road would be equivalent to a given in- 
clined plane upon it; or, conversely, what inclination miglti 
be given to a road, as an equivalent to a given decrease in 
its length ? To satisfy this question, it is requisite to know 
the comparative force required to draw different vehidefl 
with given loads upon level and upon variously-inclined 
roads : — a subject which is treated in Chapter III. 

In laying out a new line of road, the first proceeding iff 
usually, after a general examination of the country, to Isf 
down one or more lines upon the best map which can be 
procured. On a contour-map of the district, this proceedr* 
ing is greatly facilitated. The next step is to make ac 
accurate survey of the lands through which the severC 
lines sketched out pass, which should be plotted to such i 
scale as will admit of the smallest features being shown witfc 
sufficient accuracy and distinctness. A scale of ten chains 
to the inch, for the open country, with enlarged plans d 
towns and villages upon a scale of three chains to the inohi 
is generally found to be sufficient. Careful levels shouU 
also be taken along the course of each line ; and at auitablf 
distances, depending upon the nature of the country, linei 
of levels should be taken at right angles to the origina 



PLANS OF ROADS. 31 

linQ. In taldng these levels, the heights of all existing 
toads, rivers, streams, or canals should be noted; bench- 
fMrks should be left at least every half-mile, that is, marks 
made on any fixed object, such as a gate-post, or the side 
of a house or bam, the exact height of which is ascertained, 
and registered in the level-book. The bench-marks are 
vaelol in case of deviations being made in any portion of 
fte lines, for the levels may be taken direct &om the bench- 
inarks, thus obviating the necessity of again levelling 
other parts of the line. A section should be formed 
ftom the levels, to the same horizontal scale as the general 
J^aii, with such a vertical scale as will show with distinct- 
Beas the inequalities of the ground. K the horizontal 
scale is ten chains to the inch, the vertical scale may be 
10 &ei to the inch. 

Apian of tiins kind is exemplified in Fig. 17, plotted to a 
leale of ten chains to the inch, showing a district through 
vUch a road is to be constructed. One line is shown run- 
ning nearly straight across the plan, together with a devia- 
tion therefrom, which, although of greater length, would 
ran on more favourable ground. The sections, Figs. 18 and 
19, show the levels of the surface of the ground on the 
itraight line, and on the deviation &om it respectively. 
The required information is given on the plans, for enabling 
&e engineer to lay down the course of the road, and to 

^ . ttrange the position and dimensions of the culverts, bridges, 
' ind other works necessary in its construction. 

^ It is shown in Fig. 17 that the straight line crosses a 
itream at b, and the river twice at o and d ; and also that 
it must pass from b to e, over a swamp or morass of such 
a nature that, if a solid embankment be formed, it is pro- 
bable that a very large quantity of earth would be absorbed 
beyond what is indicated in the section. It would, in 
addition, be necessary to form bridges with several capa- 
caouB openings at the points where the intended road would 



BXPLORATIOM OF ROADS. 




Fig. 17— -LnyliiE out ■ nair H«d. 



7/X- 



SECTIONS OF ROADS. 83 

)fi8 theriyer, since the river would be liable to be flooded, 
ich disadvantages attending the more obvious route, would 
duce the engineer to sketch out some other line, by which 
ifiy would be avoided. He would have the levels taken, 
iiili other needful information, to enable him to choose 
ntween the two routes. 

The manner in which the sections should be drawn, and 
Bie nature of the information to be given upon them, are 
tKfimpMed in Figs. 1 8 and 19. In addition, data of the fol- 
lowing character should be obtained, and should be entered 
ittier in the survey fleld-book, or in the level-book. 



■ 



At the point b, fig. 17, the line crosses a stream 8 feet in width 
And 1 foot deep ; in flood, this stream brings down a considerable 
qnaatity- of water. 

At the point o on the section, the river is much narrower and 
IB not 80 deep as at other places, in consequence of a great por- 
tion of its waters finding a passage through the marshy ground 
on either side. Its width is 16 feet, and its depth 2 feet ; the 
velocity of the current is 95 feet per minute ; the height of its 
sor&ce at the present time is 30*10 feet above the datum; and 
tbe ang^e of skew which the course of the stream makes with the 
Hne of the road is 62 degrees. 

t At the point n the river is 27 feet wide, and 2} feet in depth ; 
^ Telocity 87 feet per minute ; the height of its surface above 
^ datum 29*96 feet ; and the angle of skew 49 degrees. 

The ground from b to b is of a very soft, boggy nature, and 
^ of water. 

The height to which the river has risen during the highest 
'ood known, at the bridge at p on the plan, is 35 feet above the 
^ftfcom; the water-way at that time was 90 feet, and the sec- 
tioQal area of the opening through which the water then flowed 
^^ 550 square feet. The same flood at the lower bridge, at o on 
^ plan, was 35*3 feet above the datum; the water-way was 
102 feet, and the sectional area nearly 600 square feet. 

The deviation*line only crosses one stream, at m, on the plan 
^ the section. The width of this stream at present is 15 feet, 
^d its depth 18 inches ; but in times of flood it rises to the same 
height as the river, and brings down a large body of water. The 
'^ht of its surface at present above the datum is 31*25 feet, and 
^ angle which its course makes with the line of road is 85 

3 



34 



KXPLORATION OF ROAD0. 



Jvnetkm witti> 
ltjkttagBmd,S 





Jnnotion witli> 
GzistiDgBoadJ n 



t 






Sfi 



gg-g^ 



I 



41.tf 



Fig. 18 ^Laying ont a new Rood. 8«otioa. 



SECmOlfS OF ROAPS. 



85 



nlf 



elion with ) rr 

Miug Bond, j y « 




1 

8 



■a 



I 



i 

I 



•11 25 



Fig. 19.— Laying out a new Boad. Section. 



36 EXPLORATION OP ROADS. 

The information relative to the rivers crossed, such as 
given above, should always be obtained, in order that t 
bridges constructed over them may be adequate for t 
passage of the water brought down in time of floods. 

A cross section should be taken of each of the ezistu 
roads, near their junctions with the intended road; 
show to what extent, if any, the levels of the existii 
roads might be altered to suit the levels of the proposj 
new road. 

Laying out a Road, — On the sections Figs. 18 and 19 il 
line of the road is to be laid down ; in other words, il 
levels at which it shall be formed are to be determine 
As the road should always be dry, it should be placed i 
least a foot above the level of the flood ; and if it be plaoc 
at 37*25 feet above the datum, which is the height of fi 
exi8ti^g road at i, this object wUl be effected. Drawing 
line at this level upon the section, it appears that fl 
embankment will have to be formed across the vallc 
from the road at i, to the point where the line meets H 
ground at e; and that the remednder of the road from 
to H will be in a cutting. Now, the obvious principle I 
arranging the levels of a road, would be so to adjust tt 
cuttings and embankments that the ground taken from d 
should form the other. In the present instance, this ] 
impossible, because the level of the road is determined l 
other circumstances, and necessitates the formation of. 
very long embankment with but very little cutting. 1 
therefore becomes necessary that ground for the formaii| 
of the embankments should be obtained from some otiij 
source. But, in order to produce as much cutting j 
possible, the line should be kept at the same level \ 
before until it becomes necessary to raise it so as to attlj 
the level of the existing road at h. If an inclination of 
in 50 be given to this la4st part of the road, the distance < 
which the rise will commence will be 200 feet from Hf tl 



LEVELS OF &OADS. 37 

ice of level being 4 feet. There is therefore to be 
to the other disadvantageB already mentioned, as 
Ing to the straight line of road, that of the formation 
rge embankment, with the necessity for making an 
lion in some other place, to supply the earth for that 
e. 

nine the section of the deviation-line, and see what 
ement can be thereby effected. The level of the 
portion of the road must, as before, be placed 37*25 
ove the datum ; and if a line be drawn at that level 
section. Fig. 19, it will be found that the quantity of 
anent is very much reduced, compared with what 
be required for the straight course, and that there 
no difS.culiy in adjusting the cutting between h and 
i exactly to afford the amount of filling required, 
aials will show that, if the line be kept at the same 
itil within sixteen chains of the point h, and then 

up at a regxdar inclination, this object will be 
^ and that the quantities of cutting and embank- 
nll be very nearly equal. The deviation-line is, 
re, the line which the engineer would select as the 
>f the two. Having made his selection, he would 
.'to mark the course of the road on the ground, by 

stakes into the ground, on its centre line, at inter- 
one chain-length, or 66 feet. In the next place, he 
take very careful levels of the ground at every one 
3 points, and at any intermediate point, where an 
ion or change of level occurred ; and wherever the 

the ground varied to any extent in a direction at 
igles with the course of the road, he would take 
rom which he would make transverse or cross 

of the ground. 

. these levels a working section should be made, to 
3ntal scale of not less than five chains to the inch, 
'ertical scale of 20 feet to the inch. A portion of 



38 EXPLORATION OF ROADfl. 

the sootion plotted to these scales is shown in Fig 
the level of the surface of the ground above the datui 
every chain-length, at the points where stakes have 
driven into the ground, should be figured-in on the sec 
as shown in the column a, and the depth of cuttin 
height of embankment, at the same points, should be ^ 
in another column, b. The entries in this last co] 
are obtained by taking the difference between the le^ 
the surface of the ground and the level of the road. Il 
be observed that» upon the section, there are two pai 
lines drawn as representing the line of road ; the u 
line is intended to represent the upper surface of the 
when finished, while the lower thick line represents ^ 
is termed ^q farnwtum-^urfae$y or the level to whidi 
surface of the ground is to be formed, to receive the i 
dation of the road. In the section, the formation-su 
is shown 15 inches below the finished surface of the r 
the difference of level is therefore the thickness of the 
itself. All the dimensions on the section are unden 
to refer to the formation-level ; and the height of the 1 
above the datum should be figured-in wherever a ch 
in its rate of inclination takes place, and should be ma 
by a stronger vertical line, as shown at a 



CHAPTEE n. 

CONSTRUCTION OP ROADS : EARTHWORK AND 

DRAINAGE. 

Earthwork. — ^This term is applied to whatever relates to 
the construction of the excavations and the embankments, 
to prepare them for receiving the road-covering. 

When the cuttings are of considerable depth, ^rto/pits. 
should be simk at intervals of about ten chains, to the 
depth of the intended cutting, for the purpose of ascertain- \ 
ing the nature of the ground, and determining the slopes '< 
at which the sides of the cutting would safely standi as \ 
well as the slope at which the same earth would standi 
when formed into the embankments. The cuttings aiid->d 
embankments should be numbered on the section, and th<^)j 
slopes intended to be given to each should be stated upo^ ^ 
the section. The contents of a cutting or an embankment^/J 
that is, the number of cubic yards which will have to be.^ 
moved for its formation, with the intended slope, should • 
then be calculated and stated upon the section. The man* j 
ner of calculating these quantities will be explained in a : 
subsequent chapter. 

Wherever rivers or streams are crossed, bridges or cul-^ 



EARTHWORK. 41 

Terts most be introduced ; detail drawings of these should 
•be prepared, and reference should be made to them on the 
▼orking section. 

A working plan should be constructed, on the same 
horizontal scale as the section, upon which the positions 
of the centre stakes should be shown ; and on this plan 
iStie road should be drawn to its correct width at the upper 
surface, with other lines showing the feet of the slopes. 
Oie stakes should be numbered consecutively on the plan, 
.to facilitate reference to any part of the line, and the width 
i of land required at every stake should be calculated in the 
manner about to be described, and entered in a table, from 
which the width of land required for the purpose of the 
road may be ascertained at every chain. Suppose that, in 
the present instance, the finished width of the road itself 
iB to be 40 ft., and that an additional 6 ft. will be required 
(m each side for the ditch and bank, the half width of the 
load without any slopes, or where the road is on the same 
ikfvel as the ground, would be 26 ft. ; and it may be 
[obeeorved in the following table, wherever there is no cut- 
or embankments (as at stakes Nos. 1 and 30), this is 
width given in the fourth column. To find the heights 
tlie other stakes, the product of the height of embank- 
er depth of cutting (as the case may be) by the ratio 
{he alope is to be added to the half width, 26 ft. Thus, 
{he first cutting, the ratio of the slopes being, as stated 
{he section, 1 to 1, there is simply to add the depths of 
cutting at each stake to 26 ft., and the numbers given 
{he fourth column are obtained. After the 21st stake, 
catting terminates, and the ratio of the slopes then 
les H to 1, and an addition of one and a half times 
height of the embankment is to be made to the normal 
width, 26 ft., to give the remaining values in the 
column of the table. 



EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGB. 







Tarlb No. 3—Bmw Wnnsa. 




8 


1 


r 


II 


9 


1 

■a 

1 


i^ 


u 


1 


1 

1 


ll 


pi 


*| 


pi 




F«t. 


FbM. 


ft«t. 




Fwt 


Fwrt. 


p«t. 


1 


Duo 




2lj0 


17 


2-33 




28-3 


2 


0-68 




26-8 




2-62 




28-e 


3 


0'fl3 




26'9 


Ifl 


2-20 




28-3 




I'SO 




27-2 


30 


t'69 




27-6 


B 


i-ae 




27-8 


ai 


0-7S 




26-8 




1-91 




27'9 


22 




0-fifi 


2Q-a» 


7 






aB'O 


23 




2-20 


29-3 




1'87 




27-9 


24 




8-52 


31-8 


9 


1-9D 




279 


25 




4-00 


32-0 


10 


207 




2tt-l 


2S 




3-7B 


31-7 


11 


2-17 




2B-2 


27 




2fiO 


20-9 




2-35 




28-4 


28 




1-26 


27-9 




2'3D 




28-3 


29 




0-30 


28^5 




2'2S 




2S-3 


30 




0-00 


28-0 


16 


2'5D 




28-5 


31 




0-33 


26-fi 


IG 


2'05 


— 


"-' 











Aiter ascertaining the half widths as ahown in &b tal 
No. 2, the next operation is to set out tli6 widths on 1 
ground, driving in another stake at ereiy ohain-imgth, 
the correct distance on each aide of the centre stake. 
grip about 4 or 5 in. wide should then he cut from stf 
to stake, so as to mark hoth the centre and eides of ' 
road upon the ground hj a continuous line. The ■ 
lines Uius set out, it must be remembered, are uot the t 
of the slopes, but they include 6 ft. on each side for a bi 
and a ditch. Another stake should therefore be drivel 
every chain-length, 6 ft. within the outer stakes on e 
side, and another grip cut to mark the foot of the slopa 

A strong post should next be fixed into the grou 

* The slopes here chaoge from 1 to I, to 1} to 1. 



K-' 



EARTHWORK. 43 

Jgftm the oentre line, wherever a change in the inclination 
the Toad takes place (as at the 17th stake in the present 
)y upon which a cross piece should be placed at the 
.ded height of the formation-surface of the road, and 
te heights should be put up at such distances as 
enable the workmen to keep the embankments to their 
leveL For cuttings, pits must be sunk correspond- 
at certain intervals, to the depth of the formation- 
ly to serve as g^des to the excavators in forming 
cutting. 
In the foregoing example, the slopes have been taken 
ratioB of 1 to 1, |md H to 1 ; but it should be remem- 
that the inclination of the side slopes demands 
attention. The proper inclination depends on the 
of the soil, and the action of the atmosphere and 
internal moisture upon it. ** In common soils, as or- 
garden-earth formed of a mixture of day and 
dy oompact day, and compact stony soils, although 
side dopes would withstand very well the effects of 
eather with a steeper inclination, it is best to give 
two base to one perpendicular; as the surface of 
roadway wiU, by this arrangement, be well exposed 
action of the sun and air, which will cause a 
evaporation of the moisture on the surface. Pure 
and gravel may require a greater dope, according 
itances. In all cases where the depth of the 
tion is great, the base of the dope should be in- 
. It is not usual to use any artificial means to 
the surface of the side slopes from the action of 
,ther ; but it is a precaution which, in the end, will 
much labour and expense in keeping the roadway in 
rder. The simplest means which can be used for 
purpose, consist in covering the dopes with good sods, 
else with a layer of vegetable mould about 4 inches 
cky carefully laid and sown with grass seed. These 



44 EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE. 

means are amply sufB-cient to protect the side slopes from 
injury when they are not exposed to any other causes of 
deterioration than the wash of the rain, and the action of 
frost on the ordinary moisture retained by the soiL 

'^The side slopes form usually an unbroken surface from 
the foot to the top. But in deep excavations, and particu- 
larly in soils liable to slips, they are sometimes formed 
with horizontal offsets, termed benches, which are made s 
few feet wide, and have a ditch on the inner side to receive 
the surface-water from the portion of the side slope above 
them. These benches catch and retain the earth that may 
fall from the portion of the side slope above. 

**When the side slopes are not protected, it will be. well, 
in localities where stone is plenty, to raise a small wall of 
dry stone at the foot of the slopes, to prevent the wash of 
the slopes from being carried into the roadway. 

'*A covering of brush-wood, or a thatch of straw, ma> 
also be used with good effect ; but, from their perish- 
able nature, they will require frequent renewal and 
repairs. 

''In excavations through solid rock, which does noi 
disintegrate on exposure to the atmosphere, the sidait 
might be made perpendicular ; but as this would exclude^ 
in a great degree, the action of the sun and air, which it 
essential to keeping the road-surface dry and in good ordei^ 
it is necessary to make the side slopes with an incHnatioil^ 
varying from one base to one perpendicular, to one baa^ 
to two perpendicular, or even greater, according to t]tf| 
locality : — the inclination of the slope on the south side itit 
northern latitudes being the greater, to expose better ilMil 
road-surface to the sun's rays. 

''The slaty rocks generally decompose rapidly on the sovH 
face, when exposed to moisture and the action of frost- 
The side slopes in rocks of this character may be cut into 
steps, and then be covered by a layer of vegetable mould 



i 



EXCAVATION IN KOCK. 45 

rxk in grass seed, or else the earth may be sodded in the 

□le stratified soils and rocks, in which the strata have 
l^y or inclination to the horizon, are liable to slips^ or 
give way, by one stratum becoming detached and sliding 
^another ; which is caused either from the action of frost, 
from the pressure of water, which insinuates itself 
pween the strata. The worst soils of this character are 
taee formed of alternate strata of clay and sand ; particu- 
ify if the day is of a nature to become semi-fluid when 
ixed with water. The best preventives that can be re- 
tted to in these cases are, to adopt a system of thorough 
pinage, to prevent the surface-water of the ground from 
leaning down the side slopes, and to cut off all springs 
bich run towards the roadway from the side slopes. The 
nface-water may be cut off by means of a single ditch 
lade on the up-hlLL side of the road, to catch the water 
Bfore it reaches the slope of the excavation, and convey 
off to the most convenient natural water-courses ; for, in 
fanost eveiy case, it will be found that the side slope on 
le down-hill side is, comparatively speaking, but slightly 
piected by the surface-water. 

''Where slips occur from the action of springps, it fre- 
Bently become a very difficult task to secure the side 
lopes. If the sources can be easily reached by excavating 
llo the side slopes, drains formed of layers of fascines, or 
nish-wood, may be placed to give an outlet to the water, 
ad prevent its action upon the side slopes. The fascines 
lay be covered on top with good sods laid with the grass 
de beneath, and the excavation made to place the drain 
) filled in with good earth well rammed. Drains formed 
' broken stone, covered in like manner on top with a 
yer of sod to prevent the drain from becoming choked 
til earth, may be used imder the same circumstances as 
icine drains. Where the sources are not isolated, and 



46 EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE. 

the whole mass of the soil forming the side slopes appears ■ 
saturated, the drainage maj'be effected by excavating^ 
trenches a few feet wide at intervals to the depth of some 1 
feet into the side slopes, and filling them with broken | 
stone, or else a general drain of broken stone may be made J 
throughout the whole extent of the side slope by excava- \ 
ting into it. When this is deemed necessary, it will be 
well to arrange the drain like an inclined retaining-wall, 
with buttresses at intervals projecting into the earth 
further than the general mass of the drain. The firont 
face of the drain should, in this case, also be covered with 
a layer of sods with the grass side beneath, and upon this 
a layer of good earth should be compactly laid to form the 
face of the side slopes. The drain need only be carried 
high enough above the foot of the side slope to tap all the 
sources ; and it should be sunk sufficiently below the road- 
way surface to give it a secure footing. 
^'The drainage has been effected, in some cases, by sink- 
ing wells or shafts at some distance behind the side slopes, 
^m the top surface to the level of the bottom of the ex- 
cavation, and leading the water which collects in them, by 
pipes, into drains at the foot of the side slopes. In othen, 
a narrow trench has been excavated, parallel to the axis of 
the road, from the top surface to a sufficient depth to tap 
all the sources which flow towards the side slope, and a 
drain formed either by filling the trench wholly with. 
broken stone, or else by arranging an open conduit at the 
bottom to receive the water collected, over which a layer 
of brush- wood is laid, the remainder of the trench being 
filled with broken stone." * 

In some instances, the side slopes of very bad soila 
have been secured by a facing of brick arranged in a 
manner very similar to the method resorted to for seonring 
the perpendicular sides of narrow deep trenches by ^ 
timber-facing. The plan pursued is, to place, at intervalf^ 

* "A Treatise on Civil Engineering," by D. H. Mahan, 2nd edition, 
page 411. 



EMBAKKHENTS. 47 

the excavationy strong buttresses of brick on each 
pposite to each other, and to connect them at bottom 
sversed arch. Between these buttresses are placed, 
bable heights, one or more brick beams, formed at 
\ with a flat segment arch, and at top with a like 
QLTerted. The buttresses, secured in this way, serve 
rs for vertical cylindrical arches, which form the 
and support the pressure of the earth between the 



forming the embankments the side slopes should be 

with a greater inclination than that which the earth 

Edly assumes ; for the purpose of giving them greater 

oQity, and to prevent the width of the top surface, 

which the roadway is made, from diminishing by 

change in the side slopes, as it would were they 

with the natural slope. To protect the side slopes 

efPectually, they should be sodded, or sown in 

seed; and the surface-water of the top should 

»e allowed to run down them, as it would soon 

them into gidlies, and destroy the embankment. 

ialities where stone is plentiful, a sustaining wall of 

x)ne may be advantageously substituted for the side 

I. 

prevent, as far as possible, the settling which takes 
in embankments, they should be formed with great 
the earth being laid in successive layers of about 
Eeet in thickness, and each layer well settled with 
ers. As this method is very expensive, it is seldom 
led to except in works which require great care, and 
* trifling extent. For extensive works, the method 
ly followed, on account of economy, is to embank out 
one end, canying forward the work on a level with 
)p surface. In this case, as there must be a want of 
actness in the mass, it would be best to form the 
les of the embankment flrst, and to gradually fill in 



48 EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE. 

towards the centre, in order that the earth may arra: 
itself in layers with a dip from the sides inwar 
this will in a great measure counteract any tendency 
slips outward. The foot of the slopes should be secu 
by- buttressing them either by a low stone wall, or 
forming a slight excavation for the same purpose." * 
**In some cases surface drains, termed catch-water dra 
are made on the side slopes of cuttings. They are run 
obliquely along the surface, and empty directly into 
cross drains whicb convey the water into the natural wai 
courses. 

When the roadway is in side-forming, cross drains 
the ordinary form of culverts are made, to convey 
water from the side channels and the covered drains i 
the natural water-courses. They should be of suffici 
dimensions to convey off a large volume of water, anc 
admit a man to pass through them, so that they may 
readily cleared out, or even repaired, without breaking 
the roadway over them. 

"The only drains required for embankments are the oi 

nary side channels of the roadway, with occasional culv< 

to convey the water from them into the natural wai 

courses. Gfreat care should be taken to prevent the e 

face-water from running down the side slopes, as tl 

would soon be washed into gullies by it. 

** When the axis of the roadway is laid out on the e 

slope of a hill, and the road-surface is formed partly 

excavating and partly by embanking out, the usual < 

most simple method is to extend out the embankm 

gradually along the whole line of excavation. This met] 

In '^ure, and no pains therefore should be spared to g 

'have been fenent a good footing on the natural surf 

manner very simifits, particularly at the foot of the slo 

the perpendicular side^tural surface should be cut i 

timber-facing. The plan /oot of the slope be secured 

• "A TreatUe on Civfl EngineeiP^K/' ^7 ^« ^- Mahao, 2nd edit 
page 411. 



ROADS IN SIDE-FORMIKO. 49 

Izessing it against a low stone wall, or a small terrace 
sarefollj rammed earth. 

En filde-formings along a natural surface of great indi- 
iioiiy the method of construction just explained will not 
safficiently secure ; sustaining-walls must be substituted 
r the side slopes, both of the excavations and embank- 
Sitii. These walls may be made simply of dry stone, 
len the stone can be procured in blocks of su£B.cient size 
sender this kind of construction of sufficient stability to 
list the pressure of the earth. But when the blocks of 
i^e do not offer this securily, they must be laid in mortar, 
id hydraulic mortar is the only kind which will form a 
fc construction. The wall which supplies the slope of 
is excayation should be carried up as high as the natural 
B^Bce of the ground ; the one that .sustains the embank- 
mi should be built up to the surface of the roadway ; and 
parapet-wall should be raised upon it, to secure vehicles 
om accidents in deviating from the line of the roadway. 
^A road may be constructed partly in excavation and 
irtly in embankment along a rocky ledge, by blasting the 
Ksk, when the inclination of the natural surface is not 
teater than one perpendicular to two base ; but with 
greater inclination than this, the whole should be in 
Kcavation. 

'There are examples of road constructions, in localities 
ke the last, supported on a firame-work, consisting of 
orizontal pieces, which are firmly fixed at one end by 
lemg let into holes drilled in the rock, and are sustained 
t the other by an inclined strut underneath, which rests 
Igainst the rock in a shoidder formed to receive it. 
*'When the excavations do not famish sufficient earth for 
embankments, it is obtained fraxn excavations termed 
4n^8, made at some place in the vicinity of the 
ibankment, from which the earth can be obtained with 
e most economy. 



50 EARTHWOkK AND DRAINAGE. 

*^1{ the excayations furnish, more earth than is requirei 
for the embankment, it is deposited in what is termed \ 
apoiUhankj on the side of the excayation. The spoil-ban] 
should be made at some distance back from the side slop 
of the excayation, and on the down-hill side of the top 
surface ; and suitable drains should be arranged to can; 
off any water that might collect near it and affect the sid 
slope of the excayation. 

''The forms to be giyen to side-cuttings and spoil-bank 
will depend, in a great degree, upon the locality; theQ 
should, as far as practicable, be such that the oost oi 
removal of the earth shall be the least possibla." * 

* "A Treatise on Civil Engineering," by D. H. Mahan, 2iid editiah 
page 415. 



•3 



CHAPTER m. 

RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS. 

Cbb following are the general results of the experiments 
Blade by M. Morin upon the resistance to the traction of 
VBhides on common roads : — 

1st. The resistance to traction is directly proportional 
k> the load, and inversely proportional to the diameter of 
^e wheeL 

2nd. Upon a paved or a hard macadamized road the 
resistance is independent of the width of the tire, when 
^ quantity exceeds from 3 to 4 inches. 

3rd. At a walking pace, the resistance to traction is the 
same, under the same circumstances, for carriages with 
springs and for carriages without springs. 

4th. Upon hard macadamized roads and upon paved 
toads, the resistance to traction increases with the velocity: 
Bie increments of traction being directly proportional to 
Bie increments of velocity above the velocity 3*28 feet per 
Woond, or about 2 J nules per hour. The equal increments 
rf traction thus due to equal increments of velocity, are 
bfls as the road is smoother, and as the carriage is less 
rigid or better hung. 

5th. Upon soft roads, of earth, or sand or turf, or roads 
Ibsh and thickly gravelled, the resistance to traction is 
ndependent of the velocity. 

6th. Upon a well-made and compact pavement of hewn 
tones, the resistance to traction at a walking pace is not 
lore than three-fourths of the resistance upon the best 

d2 



52 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON GOMUON ROADS. 

macadamized roads, under similar drcomstances. At i 
trotting pace, the resistances are equal. 

7th. The destruction of the road is, in all cases, greatei 
as the diameters of the wheels are less, and it is greatei 
in carriages without than with springs. 

The next experiments which may be quoted, are those d 
Sir John Macneil,* made with an instrument invented hj 
him for the purpose of measuring the tractive force required 
on different descriptions of road, to draw a wagon weigh' 
ing 21 cwt., at a very low velocity. The general resulb 
which he obtained are given in the following table :— 

Tablb No. 3. — ^Results of Traction Fo&ob to draw 21 Owr. oi 

A Lbtbl. 
(Sir John MaoneiL) 



Deaoription of road. 



Total taio- IS^^ 



lbs. 

1. On a well-made pavement 33 31*4 

2. On a road made with six inches of broken \ 

stone of great hardness, laid either on a f 
foundation of large stones, set in the form of ( 
a pavement, or upon a bottoming of concrete / 46 44 

3. On an old flint road, or a road made with a ) 
thick coating of broken stone laid on earth ) 65 62 

4. On a road made with a thick coating of \ 
gravel laid on earth ) 147 140 




Sir John Macneil has also given the following arbitral] 
formulae,! ^^^ calculating the resistance to traction on levfl 
roads of various kinds. They have been deduced from j 
considerable number of experiments made on the differed! 
kinds of road specified below, with carriages moving I 
various velocities. Putting e for the force required I 
move the carriage, w the weight of the carriage, ip thai < 
the load, all expressed in pounds, v the velocity in feet pfl 
second, and e a constant number, which depends upon ifa 
• Sir H. Pamell on Roads, p. 73. f Ibid., p, 464. 



SIB JOHN MACNEIL's EXPERIMENTS. 53 

latore of the surface over which the carriage is drawn, 

md the value of which for several different Mnds of road 

is as follows : — 

On a timbor snrfEUSO • • • ,^■■^2 

Oa a pavBcl road • • . . . . „ 2 

On a well-inad^ broken stone road, in a dry dean state . „ 6 

On a well-made broken stone road, coyered with dust . ,, 8 

On a weU-made broken stone road, wet and muddy , „ 10 

On a grsT^ or flint road, in a dry clean state • . „ 13 

(k. a gravel or flint road, in a wet and muddy state . „ 32 

Stage wagon, B=;?^ + ^ + cr . . . (1.) 

Stagecoach, B^^"" + j^^+ei^ . • . (2.) 

i Bulb 1. — ^Divide the gross weight of the carriage when 
:Ioaded, in pounds, by 93 if a wagon, or by 100 if a coach, 
and to the quotient add one-fortieth of the weight of the 
load only ; to the sum, add the product of the velocity in 
fret per second, by the proper constant for the particular 
Uad of road. The sum is the force in pounds required to 
draw the carriage at the given velocity upon that descrip- 
tion of road. 

For example : What force would be requisite to move a 
Jtage-coach weighing 2,060 lbs., and having a load of 
lylOOlbs., at a velocity of 9 ft. per second, along a broken- 
;lhnie road covered with dust ? By the rule, 

1^ ^ + "^ + ^-^ + (8x9H18Mlbs. 

fte force required. 

' To consider, next, the additional resistcmce which is 
^Moasioned when the road, instead of being level, is inclined 
the load, in a greater or less degree. In order to 
the question, suppose the whole weight to be 
on one pair of wheels, and that the tractive 
is applied in a direction parallel to the surface of the 
foad. Let a b, Fig. 21, represent a portion of an inclined 





64 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS. 

road, c being a carriage just sustained in its position by a 
force acting in the direction c d. The carriage is kept in 
position by three forces, namely, ^ ^ 
by its own. weight w, acting in the 
vertical direction c p, by the force 
F, applied in the direction c d pa- 
rallel to the surface of the road, 
and by the pressure p, which is 
exerted by the carriage against o a 

the surface of the road acting in pig. 21.— Gravity on an inclined 

the direction c e, perpendicular ^ ®* 

to the surface. To determine the relative magnitude 
of these three forces, draw the horizontal line a a, and 
the vertical line bg; then, since the two line^ op and 
B G are parallel, and are both cut by the line a b, they 
must make the two angles c p b and a b g equal ; also the 
two angles c e p and a g b are equal, being both right 
angles ; therefore the remaining angles p e and bag are 
equal, and the two triangles c f e and a b g are similar. 
And as the three sides of the triangle ope are proportional 
to the three forces by which the carriage is sustained, so 
also are the three sides of the triangle a b g ; that is to 
say, A B, or the length of the road is proportional to w, or 
the weight of the carriage ; b a, or the vertical rise is pro- 
portional to p, or the force required to sustain the carriage 
on the incline ; and a g, or the horizontal distance for the 
rise is proportional to p, or the force with which the car- 
riage presses upon the surface of the road. 
Therefore, 

w : A B ; : F : g b, 
and w : A B : : p : a g. 

And if A G be made of such a length that the vertical 
rise, B G, of the road, is exactly one foot, then, — 

y = — = -r=-T=T = w . sin j8 . , , (8,) 



RULES FOR RESISTANCE. 56 

, w.agw.ao 
anap=s = . — -—= =■ = w . cos 3 . • . (4.) 

in wliich p is the angle bag. 

These formnlse reduced to verbal rules are as follows :— 

KxjLB 2. — lb find the force requisite to smtain a carriage 

. upon an inclined road {the effects of friction being neglected) j 

divide the weight of the carriage, including its load, b}' 

the inclined leng^ of the road, the vertical rise of which is 

one foot, and the quotient is the force required. 

Rule 3. — To find the presswre of a carriage against the sur- 

1ke$ 4f 0m inclined road^ multiply the weight of the loaded 
carriage 1>7 tiie horizontal leng^ of the road, and divide 
the product by the inelined length of the same ; the quo* 
tient is the pressure required. 

JEzample, — ^What is the force reqxdred to sustain a car- 
riage weighing 3,270 lbs. upon a road, the inclination of 
which is one in thirty, and what is the pressure of the 
^ carriage upon the surface of the road ? 
[ Here the horizontal leng^ of the road, a g, being equal 
[ to 30, for a rise of 1 foot, the inclined length, a b = 
'f Vag» + 1 = 30-017, and by the first rule, 3,270 -f- 30017 
r =: 108*93 lbs. for the force required to sustain the carriage 
f on the road. 

By the second rule, 3,270 x 30 -•- 3001 7 = 3,269*9 lbs., 

HiB pressure of the carriage upon the surface of the road. 

* Since the pressure of a carriage on a sloping road is 

[. Ibund by multiplying its weight by the horizontal length 

i of the road and dividing by the inclined length, and as the 

former is always less than the latter, it follows that the 

force with which a carriage bears upon an inclined road is 

lees than its actual weight. In the foregoing example, it 

IB about two pounds less; but, unless the inclination is 

▼ery steep, it is not necessary to disting^sh the difference 

of pressure, as the pressure may be assumed to be equal 

f to the weight of the carriage. 



L 



5(> RESrSTANCB TO TRACTION ON COMMON BOAI 

If the reBistance which is to be oreroome in w 
carriage, at a given rate, upon a horizontal road, 
pressed by b, then b -)- f is the resistance in asce 
hill, and b — 7 descending a hill, with the same y 
neglecting the decrease in the weight of the carric 
duced by the inclination of the road. Taking, h 
this decrease into consideration, the following mod 
in the formulaa (1.) and (2.) will be requisite t< 
them to an inclined road : — 

R = (^*^+^).coB^q:(w + tp).Bin^ + c 

in the case of a common stage wagon ; and in til 
stage coach, 

the upper sign being taken when the vehicle is drav 
the incline, and the lower when it is drawn up the 

To ascertain the resistance in passing up or dow 
therefore, the resistance on a level road is first to b 
lated, by Eule 1, page 53. To this is to be added i 
necessary to sustain the carriage on the incline, in asc 
calculated by Rule 2, page 55 ; or, in descending, t 
force is to be subtracted from the resistance on a 1< 

As an example, take, as before, the case of a stag 
weighing 2,060 lbs., besides a load of 1,100 lbs., al 
city of 9 ft. per second, up a broken stone road o 
the surface is covered with dust, and which is inc 
the rate of one in thirty. 

The force to sustain the coach on this slope is, by 

?1^- = 105-3 lbs. 

Adding this force to the force already found at j 
requisite to move the same coach on a level road, 
is (105-3 + 131-1 =) 236-4 lbs,, for the force reqi 



ItULBS FOR RESTSTAKCB. 57 

moTO {he ooach with a Telocity of 9 ft. per second up the 
inclined road of one in thirty. To draw the coach doum the 
tome incline, at the same velocity/ the resulting force re- 
foired is the difference of the two forces already found, or 
ifc is (131-1 - 105-3=) 25-8 lb, 
J- The same example worked by formula (6) will give 

[(^^TSO^^) '^^^^ + <^^^ + ^^^^) '^^^^ +(8x9) 

% 236*3 lbs, when the carriage is drawn up the incline ; 
and 

I J???2jM100 J .Q^^g _ ^2060 + 1100) -OSSS + (8x9) 

s 25*84 lbs., when the carriage is drawn down the incline, 
,^e result being the same as that given by the rule. 

The following table has been calculated in order to show, 
with sufficient exactness for most practical purposes, the 
farce required to draw carriages over inclined roads, and 
tile comparative advantage of such roads and those which 
•re perfectly level. The first column expresses the rate 
■of inclination, and the second the equivalent angle ; the 
ktwo next columns contain the force requisite to draw a 
' sommon stage wagon weighing with its load 6 tons, at a 
Telodfy of 4-4 ft. per second (or 3 miles per hour) along a 
^macadamized road in its usual state, both when ascending 
. tad descending the hill ; the fifth and sixth columns con- 
^tsin the length of level road which would be equivalent to 
a mile in length of the inclined road, that is, the length of 
level road which would require the same mechanical work 
' to be expended in drawing the wagon over it, as would 
be necessary to draw the wagon over a mile of the in- 
clined road. The next four columns contain the same 
informatibn as the four just described, with reference to a 
stage coach supposed to weigh with its load 3 tons, and to 
travel at the rate of 8' 8 ft. per second, or 6 miles per hour. 

d3 



RBSISTAKCE TO TRACTIOK ON COMMON KOADB. 



Tablb No. t.— BEiuTAiini to Tbadtion oh Inclined Boaus. 





S 


Fob. St 


.0. Wtoc... 


Fob* 8 


iO« Coioi 


1 
1 

s 

1 


S 

m 

i 




fltot 






atoi 




1 


1^ 


pf 


1 


1 


Pi 

III 


1 

p 


1 

} 






lbs. 


H«. 


MUaT 


MilM. 


ItB. 


lb.. 


Mila. 


I 


1 In flOO 


6 44 


236 


241 


1-085 


■9150 


373 




1-03O 




„ 676 


6 fiW 


287 


21U 


1-088 


■9116 


373 


350 


1-032 




„ 660 


B IS 


288 


239 


1-093 


■9074 


371 


3<B 


1-033 




„ 523 


a 33 


289 


23S 


r097 


■9029 


371 


34B 


1-035 




„ 600 


6 33 


2B1 


237 


M02 


■8978 


375 


348 


1-037 




„ «6 


7 U 


2S2 


236 


1'107 


■8820 


376 


3J7 


1-030 






7 39 


294 


331 


MI3 


■8869 


377 


347 






" 4-26 


B fi 


286 


232 


M20 


■8801 


377 


346 


1-043 




„ 400 


8 3a 


287 


230 


1128 


-8725 


378 


315 


1-046 




„ 376 


9 10 


300 


228 


M38 


-8642 


380 


341 


1-019 




„ aso 


9 49 


302 


226 


1'146 


-8543 


381 


342 


1-053 




„ 326 


10 36 


306 


222 


Mr57 


'8133 


382 


311 


1-056 




., 300 


11 29 


309 


219 


M70 


■8301 


384 




1-061 




„ 200 


11 61 


310 


217 


1176 


■8213 


3S3 




1061 




„ 280 
„ 270 


12 17 
12 41 


312 
314 


216 
211 


1182 
1-199 


■8179 
■8111 


386 
386 


338 
337 


1-066 
1-068 


'■ 




U 13 13 


316 


212 


1-196 


■8039 


387 


336 


1^07 1 




» 2o<l 


13 13 


317 


210 


1-204 


■79G3 


388 


335 


1-074 




„ 210 


11 19 


320 


208 


1'212 


■7876 


390 


331 


1-077 




„ 230 


11 57 


322 


203 


1-222 


■7786 


391 


332 


1-090 




„ 220 


16 37 


326 


203 


1-232 


■7683 


392 


331 


1-084 




„ 210 


16 22 


328 


200 


1-243 


■7573 


394 


330 


1-089 




„ 200 


17 11 


831 


187 


1-255 


■7161 


395 


328 


1-082 




„ 180 


18 6 


331 


193 




■7319 


397 


326 


1-087 




„ 180 


19 6 


338 


188 


1-283 


■7171 


399 


324 


1-103 




„ 170 


20 13 


313 


189 


1-300 


■7004 


101 


322 


1-109 




,. IflO 


21 29 


818 


180 


1-319 




401 


320 


1^118 




„ 130 


22 66 




174 


1-311 


■8387 


106 


317 


1-123 




„ UO 


21 33 


360 


168 


1'361 


■0360 


410 


311 


1-132 




„ 130 


26 27 


387 


160 


1-392 


■6070 




310 


1-142 




„ 120 


28 39 


370 


1S2 


Mas 


■6762 


418 


306 


M64 




.. ilo 


31 16 


386 


142 


MSI 


■6191 


423 


300 


1-169 




„ 100 


31 23 


399 


129 


1-610 


■1903 


129 


291 


1-18S 




„ $6 


88 11 


406 


122 


1-637 


■1634 


132 


291 


M96 




„ 90 


33 12 


413 


114 


l'S66 


-1338 


436 


287 


1-206 




., S-5 


40 27 


422 


106 


1'600 


■1001 


441 


282 


^219 




.. 80 


12 33 


132 


86 


1'637 -3629 


116 


278 


1-232 











Tablb No. 4.— (a».(.'«iHrf.) 










3 




F 


B.SllOBWifl 




Fob a Stiob Coach. | 


g 


1 
1 






e tons groM. 






aionagroffl. 


i 


1 


■SpB 

III 


l|i 
ill 


it 
lit 


1 




III 


1 


1 


1 




1*1 


l^i 


li^ 


III 








lbs. 


1^ 


Maes. 


Uilca. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


Miln, 


UI1«. 


liii75 


9 45 


61 


443 


85 


1-680 


-3204 


461 


272 


1-247 


-752S 


. 70 


a 49 


7 


456 


72 


1'72B 


-2719 


467 


266 


1266 


■7343 


. 65 


52 


64 


470 


57 


1'784 


-2161 


466 


258 


1-285 


■7143 


„ GO 


67 


18 


488 


40 


l'H6D 


■IflUfl 


474 


260 


1-309 




. G9 


1 2 


3t 


608 


13 


1-926 


■0736 


4B* 


239 


1-337 


-B820 


„ SO 


1 S 




633 




2-019 




491 


227 


1-371 




., 15 


1 16 


24 


flea 




2-133 






212 


1-412 


■6871 


D 40 


1 25 


67 


600 




2-274 




631 


1B4 


1-464 


-6354 


» 33 


1 38 


14 


648 




2-466 




664 


170 


1-630 


■4690 


„ 34 


1 41 


8 


66W 




2-499 




669 


164 


J -646 


■4533 


„ 33 


1 44 


12 


671 




2-644 




666 


168 


1-562 


■4370 


„ 32 


1 47 


27 


684 




2-603 




672 


162 


1-580 


■419.1 


. 31 


1 SO 


65 


697 




2-644 




678 


146 


1599 


■4007 


„ 30 


1 6i 


37 


712 




2-699 




680 


138 


1-619 


■3806 


. iS 


1 6& 


34 


727 




2-768 




693 


130 


1-640 


■3592 


n 29 


2 2 


6 


744 




2-820 




602 


122 


1-663 


■3363 


B ii 


2 7 


2 


762 




2-888 




610 


113 




■3119 


V a 


2 12 


2 


781 




2'BBO 




620 


103 


1-714 


■2854 


> a 


2 17 


26 


801 




3-038 




630 


93 


1-743 


■2666 


u 


2 28 


10 


823 




3-120 




841 


82 


1-774 


-2257 


23 


2 29 


22 


847 




3-213 




663 


69 


1-808 


-1919 


12 


2 36 


10 


874 




3-313 




666 


66 


1-844 


■1564 


SI 


2 43 


36 


903 




3-423 




681 


43 


1-884 


■1160 


SO 


2 SI 


21 


933 




3-638 




696 


26 


1-926 


■0730 


19 


S 


4S 


970 




3-677 




714 


8 


1-977 


-0221 


3 10 


47 


10O9 




3-826 




734 




2-032 




17 

IS 


3 21 


69 


1063 




3-991 




756 




2-092 




3 34 


36 


1102 




4-178 




780 




2-160 




IS 


3 46 


61 


1167 




4-388 




807 




2-234 




It 


4 5 


14 


1221 




4-639 




839 




2-322 




13 


4 23 


66 


1294 




4-900 




B7S 




2-423 




12 


4 45 


40 


1379 




6-229 




918 




2-640 




n " 


3 11 


40 


1480 




6-611 




968 




2-67B 




H 10 


5 42 


68 


16U0 




6-067 




1028 




2-S46 




n S 


6 20 


2S 


1747 




6-623 




110] 




3-048 






7 7 


30 






7-31S 




1192 




3-800 




H 7 


8 7 


48 


s 


~ 


6-199 


~ 


1306 


" 


3-S21 


~ 



60 RESISTANCE TO TBACTIOW ON COMMON ROADS. 

Tlie foregoing table may be considered as affording a 
view of the comparative disadvantage of hilly roads with 
light and heavy traJOBlc ; the stage wagon weighing 6 tons 
and travelling at the speed of 3 miles per hour, may be 
taken as a fair average for goods traffic, and the stage 
coach, weighing 3 tons and running 6 miles an hour, for 
passenger traffic. It is shown that the resistance on hills 
is much more tmfavourable to the wagon than to the 
coach. The force which would be requisite to move the 
wagon on a level road would be 264 lbs., and that to 
move the coach 362 lbs., being an excess of 98 lbs. for the 
traction of the coach. But, with a road inclined at the 
rate of 1 in 600, this excess is only (373 — 286 =) 87 lbs. ; 
and when the inclination of the road amounts to about 
1 in 70, the forces required to draw them become equal. 
As the inclination of the road increases beyond this, the 
excess of force requisite to draw the waggon over that 
necessary to move the coach, increases rapidly until, at an 
ihclination of 1 in 7, it amounts to (2162 — 1308 =) 
854 lbs. 

Comparing the forces required to draw either the wagon 
or the coach up and down any given incline, the former is 
as much greater than the force required on a level road as 
the latter is less. It might thence be concluded that, when 
a vehicle passes alternately each way along the road, no 
real loss is occasioned by the inclination of the road, sinoe- 
as much power is gained in the descent of the hill as is lost 
in its ascent. Such is not, however, practically the faot^ 
for whilst it is necessary in the ascending journey to have 
either a greater number of horses, or more powerful horses, 
than would be requisite if the road were entirely level, no 
corresponding reduction can be made in the descending 
journey. There must be horses sufficient to draw the vehide 
along the level portion?, of the road ; nor, generally speak- 
ing, have th y " orRftfl.- Iftsa to do in descending the hill, 
« 



ANGLE OF REPOSE. 61 

ihey frequentlj are required to ptish back, to prevent 
peed of the cofush from being accelerated to a rate 
id the limits of safety. 

a practical sense, therefore, it may be considered that 
fth and ninth oolimms in the foregoing table express 
Bngth of level road which would be equivalent to a 
of road with the stated inclination, the fifth giving 
result for heavy traffic, and the ninth for passenger 
c For instance, against the incline 1 in 75, there is 
gth of 1*247 miles, or about a mile and a quarter, in 
lunth column, given as the equivalent length of level 
for 1 nule of ascent on the incline, in the sense that 
lame quantity of work of traction would be requisite 
yve a coach of 3 tons, at a velocity of 6 miles per hour, 
^ one as along the other. But, in other respects, the 
le might be more advantageous than the level; for 
nee, the shorter road would cost less for repair, and 
d be passed over in less time. The table, therefore, 
ly expresses the equivalent length as far as the 
lanical work required for the traction is concerned. 
!om the results of Sir John Macneil's experiments on 
ional resistance, page 52 ante. Professor Mahan de- 
« ** that the angle of repose in the first case is repre- 
sd by -/j^;^, or 1 in 71-34 nearly; and that the slope 
be road should therefore not be greater than one per- 
lieolar to 71*34 in length ; or that the height to be 
Dded must not be greater than one seventy-first part 
he distance between the two points measured along 
road, in order that the force of friction may counteract 
of gravity in the descent of the road. 
1 similar calculation will show that the angle of repose 
16 other cases will be as follows : — 

No. 2, . . . 1 to 50-9 nearly. 
„ 3, • • . 1 to 36-1 „ 

9, 4, • • • 1 to 16 ly 



62 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS. 

** These numbers, which give the angle of repose between^ 
1 in 36*1 and 1 in 50*9 for the kinds of road-coyeiing, 
Nos. 3 and 2, in most ordinary use, and corresponding to ft 
road-surface in good order, may be somewhat increasedi; 
to from 1 in 28 to 1 in 33, for the ordinary state of tha. 
surface of a well-kept road, without there being any neces- 
sity for applying a brake to the wheels in descending, oC 
going out of a trot in ascending. The steepest gradient 
that can be allowed on roads with a broken-stone eoyeringi 
is about 1 in 20, as this, &om experience, is found to be 
about the angle of repose upon roads of this character vi 
the state in which they are usually kept. Upon a road 
with this inclination, a horse can draw, at a walk, his usual j 
load for a level without requiring the assistance of an | 
extra horse; and experience has further shown that a 
horse at the usual walking pace will attain, with less 
apparent fatigue, the summit of a gradient of 1 in 20 in 
nearly the same time that he would require to reach the 
same point on a trot over a gradient of 1 in 33. 
''A road on a dead level, or one with a continued and 
imiform ascent between the points of arrival and departure, . 
where they lie upon different levels, is not the most favour- . 
able to the draft of the horse. Each of these seems to . 
fatigue him more than a line of alternate ascents and \ 
descents of slight gradients ; as, for example, gradients of j 
1 in 100, upon which a horse will draw as heavy a load '\ 
with the same speed as upon a horizontal road. ] 

'^The gradients should in all cases be reduced as far as 
practicable, as the extra exertion that a horse must put 
forth in overcoming heavy gradients is very consideraUs ; 
they should, as a general rule, therefore, be kept as low at 
least as 1 in 33, wherever the groimd will admit of it. 
This can generally be effected, even in ascending steep 
hill-sides, by giving the axis of the road a zig-zag direc- 
tion, connecting the straight portions of the zig-zags by 



MAXIMUM GRADIENTS. 63 

bcnlar arcs. The gradients of the curved portions of the 
Ig^-zags shoxdd be reduced^ and the roadway also at these 
its should be widened, for the safety of vehicles descend- 
rapidly. The width of the road may be increased about 
•fourth, when the angle between the straight portions 
the ziz-zags is from 120° to 90° ; and the increase should 
nearly one-half where the angle is from 90° to 60°."* 
Note by the Editob. — Sir John Macneil, in 1836, 
itained that no road was perfect imless its gradients 
equal to or less than 1 in 40, In thus limiting the 
Lg gradient to 1 in 40, he justifies the assertion by 
much greater outlay for repair on roads of steeper 
Lents. For instance, he adduces as a fact not generally 
that if a road has no greater inclinations than 
in 40, there is 20 per cent, less cost for maintenance than 
a road having an inclination of 1 in 20. The additional 
is due not only to the greater injury by the action of 
i' feet on the steeper incline, which has already been 
iced, but also to the greater wear of the road by the 
frequent necessity for sledging or braking the wheels 
Vehicles in descending the steeper portions. 
Ihofessor Mahan, it has been seen, page 62, recom- 
I, as a general rule, that the gradients should be 
as low as 1 in 33; whilst M. Dumas, engineer-in- 
of the French Fonts et Chauss6es, writing in 1843,t 
lended, as a maximum rate of inclination, 1 in 50 ; 
he says, *'not only are the surfaces of steeply-inclined 
subjected to abrasion by the feet of horses clambering 
the hill, but, in the intervals of rest, loose stones are 
as props behind the wheels of vehicles, which are 
Ly allowed to remain where they have been tempo - 
placed, and may be the causes of serious accidents." 

^**A Treatise on Civil Engineering,'' by D. H. Mahan, 2nd edition, 
N:e407. 

\ t <' Annales des Fonts et Cliaussles/' 2nd series, I Semestre, 1843, 
^e 343. 

p 
I 

I 



64 RESISTANCB TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS. 

Besides, he states as the result of experience, that 
broken-stone roads, in perfect condition, the resistance 
traction is l-50th of the gross weight, or 45 lbs. ] 
ton, for which the angle of repose is 1 in 50 ; and he ad 
with scientific acuteness, ** that for the ascent of an ind 
of 1 in 50, the traction force required is just double i 
which is required on the level." "Evidently," he continti 
'* there is no danger, under such conditions, in making ' 
descent, since it requires but the slightest effort to ch< 
the vehicle ; whilst, in ascending, the horses can, with 
trouble, exert double the customary force for a short tun 
In feict, horses can easily enough surmount gradients 
more than 3 per, cent., or 1 in 33, at a trot, on toads 
mediocre condition. 

M. Dupuit recommends for the maximum gradients 
roads — 

For metalled roads • • 8 per cent, or 1 in 38 

For pavements . . .2 „ 1 in 50 

It can but be observed, upon the foregoing evidez 
that Sir John Macneil's proportion of 1 in 40 for 
maximum slopes of roads, is most nearly an average of 
deductions which have been cited. 

But there is another condition — the minimum lox 
tudinal slope of a road. It should not be quite level, 
provision must be made, by inclining the road, for runs 
off surface -water. The minimum slopa is fixed by < 
authority at 1 in 80 ; by another, at half a degree, or 1 
115 ; and by the Corps des Fonts et Ohauss6es, at 1 in 1 

In the Second Part of this work, by the Editor, he ! 
given an analysis of the Boiling or Circumferential ] 
sistance of Wheels. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

ON THE SECTION OP BOADS. 

XRE hills or gradients are imayoidable, they should be 
le as easy as possible ; and^ although a certain amount 
idditional power must be required to draw a carritige 
a hill, compared with the resistance on a level, yet s6 
^ as the inclination is within a certain limit, the hilly 
1 may be considered as safe as a level road. This limit 
ends upon the nature and condition of the surface of 
road, and it is attained in any particular case when 
inclination of the road is made equal to the limiting 
:le of resistance for the materials composing its surface ; 
b is, when it is such that a carriage once set in motion 
the road, would just continue its descent without any 
itional force being applied. When this limit is ex- 
led, the carriage descends with an accelerated velocity, 
38S the horses or other force be employed to restrain 
and, although, in such a case, the use of a drag, by 
easing the resistance, would in a measure obviate the 
ger, yet the injury done to the surface of the road by 
use of the drag renders it desirable to avoid the use of 
[together. The following table, taken &om the second 
ime of the '* Rudiments of Civil Engineering," shows 
rate of inclination at which this limit is attained on 
various kinds of roads mentioned in the first column. 



U6 ON THE SECnON OF ROADS. 

The values of the reBiatancBB on whieh this table is calm* 
lated are those given b; Sir John Macneil : — 











DeBciiptioH oC tlie nwd. 


\'. 


■3 


.)! 




|! 


.1 


l^f 




S' 






SI -4 


iZ 


linTl 


Broheii ilODe HUrface on a bottom of I 




1 n 




rough pavement or oontrete . , ) 






BrokoD BtODO Hurface laid on an old flint 1 
road . . . . ) 


62 


\ 36 


1 ill 36 


Grave! road .... 


HO 


3 35 


liDlfl 



The following table of gradients is of considerable ralue 
in laying out and arranging roads. The first column con- 
tains the gradient, expressed in the ratio of the height to 
the length ; the second and third oolunms contidn the yer> 
tical rise in a mile and a chain respectively ; the fourth 
column, the angle of inclination vith the horizon ; and th« 
last column, the sine of the same angle, which is insertud 
for facilitating the calculation of the resistauces ocoasioned 
by the gradient. 



L 



t_ 


No. fi 


— OKUHBHn 




I IscuNAnov OF Bouw. 




. 


T' 


«1 






~ 


•• 


■sii 






S 


M 


li 




3 


S 


'iV 


« 




1 


1 


t 
1 


1 


i 


1 
I 


1 


1 

■s 

1 


10 


628-0 


6.60 


6 42 G8 


-09900 


linOO 


830 


I'tO 


67 18 


-01667 


11 


480-0 600 


5 11 40 


-09064 


„ 65 


81-2 


I '02 


52 64 


■01639 


IS 


440-0 6-50 


4 4fi 69 


-08309 


.> 70 


75-4 


-94 


49 7 


-01429 


13 


406-1 


6-08 


4 23 66 


■07670 


„ 76 


70-4 


'88 


46 61 


-01334 


14 


877-1 


4-71 


4 6 14 


07128 


., 80 


600 


■8: 


42 5B 


01260 


Ifi 


S62-0 


4-40 


3 48 61 


■oaas2 


„ 86 


fl2-l 


•78 


40 27 


01177 


16 


3300 


4-12 


3 34 36 


06238 


., 90 


SB-7 


-73 


38 12 


omi 


17 


310-6 


3-BS 


3 21 69 


06872 


„ 96 


55-6 


-69 


36 11 


01053 


18 


203-3 


3-67 


3 10 47 


06547 


„ 100 


52-8 


-66 


34 23 


01000 


19 


277-9 


3-47 


3 46 


06266 


„ 110 


48-0 


■60 


31 16 


0090B 


30 


2640 


3.30 


2 51 21 


04982 


„ 120 


44-0 


■66 


28 30 


00833 


21 
22 
23 


251-4 


3-14 


2 43 35 


04767 


„ 130 


40-6 


-SI 


26 27 


007BB 


240-0 


3-00 


2 36 10 


■04641 


„ 140 


37-7 


■47 


24 33 


00714 


229-6 


2-87 


a 29 22 


04344 


„ 160 


33-2 




32 55 


00866 


M 


220-0 


Z-7S 


2 23 10 


■04163 


„ 160 


33-0 


-11 


31 29 


00625 


Sfi 


211-2 


2-64 


2 17 26 


■03997 


.. 170 


31-1 


■39 


30 13 


0058H 


36 


203-1 


a-64 


2 12 2 


■03840 


„ ISO 


29-3 


'37 


19 e 


00668 


27 


105-6 


2-42 


2 7 2 


03694 


„ 190 


27-8 


■36 


18 B 


00627 


28 


188-6 


2-36 


2 2 6 


■03661 


„ 200 


26-4 


■33 


17 11 


00600 


30 


182-1 


2-28 


I 68 31 


■03448 


,,210 


2S^1 


-31 


16 22 


00476 


30 


1760 


2-20 


1 64 37 


■03333 


„ 220 


24'0 


■■30 


15 37 


00464 


» 


170-3 


2-13 


I 60 66 


03226 


„ 230 


23'0 


-29 


14 67 


00436 


S2 


1660 


2-06 


I 47 27 


■03126 


;;24( 


22'0 


■27 


14 19 


00417 


S3 


160-0 


200 


I 44 12 


03031 




2M 




13 46 


00400 


S4! 156-3|194 


I 41 8 


02B41 




20-3 


■26 


13 13 


003S6 


Jfi! 160-9 |i-8a 


1 38 U 


02857 




19'6 


■24 


12 44 


00370 


» 


U6-7 


1'86 


1 3q 28 


02777 




18-9 


-24 


12 17 


00367 


37 


142-7 


1-78 


1 32 63 


0270'J 


„ 290 


182 


-23 


11 61 


00346 


3B 


1S8-9 


1-74 


1 30 27 


02631 


„ 300 


17-6 


■22 


11 28 


00334 


19 


13S-4 


1-69 


1 28 8 


02563 


„ 326 


162 


'20 


10 36 


00308 


40 


132-0 


1-66 


1 26 57 


02500 


„ 360 


lS-1 






00288 


41 


128-8 


!'61 


1 23 50 


02438 


„ 376 


H-0 




9 10 


00267, 


43 


125-7 


1-S7 


1 21 SO 


02330 


„ 400 


132 




8 36 


00260 


43' 122-8 


1-53 


1 19 56 


02325 


„ 42i 


12-4 




8 5 


00236 


44i 120-0 


1-60 


1 18 7 


02272 




U-7 


■15 


7 38 


00222 


4S 117-3 


1-47 


1 16 24 


■02222 


'.', 476 


11-5 




7 14 


00210 


46. lH-9 l-*4 


1 14 43 


02173 


„ 500 


10-6 


■13 


6 53 


00200 


47: 112-3 ii-*o 


1 13 8 


02127 


„ 625 


10-1 


-12 


6 33 


00191 


48' 110-0 1-37 


1 n 37 


02083 


„ 660 




'12 


6 16 


00182 


49 107-7 !-3d 


1 10 9 


02040 


„ 576 


9-2 


'11 


6 69 


00174 


, 60 105'6'l-32 


1 8 6 


01981 


„ 600 


8'8 


'U 


6 44 


00187 


6o B6'0'l-20 




0181S 


































68 ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 

Width and Tranwerse Section of Roads. — It is reoon 
mended that roads should be wide. It is an error 1 
suppose that the cost of repairing a road depends entire] 
upon the extent of its surface, and increases with its widd 
The cost per mile of road depends more upon the extol 
and the nature of the traffic ; and it may be assertM 
generally, that the same quantity of material is nec( 
for the repair of a road, whether wide or narrow, 8ubj< 
to the same amount of traffic. On the narrow road, 
traffic, being confined very much to one track, the ro4 
would be worn more severely than when the traffic 1 
spread over a larger surface. The expense of spreadidj 
the material over the wider road would be some^dii 
greater, but the cost for material might be taken a 
the same. One of the advantages of a wide road is, thi 
the air and the sun exercise more influence in keeping ii 
surface dry. The first cost of a wide road is certain! 
greater than that of a narrow road, — nearly in the rati 
of the widths. 

For roads situated between towns of importance, an 
exposed to much traffic, the width should not be less th^ 
30 ft., which would admit of four vehicles abreast ; besid^ 
a footpath of 6 ft. In the immediate viciniiy of laig 
towns and cities, the width should be greater. 

The form of the cross section of a road is a subject i 
much importance, and it is one upon which much differenJI 
of opinion exists. Some persons advocate a oonsiderafai 
degree of curvature in the upper surface of the road, wit| 
the view of facilitating the drainage of its sur&ce ; whiil 
others are averse to a road being much curved. It is fh 
practice of others, again, to form the road on a flat smAbfl 
transversely; whilst others give a dip to the formatioii 
surface each way from the centre, supposing that th 
drainage of the road is thereby facilitated. 

The only advantage resulting from the curving of tb 



L macadam's views. 69 

erse section of the road is, that the water, which 
otherwise collect upon its surface, is allowed to drain 
Ly off into the side ditches. It has been urged that, 
laying on fresh material upon a road, it is necessaiy to 
the centre much higher than the sides ; because, in 
[uence of the greater number of carriages using the 
le of the road, that portion wears more quickly than 
sides, and that, unless it is made originally much 
iSTy when so worn it necessarily forms a hollow or 
ion, from which water cannot drain. Now it is 
Ly overlooked by those who advance this argument, 
the cause of carriages using the middle in preference 
tibe sides of a road, is its rounding form, since it is only 
i*{hat situation that a carriage stands upright. If the 
were comparatively flat, every portion would be 
[ually used ; but on very convex roads, the middle is the 
portion of the road on which it is safe to travel. On 
subject^ Mr. Macadam remarks, in his evidence before 
committee of the House of Commons,"* '^I consider a 
should be as flat as possible with regard to allowing 
water to run off it at all, because a carriage ought to 
upright in travelling as much as possible. I have 
'ally made roads 3 in. higher in the centre than I 
at the sides, when they are 18 ft. wide; if the road 
smooth and well made, the water will run off very 
in such a slope." And, in answer to the question, 
'Bo you consider a road so made will not be likely to 
hollow in the middle, so as to allow the water to 
id, after it has been used for some time ?" he replies, — 
'No ; when a road is made flat, people will not follow the 
[e of it as they do when it is made extremely convex, 
iemen will have observed that in roads very convex, 
kvellers generally follow the track in the middle, which 

* Parliamentary Report on the Highways of the Kingdom, 1819^ 
k>ge 22. 



70 ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 

is the only place where a carriage can run upright, I 
which means three farrows are made by the horses an 
the wheels, and water continually stands there ; and 
think that more water actually stands upon a very conye 
road than on one which is reasonably flat." On the sam 
subject, Mr. "Walker remarks,* "A road much rounded! 
dangerous, particularly if the cross section approachi 
towards the segment of a circle, the slope in that caae na 
being uniform, but increasing rapidly from the nature 
the curve, as we depart &om the middle or vertical line 
The over-rounding of roads is also injurious to them, Iq 
either confining the heavy carriages to one track in thi 
crown of the road, or, if they go upon the sides, by tiu 
greater wear they produce, from their constant tendenq 
to move down the inclined plane, owing to the angl< 
which the surface of the road and the line of gravity o 
the load form with each other ; and, as this tendency ii 
perpendicular to the line of draught, the labour of thi 
horse and the wear of the carriage wheels are both mud 
increased by it." f 

The drainage of the surface of the road is then the onl] 
useful purpose answered by making it convex. But tlii 
surface of a road is much more efficiently drained by I 
small inclination in the direction of its length, than by i 
much greater transverse slope. On this subject, Mr^ 
Walker has very justly remarked, f " Clearing the road oil 
water is best secured by selecting a course for the TO$i 
which is not horizontally level, so that the surface of thi 
road may, in its longitudinal section, form, in some degree^ 
an inclined plane ; and when this cannot be obtained 
owing to the extreme flatness of the country, an artificial 

* Parliamentary Report, 1819, page 49. 

t Remarks on the evils of ^* barreled roads," as they wex^ calledt 
have been made in the Historical chapter, page 4.— Editob. 
X Parliamentary Report, 1819, page 48. ' 



Transverse gradients. 71 

lation may generally be made. When a road is so 
ed, every wheel-track that is made, being in the line 
dinaiion, becomes a channel for carrying off the water 
b. more effectually than can be done by a curvature in 
Bross section or rise in the middle of the road, without 
langer or other disadvantages which necessarily attend 
lounding a road much in the middle. I consider a fall 
boat li inches in 10 feet to be a minimum in this case, 

is attainable without a great deal of extra expense." 
Qflty then, the advantages attending the extreme con- 
ij of roads is so small, the disadvantages are consider- 
t. On roads so constructed, vehicles must either keep 
le crown of the road, and so occasion an excessive and 
jnal wear of its surface, or use the sides, with the 
iKty of being overturned. The evidence of coach- 
ters and others, taken before the committee of the 
ise of Commons, and appended to the report already 
bed from, fuUy bears out the view here taken, and 
vs that many accidents have arisen from the practice 
Krming roads with an excessive amount of convexity. 
rith reference to the above remarks, it is only intended 
xpress disapproval of the practice of forming roads 
I cross sections rounding in an extreme degree and 
to advocate a perfectly, or nearly, flat road, as many, 
I have fallen into the opposite error, have done. It is 
mmended, as the best form which could be given to a 
3, that its cross section should be formed of two straight 
■ inclined at the rate of about 1 in 30, and connected 
&e middle or crown of the road by a segment of a 
le, having a radius of about 90 feet. This form of 
km is shown in Fig. 22, and the rate of inclination 
:e given is quite su£B.cient to keep the surfetce of a 
I drained, provided it is maintained in good order, 

firom ruts. If the maintenance is neglected, no 
ree of convexity which can be given to the road will 



72 ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 

be of any avail, as the water will remain in the hollows a 
furrows. 

The form of cross section here suggested is equally 
adapted to all widths of road, as the straight lines hay< 
merely to be extended at the same rate of inclination^ 
until they meet the sides of the road. 

Professor Mahan is of the same opinion with respect to 
the proper section of a road — namely, that it should b€ 
formed of two straight sides, connected at the middle by a 
flat circular arc. The slope which he recommends is 1 in 
48, or 1 inch in 4 feet. 

With regard to the form which should be given to the 
bed upon which the road is to be formed, a similar dif- 
ference of opinion exists as to whether it should be flal 
or rounding. Except where the surface upon which &€ 
road is to be formed is a strong clay, or other soil imper- 
vious to water, no benefit results as far as drainage is con- 
cerned, in making the formation-surface or bed of the road 
convex. It should be borne in mind that, after the road 
materials are laid upon the formation-surface, and have 
been for some time subjected to the pressure of heavj 
vehicles passing over them, they become, to a certaiii 
extent, intermixed: the road materials are forced dowii 
into the soil, and the soil works up amongst the etonm, 
and the original line of separation becomes entirely losti 
If the surface upon which the road materials are laid 
were to remain a distinct flat surface, perfectly even aaj 
regular, into which the road materials could not be foroeA^ 
then it would be useftil to give such an indinafauflj 
to it as would allow any water which might find its way 
through the crust or covering of the road, to run ci 
to the sides. Even so, it would have to force a passagi 
between the road materials and the surface on whidi 
they rest. Such is, however, far from being the casei 
and, therefore, unless under peculiar circumstanoes, nc 



ON THE SECTION OP ROADS. 73 

water wMch finds its way through the hard compact surface 
of the road itself is arrested by the comparatively soft sur- 
&ce of its bed, and carried o£P into the side ditches, what- 
ever the slope which might be given to the bed. While, 
however, it is believed, that, as far as drainage is con- 
cerned, it is useless to form the bed or formation surface 
cf the road with a transverse slope, it shoxdd, nevertheless, 
le formed to the same outline as that recommended for the 

[. eater surface ; making the two surfaces parallel, and thus 
bestowing an equal depth of road material over every 
portion of the road. Nevertheless, some road-makers not 
only recommend a less depth of road materials to be put 
on the sides than on the middle of the road, but they 
ftirther advise that an inferior description of material 
ahould be employed at the sides. On this subject the 
following remarks of Mr. Hughes are very much to 
the purpose:* — '*A very common opinion is, that the 
depth of material in the middle of the road should be 
greater than at the sides, but, for my part, I have never 

[heea able to discover why the sides of the road should be 
It aU inferior to the middle in hardness and soHdity. On 
fbe contrary, it would be a great improvement in general 
tovelling, if carriages could be made to adhere more 
ifcrictly to the rule of keeping the proper side of the road ; 

['•nd the reasonable inducement to this practice is, obvi- 

[misly, to make the sides equally hard and solid with the 
auddle. In many roads, even where considerable traffic 
odsts, the only good part of the road consists of about 

[I or 10 feet in the middle, the sides being formed with 

I BtLaU gravel quite unfit to carry heavy traffic ; and the 
eonsequence is, that the whole crowd of vehicles is forced 

'into the centre track of the road ; thus at least doubling 
or trebling the wear and tear which would take place if 

• «The Practice of Maldng and Repairing Eoads," by Thomas 
'Eughs^ 1838, pagti 12. 



<4 ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 

the sides were, as they ought to he, equally good with the 
centre. Another mischievous consequence is, that when it 
becomes necessary to repair the centre of the road, the 
carriages are driven off the only good part on to the sides, 
which consist of weak material, and are often even dan- 
gerous for the passage of heavily-laden stage coaches. On 
the other hand, if equal labour and materials be expended 
on the whole breadth of the road, it is evident that the 
wear and tear will be far more uniform ; and when any 
one part requires repair, the traffic may with safety be 
turned on to another part. Hence, I should always lay on 
the same depth of material all over the road : and this 
alone will of course render it necessary to curve the bed 
of the road." 

Great attention should be paid to the drainage of roads, 
with respect to their upper surface as well as to the sur- 
face of the ground on which they rest. To promote the 
surface-drainage, the road should be formed with the 
transverse section shown in Fig. 22, and on each side of 
the road a ditch should be formed of sufficient capacity to 
receive all the water which can fall upon the road, and it 
should be of such a depth and with such a declivity as to 
conduct the water freely away. When footpaths are to he 
constructed on the sides of the road, a channel or wateir- 
course should be formed between the footpaths and the 
road, and small drains, formed of tiles or earthem tubea^ 
such as are used for underdraining lands, should be laid: 
under the footpath, at such a level as to take off all the 
water which may coUect in this channel, and convey it 
into the ditch. In the best- constructed roads, these, side 
channels are paved with flints or pebbles. The drains: 
under the footpath should be introduced about every 
60 feet, and should have the same inclination — namely, I 
iu 30, as is recommended for the sides of the road, aa 
shown in Fig. 22. A greater inclination would be objec<i^ 



ON THE SECTION OF EOADS. 



75 



ble. It is a very frequent mistake to 
boo great a fall to small drains, for such 
rent through them is produced as may 
away or undermine the ground around 
, and ultimately cause their destruction, 
a a drain is once closed by any obstruc- 
no amount of fall which could be given 
would suffice again to clear the passage ; 
t a drain having a considerable current 
gh it, would be much more likely to be 
ed by foreign matter carried into it, than 
in with a less rapid stream, 
len the surface of a road, constructed of 
jle materials, compactly laid, is drained 
e manner which has just been described, 
little water finds its way to the sub- 
mi. For some descriptions of soil, how- 
it is desirable to adopt additional means 
laintaining the foundation of a road in a 
jtate; as, for instance, when the surface 
jtrong clay through which no water can 
late, or when the ground beneath the road 
turally of a soft, wet, or peaty nature 
ir such circumstances a species of under- 
age should be provided. When the sur- 
of the ground is formed to the level 
led for the reception of the road materials, 
lies should be cut across the road from a 
o eighteen inches in depth, and about a 
dde at the bottom, the sides being sloped 
own in Fig. 23. The distances at which 
drains should be formed depends in a 
measure on the nature of the soil ; in the 
of a strong clay soil, or a soil which is 
•ally very wet, there should be a cross 

e2 




.a 



.a 



Fig.» 



76 ON THB SECnON OP BOADB. 

draia at intervale of SO ft. Ae tlie ground becomes firmi 
and drier, the interral ma; be mcreased in lengtb. A dra; 
not lesa than 4 inches square intemally should be formed ] 
the trench, of old bricks, dr^-tiles, or flat stones, as shov 
in Fig. 23 ; or the drain ma; be formed b; an; other moc 
used for under-drains ; and the remainder of the trent 
should be filled vith coarse stones &ee &om all day i 



FBrmaHm Stafatt, 




»»». 



dirt, in the manner ehovn in the figure. These draii 
must have a fall from the centre of the road into the ditchi 
on either side : an inclination of 1 in 30 will be sufflden 
"When the road is level in the direction of its length, it 
drains should run square across ; but, on inclined portioi 
of the road, the drains should be formed, as shown od tl 



ROAD-WAY i 



plan. Fig. 24, somewhat in the form of a very flat T, fl 
apex being in the middle of the road, and the draina mal 
ing an obtuse angle with the line of the road, in the dim 
tion in which it falls. The amount of this ang^ shoal 
not be greater than is shown in Fig. 24. 

When a road with footpaths is underdrained in fl 
manner just described, it is not necessai; to fonn drains fnr 



ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 



77 



the side chaiinel under the footpath into the 
ditch, as shown in Fig. 22. It is sufficient to 
eany up a little shaft, constructed in the same 

I', way as the drain, &om the drain to the chan- 
nel, covering the shaft with a small grating 
to prevent leaves or other substances, which 
might choke the drain, from being carried into 
it This method of forming the drains is 
ahown at a in Fig. 25. 

The footpath should be not more than 9 
inches higher than the bottom of the side chan- 
nel. The surface of the footpath should have 
a pitch of 2 inches, towards the side channels, 
to convey its surface-water into them. When 
the natural soil is firm and sandy, or gravelly, 
its surface will serve for the footpath ; but in 
other cases the natural soil must be thrown 
out to a depth of 6 in., and the excavation filled 
with fine clean gravel. To prevent the foot- 
path from being damaged by the current of 
water in the side channel, its side slope, next 
to the side channel, must be protected by a 
&cing of good sods, or of diy stone. 

Independently of the drainage for marshy 
foils, they will require, when the subsoil is of 
a spongy elastic nature, an artificial bed for 
tiie road-covering. This bed may, in some 
eases, be formed by simply removing the 
upper stratum to a depth of several feet, and 
•applying its place with well-packed gravel, 
or any soil of a firm character. In other 
eases, when the subsoil yields readily to the 
ordinary pressure that the road-surface must 
.bear, a bed of brushwood from 9 to 18 in. 

^in thickness, must be formed to receive the 




4 



Fi?. 2S. 



78 ON THE SECTION OF ROADS. 

soil on wliich the road-covering is to rest. The brush- 
wood should be carefully selected from, the long straight 
slender shoots of the branches or undergrowth, and be 
tied up in bundles, termed fascines, &om 9 to 12 in. in 
diameter, and from 10 to 20 ft. long. The fascines are 
laid in alternate layers crosswise and lengthwise, and the 
layers are either connected by pickets, or else the withes, 
with which the fascines are bound, axe cut to allow the 
brushwood to form a uniform and compact bed. 

This method of securing a good bed for structures on a 
weak wet soil has been long practised in Holland, and 
experience has fully tested its excellence 



CHAPTEE V. 

CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

It lias been maintamed, by Mr. Macadam and others, 
tliat a soft and yielding foundation for a road is better 
than one which is firm and unyielding. Mr. Macadam has 
stated that he " should rather prefer a soft one to a hard 
one ;" and even a bog, ** if it was not such a bog as would 
not allow a man to walk over it." * The principles upon 
which this opinion was founded were, that the road on the 
Boft foundation being more yielding or elastic, the materials 
of which the covering of the road was formed would be less 
likely to be crushed and worn away by the passage of a 
heavy traffic over them than when placed on a hard soHd. 
The contrary opinion is, however, maintained by the largest 
number of advocates ; and it is certain that there is no more 
general cause of bad roads than soft foundations. A firm, 
8olid, and dry substratum is necessary for the road mate- 
rials to rest upon. However good the materials themselves 
^^J be, and however much care may be bestowed upon 
the distribution of them, the material and labour are of 
no avail unless a good foimdation has been prepared. The 
outer surface of the road should be regarded merely as a 
covering to protect the actual working road beneath, which 
should be sufficiently firm and substantial to support the 
whole of the traffic to be carried over it. The proper ftmc- 
tion of the road materials is to protect the Eictual road from 

* Farliamentaiy Report, 1819, p. 23. 



80 CONSTRUCTION OF BOADS. 

being worn and injured by liorses' feet and wheels, or by 
the action of the weather. This lower, or sub-roady as it 
may be called, being once properly constructed, would last 
for ever, provided that the outer case or covering is re- 
newed from time to time, so as to maintain a sufficient 
depth for the protection of the sub-road. 

Boads may be classed as follows, according to the manner 
in which the foundation is formed :— 

1st. Beads having no artificial foundation, but in which 
the covering materials are laid on the surface of the 
groimd. 

2nd. Eoads having a foundation of concrete. 

3rd. Boads having a paved foundation. 
And each of these might be sub-divided according to the 
kind of material employed as a covering. 

The first class of roads comprises by far the largest pro- 
portion of the roads in this countiy. But it should only 
be employed in cases where the road is not sufficiently 
important to warrant any large expenditure, and where 
the anticipated amoiuit of traffic is small. 

Eveiy care should be taken to make the road as solid as 
possible. If the ground is at all of a soft or wet nature, 
deep ditches should be cut on each side of the line of the 
road, and cross imder- drains should be formed in the 
manner already described at page 76. And where the 
ground is very soft, a layer of faggots or brushwood, from 
4 to 6 inches in depth, shotdd be laid over the surface of the 
ground to receive the road materials. For embankmentSi 
or in other situations where the ground has been recently 
deposited, the surface shotdd be either roUed or punned^ 
that is, beaten with heavy beetles, so as to confer up<m it 
as great a degree of solidity as possible. The same mode 
of proceeding should be followed, even where it is intended 
to form either a paved or a concrete foundation. 

The employment of concrete composed of gravel and 



[ 



COKSTRTTCTION OF BOADS. 81 



lime was first proposed by Mr. Thomas Hughes, and the 
following remarks upon its use are quoted from his work 
on roads : — * 

'* The use of lime concrete, although an introduction of 
modem times, and certainly one of rather a novel charac- 
ter, derives its real origin from a very remote period. "We 
have indisputable evidence that the Bomans, in construct- 
ing their military ways, particularly in France, adopted the 
practice of forming a concrete foundation composed of 
gravel and lime, on which also they placed large stones as 
a pavement. The consequence of a construction so solid 
has been, that, in many parts of Europe, the original bed 
or crust of the Boman roads is not at the present day en- 
tirely worn down, even after a lapse of fifteen centuries. 

" With the view of affording a modem example in which 
lime concrete has been used, I would refer to the Brixton 
Boad, where a concrete composed of gravel and lime has 
been recently applied by Mr. Charles Penfold, surveyor to 
the trust. In this case the proportion of gravel to lime is 
that of four to one. The lime is obtained from Merstham 
or Dorking, and before being used it is thoroughly ground 
to powder. The concrete is made on the surface of the road, 
and great care is taken, when the water is added, that every 
particle of the lime is properly slaked and saturated. The 
bed of concrete having been spread to the depth of 6 inches 
over the half breadth of the road, the surface is then 
covered over with 6 inches of good hard gravel or broken 
' stone, and this depth is laid on in two courses, of 3 inches 
at a time, the first course being frequently laid on a few 
hours after the concrete has been placed on the road. The 
earriages, however, are not on any account allowed to pass 
over it until the concrete has become sufficiently hard and 
solid to carry the traffic without suffering the road material 
to sink and be pressed into the body of concrete. On the 

• "The Practice of Making and Bepaixing Boada," p. 44. 

E 8 



82 CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

other hand, the covering of gravel is always laid on before 
the concrete has become quite hard, in order to admit of a 
more perfect binding and junction between the two beds 
than would take place if the concrete were suffered to be- 
come hard before laying on the first covering. The bene- 
ficial effect arising from the practice of laying on the gravel 
exactly at the proper time is, that the lower stones, pressed 
by their own weight, and by those above them, sink par- 
tially into the concrete, and thus remain fixed in a matrixi 
from which they could not easily be dislodged. The lower 
pebbles being thus fixed, and their rolling motion conse- 
quently prevented, an immediate tendency to bind is com- 
municated to the rest of the material — a fact which must 
be evident, if we consider that the state called binding, or 
rather that produced by the binding, is nothing more than 
the solidity arising from the complete fixing and wedging 
of every part of the covering, so that the pebbles no longer 
possess the power of moving about and rubbing against 
each other. It is found that, in a veiy few days after the 
first layer has been run upon, the other, or top covering, 
may be applied ; and, shortly afterwards, the concrete, and 
the whole body of road material, becomes perfectly solid 
from top to bottom. The contrast thus presented to the 
length of time and trouble required to effect the binding 
of road materials where the whole mass is laid on loose 
is alone a very strong recommendation in favour of thd 
concrete. 

" The experiment of using concrete on the Brixton Boad, 
although not at present on a very extensive scale, has been 
tried under circumstances very far from being favourable, 
and on a part of the road which had hitherto baffled every 
attempt to make it solid. Since the concrete has been laid 
down, however, there is not a firmer piece of road in the 
whole trust." 

Mr. Tenfold gives the result of an experiment made by 






CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 83 

him upon the Walworth Eoad. '*It was raised by nine 
inches of concrete, and six of granite and Kentish rag- 
stone mixed ; and in some parts it was covered by rag and 
flints. The improvement is so great, with respect to the 
draught, and so desirable with respect to the saving in the 
annual repair, that the trust have directed it to be applied 
to upwards of two miles of road upon which the greatest 
traffic exists." * 

One of the principal advantages attending the employ- 
ment of concrete as a foimdation for roads is, that a good 
and solid road may be made with materials, such as round 
pebbly gravel, which, on any other mode of application, 
would be ill-suited to the purpose, and would form a very 
imperfect road. This description of gravel is that which 
is by far the most frequently met with. The gravel 
selected for this purpose should be free from any kind of 
dirt, clay, or other impurity, and should consist of stones 
and sand, mixed in about such proportions that the latter 
would just fill the interstices of the former. The gravel 
should then be mixed with the proper quantity of ground 
unslaked lime — in ordinary cases five or six parts of 
gravel and one of lime will be found to answer ; after 
which, sufficient water being added to effect the slaking 
of the lime, the whole should be quickly, but thoroughly, 
mixed up, and then immediately thrown into place, and 
trimmed off at once to the proper form intended to be 
given to its upper surface ; the first layer of broken stones 
or screened gravel should then, as Mr. Hughes directs, be 
placed just as the concrete is about to set. 

The third mode of forming an artificial foundation was 
introduced by Mr. Telford. It consists in laying a rough 
pavement on the top of the formation-surface, which is 
afterwards covered by the road materials. The following 

* ** Practical Treatise on the best Mode of Making and Bepairing 
^ Boads," by Charles Penfold, p. 31. 



84 CONSTRUCTION OP ROADS. 

in an extract from one of Mr. Telford's specifications for ' . 
portion of the Holyhead Hoad : — " Upon the level bed pro 
pared for the road materials, a bottom course or layer of 
stones is to be set by hand, in form of a dose, firm pave- 
ment ; the stones set in the middle of the road are to be 
7 inches in depth : at 9 feet from the centre, 6 inches ; at 
12 from the centre, 4 inches; and at 15 feet, 3 inches. 
They are to be set on their broadest edges lengthwise 
across the road, and the breadth of the upper edge is not 
to exceed 4 inches, in any case. All the irregularities of 
the upper part of the said pavement are to be broken off 
by the hammer, and all the interstices to be filled with 
stone chips, firmly wedged or packed by hand, with a light 
hammer ; so that when the whole pavement is finished, 
there shall be a convexity of 4 inches in the breadth of 
16 feet from the centre." * 

The stone which Telford employed for this purpose, was 
generally such as would have been totally unfit for most 
other purposes, whether on accoimt of its inferior quality, 
or the smallness of its dimensions. In comparing the two 
methods of forming artificial foundations of roads» regard 
must be had to the nature of the materials foimd in the 
locality in which the road is to be formed. Where stone is 
plentiful, and easily procured, the paved foundation would 
be the best; whilst, where stone is scarce, and gravsl 
and lime abundant, the preference must be given to Hie 
concrete foundation. 

The foundation of the road having been prepared, the 
next proceeding is, to lay a firm and compact ooyering 
upon the foundation, to form a smooth surface for carriages 
to travel upon. The materials of which the covering is 
composed should possess the property of becoming quicUy 
united into one solid mass, of which the surface should be 
smooth and hard, and at the same time not liable to 

• Sir U. Parnell on Boadfl, p. 138. 



CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 85 

^ broken to pieces, or groiuid into dust, by wheels op 
.orses' feet. The materials which have been employed for 
this purpose are of two kinds ; angular fragments of 
broken stone of different sorts, and gravelly pebbles. It is 
essential to the formation of a good road that the distinc- 
tion here pointed out be always kept clearly in view, 
because a totally different mode of proceeding must be 
adopted to form a perfect road with these two classes of 
material. The want of attention to the distinction here 
pointed out has led to much discussion and misapprehen-^ 
sion on the employment of day, chalk, or other material, 
as a binding upon roads. 

If the materials of which the covering is to be formed 
are in angular masses, no binding of any description is 
requisite ; as they quickly become united by dovetailing, 

I as it were, amongst each other — ^much more firmly than 
they would by the use of any kind of artificial cement. 

When the stones, instead of being angular, are round 
and pebbly, like gravel stones, it is necessary to mix with 
them just sufficient foreign matter, of a binding nature, as 
wiU serve to fill up the interstices between the stones, for 
otherwise these would roll about, and would prevent the 
road from becoming solid. 

There are, then, two methods of cementing or solidifying 
the surface of a road : one, by the mechanical form of the 
materials themselves forming a species of bond ; the other, 
by the use of some cementing or binding matter. And in 
comparing the relative merits of the two, the preference 
must certainly be given to the former, that in which the 
stones are united in virtue of their angular form, without 
the use of any cementing material. The principal reason 
for this preference is, that roads formed with stones so 
united, are not materially affected by wet or frosty 
weather ; whereas, roads whose surfaces are composed of 

\ pebbly stones united by cementing material, become loose 



86 CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

and rotten under sucli circximstances : the cementing mate- 
rial becoming softened by the wet, and reduced to a loose 
pulverulent condition by subsequent frost. 

The first method, that of forming the road-covering 
entirely with angular pieces of stone, without any other 
material, was first strongly recommended by Mr. Macadam, 
and subsequent experience has shown its superiority over 
every other which has been employed. The most im- 
portant quality in stone for road-making is toughness : mere 
hardness without toughness is of no use, as such stone be- 
comes rapidly reduced to powder by the action of wheels. 
Those stones which have been found to answer this pur* 
pose best are, the whinstones, basalts, granites, and beach 
pebbles. The softer descriptions of stone, such as the 
sandstones, are not fitted for this purpose, being far too 
weak to resist the crushing action of wheels. The harder and 
more compact limestones may be employed ; but, generally 
speaking, the limestones are to be avoided, in consequence 
of their great aflGluity for water, by which in frosty 
weather, which has been preceded by wet, they are split 
up into powder, when the solidity of the road is de- 
stroyed. 

Next in importance to the quality of the stone is its 
preparation. This consists in reducing it to angular frag- 
ments of such a size that they will pass freely through a 
ring of 25 inches in diameter, in every direction ; that is, 
that their largest dimensions shall not exceed that mea- 
sure. 

The stone thus prepared, should be evenly spread ove* 
the surface prepared for the foundation of the road, to a 
depth of about 6 inches ; and the road should then be 
opened for traflGlc. In Mr. Telford's specifications, he 
usually directed that, on the top of this coating of broken 
stone, a layer of good clean gravel, about 1^ inch in 
depth, should be spread before throwing the road open for 



CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 87 

). The reason for this practice was, to lessen the ex- 
one unevenness of the surface, and to render the road 
)re pleasant to pass over when first opened. It would 
I better, however, for the public to put up with the tem- 
»rary inconvenience of a rough road, because the gravel 
>es a permanent injury to the road, and reduces in a 
msiderable degree the facility with which the stones 
oite into a compact, solid mass. 

Broken stone, being superior to gravel for the purpose 
f road-making, should always be employed where it can 
e easily obtained. The quality of gravel varies so consider* 
bly, that while some kinds may, when properly prepared, 
nrm a veiy excellent road, others may be entirely worth- 
NBS ; such as those kinds of gravel the stones composing 
'hich are of the sandstones and flints, for even flints, 
Lthough hard, are so excessively brittle as to be immedi* 
tely crushed by the passing of the wheels over them, 
lie gravel when taken from the pit shotdd be passed over 
screen which will allow all stones less than | of an inch 
) pass through it, and the fine stuff, or hoggin, as it is 
3chnically termed, thus obtained, should be reserved for 
inning the footpaths ; the remainder, which has not 
«88ed through the screen, should have all the stones 
rhose greatest dimension is more than 2^ inches removed 
Old broken, and it would be desirable that these broken 
tones should be reserved for the uppei? layer. In screen- 
og the gravel, especially as it comes from the pit, a cer- 
•ain portion of loam is generally found adhering to the 
Aones, and this should by no means be separated from 
Biem, for, although angular broken stones reqidre no 
tttraneous substance to cause them to bind, the 
(ebbles of which most gravel is composed, require a cer- 
hin amount of loam, clay, or chalk, to fill up the inter- 
ikices between the stones, and to prevent them from being 
tolled about, as they otherwise would be. The gravel 



88 CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

thus prepared by screening should be laid on and spread 
to a uniform depth of not more than 6 inches over the 
whole surface. 

On this subject, Mr. Hughes sa3rs :* — " In laying on this 
upper covering many surveyors commit a great error in 
not making a distinct difference between angular or 
broken stones and those rounded smooth pebbles of which 
gravel is usually composed. The former cannot be too 
well cleaned before being laid on the road, because, even 
when entirely divested of all earthy matter, they soon 
become wedged and bound closely together when the pres- 
sure of carriages comes upon them. But the case is dif- 
ferent with the smooth, round surfaces of gravel ; for if 
this material be entirely cleaned by means of washing 
and repeated siffings, the pebbles will never bind, until 
in a great measure they become ground and worn down 
by the constant pressure and rubbing against each other. 
Before this takes place, the surface of the road must be 
considerably weakened, and will, in fact, be incapable of 
supporting the pressure of heavy wheels, which conse- 
quently sink into it, and meet with considerable resistance 
to their progress. Under these circumstances, it seems 
that the practice of too scrupulously cleaning the rounded 
pebbles of gravel must be decidedly condemned ; and the 
question then arises, to what extent should the cleaning 
process be dispensed with ? or, in other words, what pro- 
portion of the binding material found in the rough gravel, 
as taken out of the pit, should be allowed to remain in the 
mass intended to be placed on the road ? * * * A long 
course of experience, accompanied by attentive observa- 
tions on these details in the practice of road-making, has 
convinced me that it is much better and safer, as a general 
rule, to leave too much of the binding material in the 

• M The Practice of Making and BepairiDg BoadB," p. 16. 



i'. 



CONSTRUCTION OP KOADS. 89 

^ gravel than to divest it too completely of this substance. 

^ When the gravel is placed on a road without being suffi- 
ciently cleaned, the constant wear and tear, aided by the 
occurrence of wet weather, causes the harder material or 
actual gravel to be pressed close together ; and the surplus 
of soft binding material remaining after the interstices be- 
tween the pebbles are filled up, being then forced to the 
top, and usually mixed with water, becomes mud, and 
according to the usual practice should be scraped to the 
sides of the road. When this has been done, the surface 
is usually firm and solid ; because the hard gravel below 
the mud has become perfectly bound, without, at the same 
time, being broken or ground to pieces. Suppose, next, 
a road covered with gravel, too much cleaned, where it is 
evident that the destruction of the gravel will continue 
until it becomes broken into angular pieces, and a suffi- 

/ dent quantity of pulverised material has been formed to 
hold the stones in their places and thus to effect the bind- 
ing of the mass. I need hardly say, that the deterioration 
thus occasioned to the road is an evil of much more im* 
portance, and one much more to be avoided, than that 
occasioned by employing stones not sufficiently cleaned. 
Begardless of all this, however, it is the practice of many 
road-surveyors to insist that all gravel, of whatever quality, 
shall be rendered perfectly clean by repeated siftings, and 
even by washing, until it becomes entirely divested of all 
that may properly be considered the binding part of the 
material." 

Particular care and attention is required to be given to 
new roads when opened for traffic ; a sufficient number of 
men should be employed to keep every rut raked in the 
moment it appears, and guards or fenders should be placed 
on the road, in order that vehicles may be caused to pass 
over every part of the surface in turn. If these precautions 

t'«are not taken, years may elapse before the road attains a 



90 CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 

firm condition; and many roads have been permanently 
ruined through want of sufficient attention when first used. 
When ruts are once formed, vehicles using the road keep 
in the same track, deepening and increasing the rut. In 
wet weather, the rut is filled with water, which, having no 
other means of escape, slowly penetrates the sides and 
bottom of the rut, rendering them so soft as to be more 
susceptible to the action of every succeeding carriage. 
Buts thus formed, involve a much larger outlay to repair 
the injury than that which would have been sufficient to 
prevent it; besides the inconvenience, danger^ and ez« 
pense to the public, in travelling on a road iu such a 
condition. 

Amongst the substances which were mentioned as bind* 
ing material to be mixed with clean gravel, was chalk. 
Many roads have been ruined by its improper use. There 
are two modes in which chalk may be advantageously 
employed in the construction of roads. It may be laid in 
the veri/ bottom of the road, to form the foundation ; but it 
must be at such a depth as to be entirely beyond the 
influence of frost, otherwise it will quickly destroy the 
road, for chalk has a very powerful affinity for water ; or 
rather, to speak more correctly, capillary attraction for ity 
in consequence of which it readily absorbs all the moisture 
which finds its way through the road covering. Herein 
consists the value of chalk if judiciously applied, for the 
water thus absorbed would otherwise penetrate to the 
foundation of the road and render it soft. If, however^ 
the chalk be placed within the reach of frost, the water, 
which is only mechanically held by the chalk, wiU, in the 
act of congealing, expand, and by so doing rend the chalk 
into fragments, and reduce it, in fact, to a pulverulent state^ 
in which condition it is changed by the succeeding thaw 
into a soft paste or mud. The other purpose for which 
chalk may be employed is, as before mentioned, to be>' 



CONSTRUCTION OP ROADS. 91 

t 

mixed witli gravel in order to make it bind ; tliougli, in 
using chalk for tliis purpose, it is only required when the 
gravel is perfectly clean and free from other binding 
matter. The mixing of chalk with gravel already contain- 
ing sufficient clay or loam is not only useless, but is posi- 
tively injurious ; and, even when the gravel is of such 
a nature as to require the intermixture of chalk, care 
should be taken not to add too much chalk, for it is not 
with chalk as with the loam or clay, with which gravel is 
naturally combined. Olay, generally speaking, possesses 
little power of absorbing water, but the superabundant 
chalk would soon be reduced to the state of a sofb paste 
by the action of the weather, in the manner which has 
been described. Chalk, therefore, if used as a binding 
material with gravel, on the surface of roads, should be 
reduced to a state of powder, and should be perfectly and 
thoroughly mixed with the gravel before the latter is spread 
on the road. 

Although the use of bushes or bundles of faggots has 
been recommended for the foundation of roads over very 
soft or boggy ground, they should only be employed in 
such a situation, and they should be placed at such a depth 
below the surface, as will ensure their always being damp ; 
for when they are placed where they would be alternately 
wet and dry, they quickly become rotten, and form a soft 
stratum beneath the road. 

Note by the Editor. — ^Mr. Walker,* in 1819, speaking 
of the great advantage of filling up or grouting the joints 
of granite pavement with lime-water, which finds its way 
into the gravel between and under the stones, and forms 
the whole into a concrete mass, made a suggestion of value, 
in recommending, for the same purpose, a mixture of a 

I • £%'i(leTico before the Select Ck)mmittee on the Highways of the 
h^Kingdom, 1819. 



92 OONSTRCCnON OF B0AD6. 

little of the boringB or dippingB of mm, or small scrapfl 
hoop-iron, with the gravel used in filling up the joints of 1 
paving. The water would, he said, vezy soon create an ozi 
of iron, and form the gravel into a species of rock. "I ha 
seen," he adds, ** a piece of rusty hoop taken from und 
water, to which the gravel had so connected itself foz 
or 5 inches round the hoop, as not to be separated witho 
a small blow of a hammer. And the cast-iron pipes whu 
are laid in moist gravel, soon exhibit the same tendency. 



CHAPTER VI. 
OK REPAIRING AND IMPROVING ROADS. 

The improvement of existing roads may be divided into 
two distinct branches ; namely, the improvement of their 
general course and levels, and the improvement of the 
materials of the road. The first of these consists in the 
application of the principles which have been laid down for 
the construction of new roads, and consists generally in 
straightening their course by extinguishing imnecessary 
curves and bends ; improving their levels by either avoid- 
ing or cutting down hills, and embanking valleys ; increas- 
ing their width, where requisite, and rendering it imiform 
throughout. 

With regard to the improvement of the surface, the 
operations may consist in reducing the transverse section 
to the form shown in Fig. 22, page 75, filling up all ruts, 
cleansing and deepening, if necessary, the side ditches, 
cutting down trees or hedges by the side of the road, 
removing mud-banks which but too ofben exist on the 
road-sides, and placing proper materials on its surfkce. 

Of all these, the most important to explain, because the 
most difficult to efiect, and the least generally understood, 
is the method by which the condition of the surface of the 
road may be improved. In the practice of many surveyors, 
the remedy for a bad road is to heap on fresh material ; 
whereas, as Mr. Macadam has very justly observed,* 
*' Generally, the roads of the kingdom contain a supply 

* Parliamentary Report, 1819, p. 21. 



94 ON REPAIRING AND IMPROVING ROADS. 

of materials sufficient for their use for several years, , if 
they were properly lifted and applied." Generally speak- 
ing, the cause of inferiority is the imperfect transverse 
form of the roads, and the improper manner in which the 
road-materials are used. The remedial measures to be 
adopted must, in a great degree, depend upon the nature 
of the materials composing the upper surface of the road ; 
but, whatever these may be, the road must be brought to 
the proper form of section before much improvement can 
be expected. This should be done by cutting down those 
parts which are too high, and raising the depressed parts. 
But where the surface of the road is so rotten or brittle 
that the materials lifted are not fit to be again used, the 
renewal may be done gradually, and rather by the addition 
of fresh material to the lowest parts. Unless the materials 
of which the road has been formed are found to be brittle 
or rotten, or to be already very thin, the course to be pur- 
sued is that which is technically termed *' lifting the road," 
which consists in loosening and turning the surface of the 
road to a depth of about 4 in., and carefully removing such 
portions of the materials as may be found in an improper 
state ; such as large stones, which should be broken into 
pieces of the proper dimensions, and then restored to the 
road. Where, however, the materials of the road are of 
such a nature that in lifting they would crumble or fall to 
powder, a different mode of proceeding must be adopted : 
the surface of the road must be carefully cleared of mud 
and dirt, and fresh material, prepared as described in the 
preceding chapter, should be laid on in a very thin coat, 
never exceeding at one time 3 inches, and, under ordinary 
circumstances, not more than 2 inches in thickness. Where 
the surface of a road, although hard, is found to be very 
thin, it is necessary, instead of lifting the old materialtj, to 
add a fresh coat; and, preparatory to doing this, it is 
well to loosen the surface of the road with a pick, so thafT! 



^ 



ON KEPAIRING AND IMPHOVING ROADS. 95 

the new material may become more rapidly incorporated 
with the old material. 

Autrimn is the best season of the year for repairing 
roads, when they are in a wet state, for the depressed and 
soft parts of the road are then not only the most readily 
detected, but the surface of the road is softer, and the new 
materials are more easily worked into it. As was observed, 
the quantity laid on at one time should never exceed 
3 inches in depth ; and, generally speaking, a half, or even 
a third, of this thickness would suffice, if judiciously em- 
ployed. It is certain that roads are more frequently spoilt 
by having too much material put upon them than by having 
too little. On this subject Mr. Penfold, whose experience in 
road-making cannot be questioned, remarks : — " It is one 
of the greatest mistakes in road-making that can be com- 
mitted, to lay on thick coats of materials, and when under- 
stood, it will no longer be resorted to. If there be substance 
enough abeady in the road, which, indeed, should always 
be carefully kept up, it will never be right to put on more 
than a stone's thickness at a time. A cubic yard, nicely 
prepared and broken, as before described, to a rod super- 
ficial, will be quite enough for a coat, and will be found to 
last as long as double the quantity put on unprepared and 
in thick layers. There is no grinding to pieces when so 
applied ; the angles are preserved, and the material is out 
of sight and incorporated in a very little time. Each stone 
becomes fixed directly, and keeps its place : thereby escap- 
ing the wear and fretting which occur in the other case."* 

Although autumn is the best time of the year for repair- 
ing roads, it is not to be assimied that it is the only season 
for executing repairs. Beads should, so to speak, be 
always under repair : every road shoxdd be divided into 
lengths, on each of which an intelligent labourer, who 

« <* A Practical Treatise on the best Mode of Making and Bepairing 
Eoads,*' p. 15. 



96 ON REPAIRING AND IMPROVING R0AD8. 

thoroughly understands his business, should be placed, U 
attend constantly and at all times to the state of the road 
for which he should be held responsible. His duty shoul 
consist in keeping the road always scraped clean and irei 
from mud, in filling any ruts or hollow places, the momen 
they make their appearance, with broken stones. A supply 
of broken stones should be kept in depots or recesses formec 
at the sides of the road at intervals of a quarter of a mile 
The depots should be capable of containing about 30 cubic 
yards of material, and shoxdd be formed with walls, sc 
that the quantity of material in them can be easily mea- 
sured. Each man should be provided with a wheelbarrow, 
a shovel, a pickaxe, and a scraper. As autumn approaches, 
additional labourers shoxdd be eng^ed ; but the constant 
labourers should alone be responsible for the good order d 
the road. 

Not only should the mud formed in wet weather be 
carefully scraped oS from the surface to the sides, and re- 
moved altogether as soon as it becomes sufficiently solid, 
but in dry weather the roads should be constantly and 
regularly watered. After a long season of drought, the 
surface of a road becomes, as it were, baked : and in this 
state, being brittle, it is quickly injured and worn to dust 
by constant traffic. But a regular and moderate supply of 
water entirely obviates this undue wear, and preserves the 
road in a proper state. Care should be taken that the 
water is properly applied, as much injury may be done by 
the water being discharged in too great quantity, or un- 
evenly distributed. The manner in which the water 
should be poured upon the road shoxdd resemble, as nearly 
as possible, a gentle shower of rain. The system of water* 
ing roads in particular conditions, even in winter, has been 
practised with advantage, as is shown by the following ex- 
tract from the evidence of Mr. Benjamin Farey, surveyor 
of the Whitechapel Eoad, before the Committee of th« 



ON REPAIRING AND IMPROVING ROADS. 97 

House of Commons : — ** Tlie wheels stick to the materials, 
y m certain states of the road, in spring and autumn, when 
it is between wet and dry, particularly in heavy foggy 
weather, and affcer a frost ; by which sticking of the wheels 
the Whitechapel Boad is often, in a short time, dreadfully 
torn up and loosened ; and it is for remedying this evil 
• that I have, for more than eight years past, occasionally 
watered the road in winter. As . soon as the sticking 
and tearing-up of the materials is observed to have com- 
menced, several water-carts, are employed upon these parts 
of the road, to wet the loamy and glutinous matters so 
much that they will no longer adhere to the tire of the 
wheels, and to allow the wheels and the feet of the horses 
to force down and again fasten the gravel-stones; the 
traffic, in the course of from four to twenty hours after 
watering, forms such a sludge on the surface as can be 
'^ easily raked off by wooden scrapers, which is performed as 
V quickly as possible ; after which, the road is hard and 
smooth. The advantages of this practice of occasional 
winter-watering have been great ; and it might, I am of 
opinion, be adopted with like advantages on the other 
entrances into London, or wherever else the traffic is great, 
and the gravel-stones are observed to be torn up by stick- 
ing to the wheels."* 

Proceeding with a description of the tools or implements 
employed in the construction and repair of roads, the most 
important of these is the level or plummet-rule used for 
forming the true transverse section of the road. It is 
shown in Eig. 26, and consists of a horizontal straightedge 
or bar a o, having in the centre of its length a plimmiet 
D, for ascertaining when the straightedge is horizontal. 
Thus far it exactly resembles an ordinary bricklayer's 
level. A line is drawn near the end a of the bar, and at 
every 4 feet from this line a gauge (a, i, ^, d^ is fixed in a 
^^ * Parliamentary Report, 1819, p. 40. 

F 



ON REPAIRING ASD IMPROVING ROADS. 




dovetailed groove, in 
BTich a way as to lie ca^ 
pable of bfdiig moved 
up or down, bo aa to 
adjust Ibe depths of its 
. lower end below the 
horizontal Hue of the 
bottom of the straight 
edge; and there are 
thumb screws (one of 
which is shown on an 
enlarged scale in Fig- 
27) passing tiirough 
each gauge, by tighten- 
. ing which the gauge 
I can be fixed when sc^ 
■? % adjusted. "WTien the 
■^ g bottoma of the gauges 
i 'j a, b, e, and d, have been 
'< S adjusted as shown in 
ft Fig. 26, they will co- 
incide with the surface 
recommended to be 
given to a road 30 feet 
in width, and snct aa ia 
shown in Fig- 22 ; and, 
in order to ascerUdn 
whether the surface of 
any existing road is con- 
structed to the proper 
inclination and fona, 
it is only requisite to 
apply the level, -kYo^ 
when placed perfectV 
horizontal, by means of 



INSTRUMENTS. 



99 



the plummet d, should rest upon the road at the lower 
extremity of each of the gauges, a, h, c, and d, Eor 
forming the sides of roads of greater width than 30 feet, 
it would be convenient to have a level constructed in the 
manner shown in Fig. 28, in which a straightedge about 
15 feet long, has a plimimet at the centre of its length, 
80 adjusted that when hanging truly in its place, the lower 

InobeB. 
10 987664821 




Fig. 27.-«Gaiig«. 

side of the straightedge should be inclined from a hori- 
zontal line at the rate of 1 in 30. 

The pick used for lifting the surface of roads is shown 
in Fig. 29. The bent iron head {a h) should weigh about 
ten pounds, having a large eye in the centre (c), in which 
is fitted the handle, which should be of ash, rather more 
than 2 feet in length ; one extremiiy (a) should be formed 




Fig. 88.— Plummet Rnle. InoUnation 1 in 80. 

like the end of a chisel, while the other (h) should terminate 
in a blunt point. Both ends should be tipped with steel. 
The most useful form of shovel for road purposes is shown 
in Fig. 30. The blade should be somewhat pointed, and 
the handle bent, so as to enable the person using it to 
bring the blade flat upon the surface of the road without 
^jixcensive stooping. 

^^ The ordinary wheelbarrows are of ash or elm, with caat- 

f2 



100 OK HEFAISINO AKD IHFROnNO ROADS. 

iron wheels ; but they may be nmde of wrought iron, 
which would combine strength and durabilily with light- 
n noes. Of whatever material they are con- 

g Btructed, they should not exceed 9 inch^ in 

n depth, and their sidea should be splayed 

fl with a dope of 2 to 1. It is also desirable 

II to have hooks placed on their sides to re- 

n ceive a shovel and a pick. 

11 The acrems, or tievei, employed for sepa- 

^*^*^"^ rating coarse gravel from hoggin or small 
Fig. ».— Pick, gravel, consiat of iron wires or slender rods, 
placed at equal distances apart, and fixed in a 
frame of wood, the aides of which are raised about 5 inches 
abovetheplaneof the wires. In the scnreens the frames are 
rectangular, about S feet 6 inches in height 
and 3 feet wide, and the wires are stretched 
in the direction of its length at distances 
varying from i inch to 1 ]; inch, according 
to the size of the stone required ; and these 
wires are kept in place by others crossing 
them at intervals of 5 or 6 inches. When 
used, they are placed so that the plane of 
the wires is inclined about 30° from the 
upright, and the gravel to bo screened 
being dashed or thrown forcibly against 
them, the finer particles pass through and 
I fall on the iiixther side of the screen, while 
' the large stones roU down its surface and 
fall on the nearest side. The sieves are 
somewhat different in form : the frame is 
circular, forming a cylinder about 6 inches 
.-eborsL ii> depth and 20 inches in diameter, and 
the wires placed either as already de- 
scribed or equally close in both directions, forming a 
kind of bottom to the cylinder. The sieve is held hori.^ 




INSTRUMENTS. 



101 



sontally by one man, wliile the other throws into it a 




Iron, 
Slta. 



Length, 
efins. 



1 inch diameter by |. Total Length. 1\ fiwt. 
Ifg. 81.— Hammer. 

shoyelfdl of gravel; upon shaking the sieve, the fine 
hoggin falls through, leaving the stones 
in the sieve, which are then thrown by 
the man into anything which may be 
placed to receive them. This is gene- 
rally the best and cheapest mode of 
screening graveL 

The hammera generally employed for 
breaking stones are of two sizes, and are 
shown in Figs. 31 and 32. The handles 
should be of straight-grained ash, and the 
iron heads of the weight and form shown 
in the drawings; the faces should be 
spherical, and case-hardened or steeled. 

Fig. 33 represents the ring to be used 
finr testing the size of the broken stones. 
Its internal diameter is 2^ inches, and the 
laj^^est stones should in all positions be 
passable through the ring. 

Fig. 34 represents a pronged fork, to be 
used instead of a shovel for taking up the 
stones to throw upon the road. The ad- 
vantages attending its use are, that a man 
can take up the stones much more quickly 
and more easily than with a shovel, free 
from dirt and extraneous matter. ^^' 82— Hammer. 

It is advantageous to roll the surface of new roads, in 



»i 



n 



102 



[ KBPAIKINO AND lUFSOVING ROADS. 



order to oonsolidate the material ; and for this purpose B 
oast-iron roller is usually employed, about 5 feet wide, 
4 feet in diameter, and weighing about 4 tons. 

The rakes, which should be employed in filling in mts 
and hollow places in the surface of roads, should 
be formed nifb prongs between 2 and 3 inches 
in length, fixed at the distance of three* 
quarters of an inch apart, into a wooden head 
about 11 incbea in length. The handles 
should be formed of ash, and should be about 
6 feet in length. 

Sifrapera are indispensable for preserring roads in a 
proper state and free from mad. They are usually con- 
structed of wood shod with wrought iron ; but it ia belter 



.ng m rma 

f 



BiSB-Bsng*. 



Kg. M.— Prouged Fork, 

to mate them entirely of iron. They should be 6 inches in 
depth, and about 1 S inches in length, and slightly curved at 
each extremity to prevent the escape of mud at each side. ' 



INSTRUMENTS. 103 

Scraping machines have been invented, and are very 
generally employed, by means of which the surface of a 
road may be scraped much more regularly and quickly 
than with the old scrapers. They consist of a number of 
iron scrapers, attached to a frame mounted on wheels, 
which are so placed that, when the body of the machine is 
raised somewhat, the wheels are lifted from the ground, 
and the whole weight of the machine is thrown upon the 
scrapers, which, upon the machine being drawn across the 
road, scrape all the mud from its surface, and carry it to 
the sides. 

A machine has alao been invented by Mr. [now Sir 
Tob^Il] Whitworth, of Manchester, which has been 
extensively emplcyed, both there and in London, for 
sweeping up the mud from lSb» xoads and carrying it 
away at once. It consists of a species of endless broom, 
passing round rollers attached to a mud cart, sad so 
connected by cogged wheels with the wheels of the 
cart that, when the latter is drawn forwards, the broom 
is caused to revolve, and sweeps the mud from the 
surface of the road, up an inclined plane, into the cart. The 
machine is drawn by one horse ; and, by its aid, the roads 
are swept much more rapidly and better than by the old 
system of scraping, and with less injuiy to the surface of 
the road, and less annoyance to the passengers. 



CHAPTER Vn. 
OK HEDGES AND FENCES. 

Ik most situations, fences axe required to mark {he boiin- 
daries of roads, and separate them from the adjoining 
lands. They should be dispensed with wherever it ia 
possible, for the reason that fences, of whatever kind, 
deprive, to a greater or less extent, the surface of the road 
of the benefit of free exposure to the action of wind and 
sunshine, both of which are essential for maintaining it in 
a dry state. Eew persons are aware of the extent to 
which a road may be injured by high hedges, or lines of 
trees. Trees are worse than hedges, because they not 
only deprive the road of the action of the air and sun, but 
they further injure it by the dripping of rain from their 
leaves, as a consequence of which the road is kept in 
a wet state long after it would otherwise have become 
dry. 

When fences are indispensable, they should be placed 
as far as may be from the sides of the road, and should be 
kept as low as possible. When there is a deep ditch on 
either side of the road, it becomes necessary, to prevent 
accident, that the fence should be placed between the road 
and the ditch ; but, in other situations, the fence shoidd 
be placed on the field- side of the ditch. In so doing, the 
surface-draining of the road into the side ditches is lesa 
interfered wilji, and the action of air and sunshine is les» 
obstructed by the fence. 

The different descriptions of fence which may be em>- 



HEDGES AND FENCES. 105 

ployed are yariotis. In districts where stone is plentiful, 
""^ and especially in tlie immediate neighbourhood of quarries, 
where stone rubble can be obtained at a trifling cost, dry 
rubble walls, without any mortar, are very good and cheap, 
and require little or no repair. 

For the road itself, an open post-and-rail fence is the 
best which can be employed, because it scarcely impedes 
the action of the wind and the sun upon the surface of the 
road ; but the great practical objection to timber fences 
is, their liability to decay, which occasions frequent and 
constant expense for renewal. 

The most common, and, all things considered, the most 
useful, fence is the quickset hedge. If properly planted, 
and carefully attended to for the first few years, a natural 
fence may thus be obtained, sufficiently strong to resist 
the efforts of cattle to break through, and very economical 
^ in cost for maintenance. A bank or mound of earth, at 
least two feet in depth, should be prepared for the recep- 
tion of the quicks, which should be three-years plants 
which have been transplanted two years. The best kind 
of soil is one of a light sandy nature, admitting sufficient 
moisture to nourish the plants, and > retaining moisture in 
dry seasons. Heavy clay soils are not sufficiently pervious 
to water, and plants placed in such soils are never found 
to thrive. A mixture of peat or of rotten leaves is of great 
use, and causes the plants to grow with much vigour. 
The quicks are most commonly planted in a single row, at 
distances of about 4 inches apart. But a much better hedge 
is formed by planting them 6 inches apart, in a double 
row, as shown in Fig. 35, with a space of 6 inches be^ 
tween the rows, 

o o o o o 
o o o o o o 

Fig 86.— Planting Hedges. 

^ and so arranged that the plants in one row are opposite 



106 HEDGES AND FENCES. 

the spaces in the other. By this arrangement^ althoagh 
the plants are really not so crowded, and have more space * 
round their roots Lm which to derive nouridmient Ln 
in the single row, they form a thicker hedge. The proper 
time for planting quicks is during the autimm or the spring, 
and, in fine seasons, the operation may be continued during 
the whole winter. A temporary fence should be put up to 
protect the young plants from injury ; and the fence should 
be retained until the hedge has attained suificient strength 
to require its protection no longer : at the end of a period, 
imder favourable circumstances, of three or four years after 
the quicks are planted. That the plants may thrive, they 
must be very carefully attended to at first, and it is essen- 
tial that they should be properly cleaned and weeded at 
least twice every year. Once every year, towards the end 
of the summer, the hedge should be judiciously trimmed, 
not to such an extent as to produce stunted plants, but by 
merely cutting off the upper and more straggling shoots, 
so as to bring it to a level and even surface. By proceed- 
ing in this manner, a neat, strong, and compact hedge 
of healthy plants will be obtained in about three years 
after planting. 

When the hedge or fence is placed between the road and 
the side ditches, it is essential that small drains be formed 
at least every fifteen yards, to convey the water from the 
side tables or gutters, through the fence, into the ditches. 

Professor Mahan insists that fences and hedges should 
not be higher than 5 feet ; and that no trees should be 
suffered to stand on the road-side of the side drains, for, 
independently of shading the roadway, their roots would 
in time throw up the road-covering. 

Note by the Editor. — Sir John Macneil proved experi- 
mentally, on the Holyhead Eoad, the unfavourable in- 
fluence of close and high hedging in interfering with i 



HKDGES AND FENCES. 107 

what maybe called the ventilation of a road : — keeping it 
moist, and incurring excessive draught. By means of his 
experiments on tractional resistance, the trustees and the 
surveyors of the roads " have," he said, " perceived the 
defective parts of the road ; and within three months after 
the Heport of the Parliamentary Commissioners became 
public, there was not a hedge on that part of the road 
where the draught was shown to be excessive, that was 
not cut down, and improved on the surface."* 

Mr. Walker had previously, in 1819, remarked that 
nothing is more injurious to roads than the permitting of 
high hedges and plantations near them.f 

♦ Report of the Select Committee on Steam Carriages, 1831 ; p. 103. 
t Report of the Select Comuiitiee on the Highways of the Kingdom, 
18ld. 



CHAPTEE Vm. 

PAVED BOADS AND STREETS. 

Fob roads or streets, through towns or cities where the 
traffic is considerable, a paved surface is preferable to a 
macadamised surface. Macadamised roads in such situa- 
tions are exposed to incessant and heavy traffic, their sur- 
face is rapidly worn, and it requires constant repair, and 
much attention in scraping or sweeping, or in raiking-in 
ruts. The cost of maintenance is very heavy, whilst there 
are frequent interruptions of, or interference with, traffic. 
In dry weather, the macadamised road is dusty, ^^d in 
wet weather it is covered with mud. The only advantage 
which such a road really possesses over a pavement con- 
sists in the less noise produced by carriages in passing 
over it. 

Several different methods have been employed of forming 
the foundations of pavements, such as concrete and broken 
stone ; but where it can be done, it is perhaps best to lay 
the new pavement on the old surface of the road, whether 
paved or macadamised, taking care, of course, that its sur- 
face has been brought first to an even state, and of the 
required form of cross section. 

The practice of laying the new pavement on the top of 
the old has been a great deal used in Paris, and has there 
been found to answer extremely well. It is usual to take 
up and relay the old pavement, in order that its surface 
may be even and true ; after which it is covered with 
gravel, on which the new stones are bedded. Mr, TeKord 



PAVED ROADS AKD STREETS. 



109 



► 



strongly recommended the surface upon which the pave- 
ment was intended to be laid to be prepared as though 
intended for a macadamised road, and that it should be 
used; in that state, by carriages imtil it had become 
thoroughly consolidated; when the pavement should be 
laid on the top of the hard road so formed, the stones 
being properly bedded in a kind of coarse mortar. Mr. 
Edgeworth, in his work on roads, states that this method 
of forming paved roads had been extensively employed in 
Dublin, and was attended with considerable success. 

In constructing a paved road or street, the following 
method should be employed for forming the foundation. 
The loose ground at the surface should first be entirely 
removed. The depth to which it may be requisite to do 
this depends upon the nature of the ground ; and, unless 
the ground be very solid, it should be removed to such 
a depth as will allow of 18 inches of concrete beneath the 
pavement. In some situations so great a thickness as 
this may not be requisite; but it is better to err rather 
in forming too strong a foundation, than in forming one 
the failure of which necessitates the taking up and relaying 
of the pavement. When the loose ground has been re- 
moved, a layer of concrete, prepared in the manner already 
described at page 83, should be evenly spread over the 
whole area of the intended road. The depth of concrete 
should never be less than 12 inches; and, under ordinary 
circumstances, it should not be less than 18 inches. Its 
upper surface should have the true form of cross section 
intended to be given to the road. 

The stone sets should be well bedded upon the concrete 
in a kind of coarse mortar, which should also be well filled 
in between their joints. For the sets, several of the 
harder kinds of stone are used, such as granite, whinstone, 
and the very hardest varieties of limestone and freestone. 
Of all materials, granite is the best for sets, and more 



110 PAVED ROADS AND STREETS. 

particularly those kinds, such as the Ghiemsey and Aber- 
deen, which do not wear smooth and acquire a polished 
surface. Smooth wear is a great practical objection attend- 
ing the employment of excessively hard stone. With regard 
to the form of the stones, experience has shown that the 
best form is that of rectangular blocks, from. 7 to 9 inches in 
depth, depending on the amount and nature of the traffic, 
and not more than 3 or 4 inches in width. Until lately, i1 
was considered better to have stones of much greater width, 
under the supposition that, having a larg^ base, they would 
be better able to support the superincumbent weight, bul 
experience has shown that the narrow stones are much the 
better. The stones should be sorted according to theii 
depths and widths: for, if the stones are of unequal depth, 
and the surface of the concrete has been made, as it should 
be, even and parallel to the intended surface of the road, 
any stones less than the general depth would require more 
mortar to be placed under them, and would consequently 

settle down more than the others, 



■ ' and form hollows on the surfJEuse d 



III I I the road. They should also be sorted 

J according to their width, so that they 
may run entirely across the street 



Pig.36.-Pian of Pavement. ^ ^^^sRel courses, as shown in 
Fig. 36, and the stones in each course should be so selected 
as to break joint with those in each adjoining course^ at 
there shown. 

A firm and substantial curb should be laid on each aide 
of the road, to act as an abutment; and, in laying the pave- 
ment, the courses should be commenced at each side, and 
worked towards the middle ; the joints between the stones 
of each course should be as thin as possible, and the last 
stone should fit tightly, so as to form a kind of key to the 
course. After the stones have been set they should be well 
rammed down with a heavy punner, and stones which sink 



PAVED ROADS AND STREETS. Ill 

below the general level should be taken up, an4 re-packed 
^ underneath. It is not usual to incur the expense of bed- 
ding the stones in mortar, in th^ manner here recom- 
mended. The ordinary practice is to pour a thin grouting 
of sand and lime over the surface, after the pavement has 
been laid, which finds its way, although very imperfectly, 
into the interstices between the stones. But, this is mis- 
taken economy, for a pavement laid as here described, upon 
a firm concrete foundation, and having the joints perfectly 
formed with good mortar, would last almost for ever, 
since nothing else than the positive wearing away 
and destruction of the stone would render its renewal 
necessary. 

Paved roads should be watched for a few months after 
having been opened for traffic, in order to prevent irre- 
gular settlement in the stones, and consequently an uneven 
and irregular surface. When any portion of the road is 
found to settle below the general level, it should be taken 
up, and a sufficient quantity of fine concrete put under- 
neath it to bring it slightly above the level of the sur- 
roimding surface. Great attention should be given to the 
manner in which the pavement is re-laid after having been 
disturbed for the repair of sewers, water-pipes, or gas- 
pipes: the excavated ground, when thrown back, should 
be well punned, or beaten down in layers of not more than 
a foot in thickness, and at least 18 inches of concrete should 
be laid on the top, under the pavement. The surface of 
the fresh concrete should be about an inch above the 
general level of the concrete, and the stones should be 
properly bedded in the manner already described, care 
being taken that the stones correspond in depth and width 
with those already in place on either side, and, further- 
more, that the last stone, in making good each course, fits 
tightly into its place. 

In laying pavement in streets having a considerable 




112 PAVED ROADS AIYD STREETS. 

inclination^ two methods have been employed to afPbrd a 
more sure and perfect hold for the horses' feet than the ^ 
ordinary pavement. The first method is shown in Fig. 37, 
and consists in laying between the rows of paving-stones 
H f d~I^Xl ^ <^^urso of slate, rather less than an 
"^^^^S^S^A^ ^^ ^ thickness, and about an inch 

less in depth than the stones. By this 

Pavement on indinea. means a senes of Small channels or 

grooves, about an inch in width and depth, are formed 

between the rows of stones, which affords sufficient stay 

for the horses' feet. The other method is somewhat 

simpler, and consists in merely placing 

the ordinary paving-stones somewhat 

^ _ canted on their beds, as shown in 

Fig. 38. 
Pavement on Inclines. Fig. 38, SO aS tO form a SOrioS of lodgOS 

or steps, against which the horses' feet being planted, a 
secure footing is obtained. 

Eoadways and streets in cities must be accompanied by 
sidewalks, and crossing-places, for foot-passengers. The 
sidewalks are made of large flat flag-stones, 3 inches thick, 
laid on the ordinary groimd, or on gravel, well rammed 
and settled. The proper width of the sidewalks depends 
on the amoimt of the traffic. It would, in all cases, be well 
to have them at least 12 feet wide; they are laid at a slope, 
or pitch, of 1 inch to 10 feet, towards the pavement, to convey 
the surface-water to the side channels. The pavement 
is separated from the sidewalk by a row of long slabs, 
termed curb-stones, which confine both the flagging andl 
the paving-stones. They are usually about 12 inches by 
from 6 to 10 inches in section, and they are laid, in some 
cases, on their side, in other cases on edge. They form the 
sides of the side channels, and they should for this purpose 
project a few inches above the outside paving-stones, and 
be sunk at least 4 inches below their upper surface. 
The curb-stones are flush with the upper surface o{^ 



PAVED ROADS AND STREETS. 113 

the sidewalks, to allow water to run over into the side 
channels. 

The crossings should be from 4 to 6 feet wide, and 
slightly raised above the general surface of the pavement, 
to keep them free from mud. 



CHAPTER IX, 

ON TAKING OUT QUANTITIES FOR ESTIMATES. 

The process of making out an estimate for any descriptioi 
of engineering work may be divided into two distinct parts 
namely, in the first place, calculating the actual quantity € 
each description of work to be executed ; and, in the second 
place, affixing to these quantities just and reasonabL 
prices, such as the work might really be executed for. 

In the construction of roads, the principal item of ex 
pense is the earthwork, or the cost of forming the cutting 
and embankments to obtain the required levels for th 
formation service, in excavating the ditches and forming 
the banks, and in laying on the metalling or ballast t< 
form the road. Of these different descriptionsof work, th< 
first, namely, the cuttings and embankments, are the onh 
ones the estimation of the quantity of which is attendee 
with any difficulty. The others, being generally constant 
are readily obtained by ascertaining the quantity in a 
given length, as a yard, and then multiplying that qnafi- 
tity by the total length of the road. 

In the calculations of solid contents required ift 
balancing the excavations and embankments, the most 
accurate method consists in subdividing the different solids 
into others of the most simple geometrical forms, as prismSi 
prismoids, wedges, and pyramids, whose solidities are 
readily determined by the ordinary rules for the mensu* 
ration of solids. As this process, however, is frequentl] 
long and tedious, other methods requiring less time, bu* 



ESTIMATES. 115 

not so accurate, are generally preferred, as their results 
ft give an approximation sufficiently near the true for most 
; practical purposes. They consist in taking a number of 
I equidistant profiles, and calculating the solid contents be- 
tween each pair, either by multiplying the half sum of 
their areas by the distance between them, or else by taking 
the profile at the middle point between each pair, and 
I multiplying its area by the same length as before. The 
I latter method is the more expeditious ; it gives less than 
' the true solid contents, but a nearer approximation than 
the former, which gives more than the true solid contents, 
whatever may be the form of the ground between each 
pair of cross profiles. 
In calculating the solid contents, allowance must be 
> made for the difference in bidk between the different kinds 
■ of earth when occupying their natural bed and when made 
h^ into embankment. From some careful experiments on 
this point made by Mr. Elwood Morris, published in the 
Journal of the Franklin Inatitutey it appears that light 
sandy earth occupies the same space both in excavation 
and embankment ; clayey earth about one-tenth less in 
embankment than in its natural bed ; gravelly earth about 
one-twelfth less; rock in large fragments about five- 
twelfths more, and in small fragments about six-tenths 
more. 

The calculation may often be simplified by considering 
the slopes apart from the trunk or main body of the cut- 
ting. For example, let Fig. 39 be the section of a cutting, 
A D being the natural surface of the ground ; then if b o is 
the width of the formation surface, b o f e will be the trunk 
or central portion of the cutting, and a e b, f o d, will be 
the side slopes. Now, the width of the first is constant, 
being the formation width, while its depth varies as the 
depth of the cutting ; and therefore its cubic content for a 
^given length forward is directly proportional to the depth 

r 



116 TAKING OUT QUANTITIES POE ESTIMATEa 

of the cutting. If, for instance, the line o h were the 
natural surface of the ground instead of a d, the cutting 
being now twice as deep as before, the cubic content of the 
trunk I B K would be twice as great as that of b b o v. 



er 






] 


• 


1 


* 


\ 


\ 


\ 

c 


/ ft. 








• * • 


\ 


4. 

\ 


E 


^ 


dt X 


• 


Kg 


9 

. 89.— Section of 


C 

a Cutting. 



But the cubic content of the slopes incTeases in the pro- 
portion of the square of the depth of the cutting, as is evi- 
dent from the figure, in which i b being twioe as great as 
E B, the volume of the slope a i b is four times as great as 
A E B, the triangles a, b, o, and d being evidently equal. 
In consequence of these two quantities varying in a differ- 
ent proportion, it is convenient to estimate them separately. 
In order to facilitate the calculation of earthwork, several 
tables have been published, the most complete and elabo- 
rate of which are those by Sir John Macneil. The following 
table, No. 6, will be found very useful in estimating the. 
content of cuttings or of embankments of moderate depth, 
and will give the result very nearly true, except in casasj 
in which the two ends of the cutting are of very dififereidl 
depths. The first, fourth, and seventh columns contain thf 
depth of the cutting or height of embankment, in feet, 
every tenth of afoot, from 0*1 to 25-2 feet; the second, 
and eighth columns express the content, in cubic yards, 
one foot in width, and one chain in length, of a portion 
the trunk or central part of a cutting, whose mean depth k 
shown in the preceding column. The quantities tak< 



ESTIMATES. 117 

firom these columns must be multiplied by the forma- 
tion width. The third, sixth, and ninth columns express 
the content in cubic yards of a length of one chain of both 
slopes, when the slopes are formed at 1 to 1. With any 
other ratio the quantities derived from, these colimms must 
be increased in the same proportion. Thus, if the slopes 
are 3 to 1, the quantity obtained from the table must be 
multiplied by 8« 



!lt 



t 



Table No. 6. — Contents op Cuttings ok op Embankments. 



1 


1 
Content for a 




Content for a 




Content for a 


• 


length of one chain. 


i 


length of one chain. 


i 


length of 4 


me chain. 




Mm 


1 


^i 


S 


M 


1 


4» 


?"s 


3 


4^ 


43 C 


3 




U 
h 


3 

S«4 


1 


si 




1 


si 


StS 


t 




la 

s« 


t 

iFeet 


Cnb. yds. 


Cnb. yds. 


Feet 


Cub. yds. 


Cub. yds. 


Feet. 


Cub. yds. 


Cub. yds. 


01 


•24 


•02 


4-3 


10-61 


46-20 


8-6 


20-78 


176.J8 


0-2 


•49 


•10 


4-4 


10-76 


47-32 


8-6 


2102 


180-8 


0-3 


•73 


•22 


46 


11-00 


4960 


8-7 


21-27 


186-0 


0-4 


•99 


•39 


4-6 


11-24 


61-72 


8^8 


21-60 


189-3 


0-6 


1-22 


•61 


4-7 


1149 


6410 


8-9 


21-76 


193-6 


0-6 


1-47 


•88 


4^8 


11-73 


66^42 


90 


2200 


198-0 


0-7 


1-71 


1-20 


49 


11^98 


68-79 


9-1 


22-24 


202-4 


0-8 


1-96 


1-66 


60 


1222 


61-11 


9-2 


22-49 


206-9 


0-9 


2-20 


1-98 


61 


12-47 


63-68 


9*3 


22-73 


211-4 


10 


2-44 


2-44 


6-2 


12-71 


66-10 


9-4 


22-98 


216-0 


11 


2-69 


2-96 


6-3 


12-96 


68-66 


9-6 


23-22 


220-6 


1-2 


2-93 


3^62 


6-4 


1320 


71-28 


9-6 


23-47 


226-3 


1-3 


318 


413 


6-6 


13-44 


73-94 


9-7 


23-71 


2300 


1-4 


3-42 


4-79 


6-6 


13-69 


76-66 


9-8 


23-96 


234*8 


1-6 


3-67 


6-60 


6-7 


13-93 


79-42 


9-9 


24-20 


239-6 


1-6 


3-91 


6-26 


6-8 


14-18 


82-23 


100 


24-44 


244-4 


1-7 


416 


7^06 


6-9 


14-42 


8609 


10-1 


24-69 


249-4 


1-8 


4-40 


7-92 


60 


14-67 


88-00 


10-2 


24-93 


264-8 


1-9 


4^64 


8-82 


61 


14-91 


90-96 


10-3 


26-18 


269-3 


20 


4-89 


9-78 


6-2 


16-16 


93-96 


10-4 


26-42 


264-4 


21 


613 


10-78 


6-3 


16-40 


97-02 


10-6 


26-67 


269-6 


2-2 


5-38 


11-83 


6-4 


15-64 


1001 


10-6 


26-91 


274-6 


2-3 


6-62 


12-93 


6-6 


16-89 


103-3 


10-7 


26- 16 


279-9 


2-4 


6-87 


1408 


6-6 


16-13 


106-6 


10-8 


26-40 


286-1 


2-5 


611 


16-28 


6-7 


16-38 


109-7 


10-9 


26-64 


290-4 


2-6 


6-36 


16-52 


6-8 


16-62 


1130 


110 


26-89 


296-8 


2-7 


6-60 


17-82 


6-9 


16-87 


116-4 


11-1 


2713 


301-2 


2-8 


6-84 


1916 


7-0 


17-11 


119-8 


11-2 


27-38 


306-6 


2-9 


7 09 


20-56 


7-1 


17-36 


123-2 


11-3 


27*62 


312-1 


30 


7-33 


2200 


72 


17-60 


120-7 


11-4 


27-87 


317-7 


31 


7-58 


23-49 


7-3 


17-84 


130-3 


11-6 


2811 


323-S 


3-2 


7-82 


25-03 


7-4 


18-09 


]33-8 


11-6 


28-36 


328-9 


3-3 


8-07 


26-62 


7-5 


18-33 


137-6 


11-7 


28-60 


334-6 


3-4 


8-31 


28-26 


7-6 


18 58 


141-2 


11-8 


28-84 


340-4 


3-6 


8-56 


29-94 


7-7 


18-82 


144-9 


11-9 


29-09 


346-2 


3-6 


8-80 


31-68 


7-8 


1907 


148-7 


12-0 


29-33 


362-0 


3-7 


904 


33-46 


7-9 


19-30 


152-6 


12-1 


29-88 


367-9 


3-8 


9-29 


36-30 


8-0 


19-56 


166-4 


12-2 


29-82 


363-8 


3-9 


9-63 


37-18 


81 


19 80 


160-4 


12-3 


3007 


369-8 


4-0 


9-78 


39-11 


8-2 


20-04 


164-4 


12-4 


30-31 


376-9 


4-1 


1002 


41-09 


83 


20-29 


168-4 


12-6 


30-66 


381-9 


4-2 


10-27 


43-12 


8-4 


20-63 


172-6 


12-6 


30-80 


388-1 







□onlcDtforalMBth 




CkBftntf 


ralpngtl. 




Contcntft 


ralength 


^ 


1 




liain. 


1 


of one 




! 

s 




oL™. 


la 


P 


1 

1- 


11 


1 
ii 


i 


1 

1" 




1 


51 




1 


II 


k 

ht 


1 


If 


5a 




FMt. 


Cub. yds. 


r^ub.yda- 


F«t. 


CBt.rdB, 


Cnb.Tds 


F»t. 


Cub.ydi. 


Cdb.rdi, 




127 








41-31 


698-2 










12-8 




400-5 


17-0 


41-66 


706-4 




61-82 






12-9 


31 '6^ 


406-8 


17-1 


41-80 


714-8 


21-3 


62-07 


1109 




13-0 


31-78 


413-1 


17-2 


42-04 


723'2 


21-4 


62-31 


1119 




13-1 


32'02 


419-5 


17-3 


42-29 


731-6 


21-5 


62-66 


1130 




13-2 


32-27 


426-9 


17-4 


42-63 


740-1 


21-6 


62-80 


1140 




13-3 


32-61 


432-4 


17-5 


42-78 


748-6 


21-7 


53-04 


1161 




13-4 


32-76 


438-9 


17-6 


43-02 


767-2 


21-8 


63-29 


1162 




136 


33-00 


445-6 


17-7 


43-27 


765-8 


21-9 


63-53 


1172 




13-6 


3324 


452-1 


17-8 


43-61 


774-5 


22-0 


63-78 


1183 




13-7 


33-49 


458-8 


17-9 


43-76 


783-2 


22-1 


64-02 


1194 






33-73 


465-6 


18-0 


45-00 


792-0 


22-2 


64-27 


1205 




13-9 


33-98 


472-3 






800-8 




54-51 


1216 




l*-0 


34-22 


479-1 


18-2 


44-49 


800-7 


22-4 


54-76 


1-227 




141 


34-47 


486-0 


18-3 


44-73 


818-6 


22-6 


66-00 


1238 


7 


14-2 


34-71 


492-9 


18-4 


44-9B 


827-6 


22-6 


65-24 


1249 


14-3 


34-96 


499-9 


18-6 


45-22 


836-8 


22-7 


S5-49 


1260 




14-1 


35-20 


606-9 


18-6 


46-47 


846-7 


22-8 


56-73 


1271 




14-5 


35-44 


613-9 


18-7 


45-71 


864-8 


22-9 


66-98 


1282 




14-6 


36-69 


321-1 


18-B 


45-96 


861-0 


23-0 


56-22 


1293 




14-7 


35-93 


628-2 


18-9 


46-20 


873-2 


231 


66-47 


1306 




14-8 


36-18 


635-4 


19-0 


46 44 


882-4 


23-2 


56-71 






149 


36-42 


642-7 


19-1 


46-69 




23-3 


56-96 


1327 




160 


36-67 


660-0 


13-2 




901-1 


23-4 


67-20 


1339 




16-1 


36-91 


6S7-4 


19-3 


47-18 


9i0-fi 


23-5 


67-44 


1360 




16-2 


37-16 


5G4-8 




47-42 


920-0 


23-8 


67-69 


1362 




13-3 


37-40 


572-2 


19-6 


47-67 


929-6 


23-7 


57-93 


1373 




lfi-4 


37-64 


679-7 


19 G 


47-91 


039 1 


t3'8 


68-18 


1385 




IfiS 


37-89 


687-3 


19-7 


4816 


948-7 


23-9 


58-42 


1397 




16-6 


38-13 


504-9 


19-8 


48-40 


958-3 


21-0 


58-67 


1408 




15-7 


38-38 


602-6 


19-9 


48-64 


9680 


24-1 


68-91 


1420 




15-8 


38-62 


SlO-2 


20-0 


48-89 


977-8 


24-2 


69-16 


1432 




16-9 


38-87 


618-0 


20-1 


4913 


987-6 


24-3 


6940 


1443 




16'0 


39-11 


625-8 


20-2 


49-38 


997-4 


24-4 


69-64 


1466 




16'1 


39-36 




20-3 


49-62 


1007 


24-6 


69-89 


1467 




ie'2 


39-80 


641-6 


20 4 


49-87 


1017 




60-13 


1479 




16-3 


39-84 


649-5 


20-6 




1027 




60-38 


not 




16-4 


40-09 


657-3 




50-30 


1037 


24-8 


6062 


1503 




16-4 


40-33 


666-3 


20-7 


50-60 


1047 


24-9 


6087 


1616 




lB-6 


40-68 


673-6 


20-8 


60-84 


105S 


26-0 


61-11 


1627 




16-7 


4082 


681-7 


20-9 


61-09 


1068 


25-1 


61-36 


1640 


^ 


168 


4107 


689-9 


21-0 


61-33 


1078 


26-2 


61-60 


1662! 



120 TAKING OUT QCAHTniES FOK EB1IHATE8. 

Ajb an example of the use of this table, we may estii 
the quantities in the cutting and embaakmeiit ehowi 
the working section, !Fig. 20, page 39. In the fblloi 
table, the firet column contains the number of the peg 
second the depth of cutting or height of embankment, 
third the cubic content of the corresponding portion of 
trunk, and the fourth oolomn the content of the alopes 







I. 










1 

■3 


li 


TnB*. 


Slope*. 


i 




H 






1 


•0 


■37 


■11 


s 




e 


1.47 


■SS 






s 


220 


i-aa 






a 




3-52 




1 


fl 


3'91 


6'2G 




I 


fl 


1-64 


8-82 




2 






9-ra 




1 


9 


4 04 
4-64 


882 




i 
2 


2 


fi'13 
5'3B 


10-73 
1183 




2 




6-B7 


14-08 




2 


3 


6'fi2 


1203 




2 


3 


6'62 






; 


5 


fill 


15-28 








e-13 


1U-7S 






3 


5G2 


12-93 


19 


2 

2 


5 
2 


e-ii 

fi-33 


11-83 


20 




6 


B'91 


0-26 


21 


■8 


I'DG 


1-66 


91'fi3 


185-46 




40 






3661.20 






135-46 






3846'66 


Dub. .vdi. 











■s 


II 


Trunk. 


Bloi 










9.2 


-fi 


1-47 


., 


as 


2-2 


6-33 


Ill 






8-56 


?«■' 


■?« 






31- 


in 


vn 




Hfi'. 




9-fi 


6-36 


W: 


VH 


!■« 


3-18 


4 


29 


-3 


■73 




44-75 


137- 




40 






irao'oo 






137'93 






68-98 






1696-80 


cub. 



ESTIMATES. 121 

^ It will be remarked that, at peg I, where the cutting 
^has no depth, we have yet inserted quantities in the third 
and fourth columns. The manner in which these were 
derived is as follows. Although at the peg itself there is 
no cutting, at the next peg the depth is 0*6, and therefore 
the mean depth is 0*3, which, in the table, gives 0*73 and 
0*22. As, however, we have here only half a chain (as it 
is the commencement of the section), we insert half these 
quantities, or 0*37 and 0*11. The sum of all the separate 
portions of the trunk, being obtained by addition, is then 
multiplied by 40, the width of the formation, to which the 
sum of the slopes being added, gives 3846*66 cubic yards 
as the content of the cutting. In the case of the embank- 
ment, the slopes being 1^ to 1, we add one and a A^^ times 
the sum of the slopes, and thus obtain 1996*89 cubic yards 
i as its content. By reference to the working section, Fig. 20, 
i^ it will be seen that the quantities there given agree with 
^ the above 



f^ 



PART n. 

EECENT PEACTICE IN THE CONSTEUO 
TION OF EOADS AND STREETS. 

BY D. E. CLABKy O.S. 



CHAPTEE I. 

MATERIALS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTEUCTION OP 

ROADS AND STEEETS. 

For cmriage'toays : Stones, — ^The hardest and toughest kind 
of stones are those which are employed in the constructia 
of paved and macadamised carriage-ways. First in geolc 
gical order, as well as in the order of usefulness, is granit( 
Granite is an imstratified or igneous rock, generall 
found inferior to or associated with the oldest of tli 
unstratified rocks, and sometimes penetrating them in tl 
form of dykes and veins. It is a crystalline compound < 
three simple minerals — felspar, silica or quartz, an 
mica ; in which the proportion of silica varies from 65 1 
80 per cent. Oxanite derives its name from its coam 
granular structure — -granumy Latin for grain. The sili 
generally occurs in an amorphous condition, enclosing a] 
cementing together the felspar and the mica in the st^ 
of crystals. Some granites are ternary compounds ; othe 
are quaternary, or even quinary compounds, consisting 
silica, two varieties of felspar, or two varieties of mi 



MATERIALS EMPLOYED. 123 

Two felspars are present in some of the granites of Oal- 

'Vay, Donegal, and Aberdeenshire. Two micas occur in 

the Wicklow granite, imparting black and grey hues. 

Instead of mica, another substance, hornblende, is found 

in some granites. Such granites, of which the component 

parts are quartz, felspar, and hornblende, are distinguished 

; as tyenite, or syenitic granites ; so called, because it was 

first found in the island of Syene, in Egypt. 

' Of the constituents of granite, quarh, glassy in appear- 

' ance, is a compound of the metallic base silicium and 

•oxygen ; felfpar, opaque, is of a yellowish or a pink colour, 

^ oomposed of silidous and aluminous matter, with a small 

proportion of lime and potash ; mica consists principally of 

day and flint, with a little magnesia and oxide of iron ; 

knihlende is a dark green crystalline substance, composed 

of flint, alumina, magnesia, with a considerable proper- 

lotion of black oxide of iron. 

/ The granite districts of the United Kingdom, whence 
^most of the material for road-making is obtained, are in 
[DoFon, Cornwall, the Channel Islands of Guernsey and 
Herm; Mount Sorrel, in Leicestershire; Clee Hills, in 
Sm>p8hire ; Fort-Nant and Fortmadoc, in North Wales ; 
Aberdeen, in Scotland; and Newry, in Ireland. The 
9enitic granites of Guernsey, Herm, Mount Sorrel, and 
Korth Wales, are celebrated for their hardness and dura- 
jfaQity. The granite of Devon and Cornwall is of several 
varieties, and it has a prevailing greyish hue. Aberdeen 
ite is of a bluish-grey tint; so also is the Newry 
ite. Mount Sorrel granite is of a rich pink colour. 
Granites vary much in hardness and resistance to 
force. In some places, by the decomposition of 
felspar or the mica, they are sufficiently soft to admit 
their being dug out with a spade. The specific gravity 
granite varies from 2*60 to 3*00, and the volimie of 
ton is from. 12 to 14 cubic feet. Conversely, the weight 

o2 



124 MATERIALS UBED IN RECENT OONSTBUCTION 

of a cubic yard of solid granite varies from 1*93 
tons, averag^gy say, 2 tons ; whilst the average we 
% solid cubic foot is 1^ cwt. Granite is capable of e 
ing, on an average, a gallon, or 10 lbs., of wat 
cubic yard, or 1 -450th of its weight of water. 

Mr. Mallet found that the maximum resistance of 
cubes of various granites to crushing force, range< 
1 to 6 tons. The annexed table. No. 7, gives the 
of experiments to determine the resistance of granit 



Tablb No. 7.— Crushing Bbbibtamcb op Granites. 



Looality of Stone. 


Sui&oe ex- 
posed to 


PresBure per squ 








preesuxe. 


To fracture. 


T« 


[ 


Sgaarein. 


Square in. 


Sq 


Herm .... 


16 


4.77 




Aberdeen (Blue) • 


17J 


413 




Heytor .... 


16 


394 




Dartmoor . • • 


16 


3-62 




Peterhead (Red) 
Peterhead (Bluish grey) 


18 


2-88 




18 


2-86 




Penrhyn 


16 


2-68 




Killiney (Grey felspathic) 


9 


— 




Bally knocken (Coarse grey) 
Ballybeg, Carlow (Grey fels- 


9 


— 










pathic) 


9 


^^ 





Some results of experiments made by Sir '^ 
Ffidrbairnf on the crushing strength of building stc 
added; in Table No. 8. The specimens were, for t 
part, 2-inch cubes :— 



* The data for this table are derived from Sir John Bi 
'^Rudimentary Treatise on Blasting and Quarrying/' 1862, 
except for the last three stones, for which the data are borro 
Professor Hull. 

t "Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
Chester/' 1857 ; vol. xiv. page 31. 



STONES. 



125 



^- "JLBLR No. 8. — CbUSHINO STRENGTH AND ABSORBENT PoWER OF 

•^•. Various Stones. 

(Deduced from Sir W. Fairbaim's data.) 













Weight 










Crushing 


of water 






Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 


resist- 


absorbed 


StOII6. 


Locality of Quarry. 


feet in 


anoeper 


after 48 






one ton. 


square 


hours' 










mob. 


immer^ 
sion. 








Cub. fL 


Tons. 


1 part in 


Porphyry . 


France .... 


— 


— 


1804 


— 


GreywH<i6 . 
Do. 


Penmaenmaur . 


2-75 


13-04 


7-54 


1641 


Ingleton . . . 


2-79 


1287 


— 


1963 


Gianite . . 


Aberdeen . . . 


— 


— 


516 


— • 


Do. 


Mount Sorrel . . 


2-67 


13*45 


5-74 


490 


Do. 


Bonaw, Inverary 


— . 


— 


4-87 


— . 


Sandstone . 


Yorkshire . • • 


2-41 


14-85 


4-38 


47-5 


Do. 


Buncom . . 


— 


— 


•98 


— 


Limestone . 


— 


— 


-^ 


8-80 


—— 


Do.Magnesian 


Auston, Worksop 


— 


— 


2-26 


— 


Brick, hard . 


— 


— 


— 


•84 




Do. red . 


^^ 




"~~" 


•36 


"^■^^ 



The Trap Rocks are a large group of igneous rocks allied 
to granite, composed of felspar, augite, and hornblende. 
The various proportions and states of aggregation of these 
simple minerals, and their differences in external forms, 
give rise to varieties known as Basalt, Dolorite, Ghreen- 
stone, Whinstone, Greywack6, and others. The term trap 
is derived from trappa, a Swedish word for stair, because 
the rocks of this class sometimes occur in large tabular 
masses, rising one above another like steps. Basalt is one 
of the most common varieties ; it is a dark green or bleu^k 
stone, composed of augite and felspar, very compact in 
texture, of considerable hardness. It often contains iron ; 
whence the name hasaltf an Ethiopian word for iron. 
Dolorite is likewise composed of augite and felspar. Green- 
stone is composed of hornblende, which is dark green, and 
felspar. GreywackS is a very hard rock, as heavy as 
granite, and much harder. The rock is very often of a 
*^^ey colour; whence the name. JTaeki is a provincial 
miner's term in Germany. 



1-^6 MATERIALS USED IV RECENT CONSTRUCTIOK. 



The principal uses of the trap rocks are for paving and 
macadamising. The most important quarries are those 
of Barden Hill, in Leicestershire, and of Fenmaenmaur, in 
North Wales. The greywack6 of Fenmaenmaur is manu- 
factured into squared sets, which are sent by ship and 
by rail in enormous quantities to Manchester, Liverpool, 
and other large towns in the north of England and in Scot- 
land, and to Lreland. 

Comparative Wear of Stones. — ^Mr. Walker tested the com- 
parative durability of various granites and one whinstone. 
In his first experiments, he submitted square specimens of 
Guernsey, Aberdeen, and Peterhead granites, having equal 
weights and rubbing surfaces, to fictional motion on a 
large block of stone, with sand and water between them. 
The Guernsey granite showed the smallest amount of wear. 

He made further tests for the durability of granites and 
whinstone, under working conditions, by laying down, in 
1830, two parallel lines of rectangular tram-stones, 18 
inches wide and 12 inches deep, in the gateway of thQ 
Limehouse turnpike, so as to be exposed to all the heavy 
traffic from the East and West Lidia Docks. The experi« 
mental stones were all new. After an exposure of 17 
months to the wear and tear of the traffic, the stones were 
taken up, and the loss by wear was found to be in order 

as follows : — 

Table No. 9.— Belatiye Wbab of Granitbs, btq. 

(Mb. Walkbb.) 



Name of Stone. 



Guernsey granite • 
Herm granite . • 

Badle whinstone 
Peterhead blue granite 
Heytor granite 
Aberdeen red granite . 
Dartmoor granite 
Aberdeen blue granite 





Loss of 




1 


Super* 
fidalarea. 


weight per 
aq.foot. 


Tertieal wear. 


Sq. foot. 


pounds. 


inch. 


relative. 


4-73 


•96 


•060 


1^000 


5-25 


105 


•076 


1^190 


6*34 


1-22 


•082 


1^316 


3-48 


1-80 


•131 


^•080 


4-31 


1-92 


, -141 


2^238 


6-38 


2-14 


•169 


2^524 


4-60 


2-78 


•207 


3-286 


4-82 


306 


•226 


3-671 



STONES. 127 

From the table, it is apparent that Guernsey granite is 
'' many times tougher and more durable than Aberdeen 
granite. Mr. Walker made a still further test of the relative 
wear of these two stones on old Blackfriars Bridge, which 
was paved, in 1840, with these granites, in sets 3 inches 
wide by 9 inches deep, on a bed of concrete 12 inches thick. 
When the pavement had been down 13 years, it was found 
that the Aberdeen stone was worn down to the extent of 
li inch of vertical wear, whilst the Guernsey stone had 
only worn down J inch — showing that the Ghiemsey had 
worn only one-sixth as much as the Aberdeen granite.^ 

The durability of the Welsh stones — ^the greywack6 of 
Penmaenmaur, and the syenites of Portmadoc, &c,, is 
almost beyond estimation. Affcer 20 years of work in the 
streets of Manchester, Penmaenmaur stones, the resistance 
I of which to crushing is considerably greater than that of 
*" granite, have suffered little more wear than a rounding of 
the upper surface. But the blue variety is extremely 
slippery, and it makes a dangerous pavement. The 
grey variety, the Irish, the syenitic, and the blue Aberdeen 
granites retain rough -wearing surfEtces; but, in con- 
sequence of their roughness, they are not so durable as 
the Guernsey and the Penmaenmaur stones. The rough- 
wearing sets are excellent stones, and they are specially 
suitable for the paving of streets on steep inclines. 

For macadam, the hardest stones — as Guernsey granite, 
and Penmaenmaur greyw€U}k6 — are the most suitable. 
Their slippery qualities are of no moment in macadam, 
whilst their hardness and toughness are valuable qualities. 

In India, the stones used for macadam are granite, trap, 
and the hard limestones and sandstones. Laterite, which is 
a hard sandstone, is very much used on the Madras roads 
but it is comparatively soft, and does not bear much traffic. 

« Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1853-54 , voL 
«f i ziii page 237. 



128 BiATERIAUB USED IN REGENT GONSTRUCTION. 

Kunkur is the material chiefly used in Hindostan : it 
peculiar fonnation of oolitic limestone, found general! 
nodules, sometimes in masses a little below the surf a< 
the earth. It makes aa excellent road, but it reqi 
constant repair if the traffic is heavy. 

Ibr Footpatht, — ^The flagstones usually employed for : 
paths are of sandstone. The Old Bed Sandstone of { 
land produces the well-known sandstones and flag 
Arbroath and Dundee, which are largely used in Glas^ 
Edinburgh, London, and other large towns. The Arbr 
pavement is of a light greenish, grey colour, and of d 
structure; it resists the weather successfdUy. The j 
stones of Caithness, Oromariy, and Nairn are also usee 
paying. The carboniferous sandstones are largely 
for paying in the north of England and in Scotland ; 
are generally hard and durable, of yellowish ot gre 
tints, and of various degrees of coarseness. They 
derived from the millstone-grit and the coal measi 
Excellent flagstones, which are sent to all parts of 1 
land, are obtained from the lower part of the coal 
mation in Cheshire, near Macclesfleld; Lancashire, 
Wigan, Burnley, and St. Helen's ; and from Ellanc 
Yorkshire. The sandstones of the coal measures — ^fo: 
stance, those of Heddon and Kenton, near Newcastle- 
Beldom durable, and they generally become iron-sta 
on exposure, owing to their containing considerable q 
titles of iron and alumina.* 

The following particulEtrs of the composition of s 
stones are derived from the Commissioners' Eepoi 
1839:— 



• See "Quarries and Building Stones," by Professor Hull; ** B 
Manufacturing Industries." 



STONES. 



129 



Tablb No. 10. — Composition, Specific Gravity, and Stbength 

OF Sandstones. 





Cxaigleith. 


Darley 
Dale. 


Heddon. 


Kenton. 


Mansfield. 

1 


Compodtian. 
Silica 

Carbonate of lime . 
Carbonate of mag- 
nesia 
Iron, alumina 
Water and loss 


percent. 
98-3 
I'l 

0-0 
0-6 
0-0 


percent. 
96-4 
0-3 

0-0 
1-3 
1-9 


percent. 
96-1 
0-8 

0-0 
2-3 
1-8 


percent. 
93-1 
2*0 

0*0 
4-4 
0-5 


percent. 
49-4 
26-6 

16-1 
3-2 
4-8 


100*0 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 


100-0 


Snoino Gbavxvibs. 
Of dry masses 
Of partides 


2-232 
2-646 


2-628 
2-993 


2*229 
2*643 


2-247 
2-625 


2-338 
2-766 


COHSSiyB POWBBB. 

In tons per square 
inch 


8*52 


3-17 


1*78 


2*22 


2-28 



A few particulars of sandstones are given in Table 
No. 8, page 125. 

All sandstones are porous, and they absorb water. The 
Yorkshire sandstones are capable of absorbing 1 part by 
weight of water in 48 parts of stone. Sandstone flags are 
in this respect objectionable, for they retain wet impurities, 
and remain damp some time after rain. 

An instructiye test of the comparative durability of 
various kinds of flagstones was conducted in Liverpool, by 
Mr. Newlands, in 1856. The stones were found to range, 
in the order of durability, as follows ? — 

Ealrush (Irish), most durable, 
Caithness, 
Knowsley, 
Port Bheuddin, 
Llangollen, 

Yorkshire, least durable. 

o3 



130 MATEBIALS USED IN EECENT OONSTRUCnOV. 

Of these, Port Sheuddm stone, one of the softest, had tli 
best appearance. Nexttothiswas the Caithness Btone. Th 
Kilrush flags had a rough or wrinkled surface ; but in th 
course of time they wore smooth, and their appearance wa 
good. The Uangollen-slate flag looked well, but it wa 
not durable. Caithness flags were extensively substitutei 
for Yorkshire paving ; Welsh and Irish flags were alai 
laid to a considerable ext^it. 

In substituting granite curbstones for sandstone cwibti 
Mr. Newlands formed the wearing surface of the nei 
curbs to the section produced by abrasion upon the soM 
stone : — thus presenting a larger wearing surface to thfl 
strokes of heavy wheels, and minimising tiie superficial 
lateral wear. 

AsphaUe, — ^Asphalte, the mineral, is a bituminous lime- 
stone, or pure carbonate of lime naturally impregnated 
with bitumen. At the same time, asphalte is, in a scientific 
sense, synonymous with bitumen. 

Bituminous limestone, or asphalte, is a rodk coaisisting 
of from 90 to 94 per cent, of carbonate of Hme, and frwa 
6 to 10 per cent, of bitumen. The rock is of a liver-browfli 
or deep chocolate colour ; it takes an irregular fracturei 
with definite cleavage, and the texture and the grain var] 
with the layers. The specific gravity is from 2*20 to 2*80 
Exposed to the atmosphere, asphalte gradually assumes ^ 
light grey tint, caused by the evaporation of bitumen froU 
the surface. 

The asphalte used for the construction of earriage-waj3 
pavements, is brought chiefly from the Val de Traveri 
a few miles from the town of Neuchatel, in Switzerland! 
Limmer asphalte is brought from a mine situated ai 
Limmer, near the city of Hauover, and from another min< 
at Vorwohle, near Alfeld, in Brunswick. The Seysse 
asphalte is obtained from mines at P^rimont and Gardi 
Bois, at Seyssel, in Frano^ 



ASPHALTE. — ^WOOD. 131 

AsplialtG, as excavated, must be pulverised before being 
*' used, by decrepitation at a temperature of from 212° to 
300° Fahr., or by mechanical means. It is applied in two 
modes for the formation of pavements : — 1st, as compressed 
asphalte, which is obtained by heating the powder to from 
212° to 250'' Fahr., and causing the particles to cohere by 
the application of pressure. 2nd, as liquid asphalte, or 
asphaltie mastie, for which a manufacturing process is neces- 
sary. The powder is heated with from 5 to 8 per cent, of 
free bitumen; the bitumen acts as a flux, the mixture 
melts, and is run into moulds for use, forming cheeses 
12 inches in diameter and 4 inches thick. like rock 
asphalte, mastic, heated alone, does not melt ; it only be- 
comes soft. To be re-melted, a fresh quantity of bitumen 
must be added. For paving, a large proportion of sand or 
small gravel is mixed with it, even to the extent of 60 per 
cent. No chemical union takes place between the mastic 
and the sand, but the cohesion is so complete that the 
fracture of sanded mastic shows the simultaneous fracture 
of the grit ; and the power of resistance to the heat of the 
sun is increased by the admixture* 

The Val de Travers and the Seysell rocks are the only 
two natural asphaltes used in laying compressed-asphalte 
roadways. The former has not quite so close a grain as 
the latter, and it is softer, and is more, regularly impreg- 
nated with bitumen. 

Artificial Asphalte. — ^By mixing heated limestone and 
gas-tar, a material possessing some of the properties of 
asphaltie mastic has been obtained. But gas-tar is a very 
inferior form of bitumen for paving purposes : it passe& 
from the dry to the liquid state, and conversely, according 
to the season, and it is brittle. 

Wood. — ^Both soft and hard woods are employed for 

paving : closed-grained wood of the pine family, as Cana- 

Cidian and Baltic yellow pines; and hard woodSy as oak. 



132 Materials ttsed in recent construction. 



elm, ashy and beech. Sprace and white deals are not tg 
suitable for paving purposes. The following Table 
No. lly shows the average crushing resistance of cubes 
timber, of from 1 inch to 4 inches, lineal dimension, 
the direction of the fibre :-^ 

Tablb No. 11. — GKirsHnro Resibtakcb of Tdcbbb. 
OubeSy 1 inch ; 2 inch ; 3 inch ; and 4 inch. 





CnxBhing 


KameofTimlMr. 


redstanoe 




periq. inch. 




tons. 


English oak, unseasoned 


219 


Do. seasoned 




3*34 


Dantzic oak . . « 




8-34 


American white oak . . 




2-71 


Moulmein teak 




2*56 


Iron wood . . . 




6-21 


Greenheart . . « 




6*44 


Honduraif mahogany 




2-86 


English elm . • , 




2.58 


Canadian elm • . 




2-46 


Dantzic fir . 




3-10 


Eiga fir . • 




2*34 


Spruce fir . • 




217 


Larch . • . 




2-60 


Bed pine . • 




2-64 


Yellow pine . 




1-88 


Pitch pine 




2-88 



Mr. D. T. Hope,t in 1844, recorded the results of expe: 
ments made by him on the comparative wear and endt 
ance of wood-paving, laid in the same line of carriage- wb 
resting on the same concrete foundation,^ and exposed 
the same kind and amount of traffic. The blocks of wo 
were constructed with the fibre placed vertically, plac 
horizontally, and also placed at various inclinations to t 

* Derived from " A Manual of Rules, Tables, and Data," by D. 
Clark, 1877, page 541. 

t "Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts," 18 
page 231. 



WOOD. 133 

vertical. Continuous observations were made for a period 
of 18 months. It was found that the wear or reduction of 
height of the wood blocks was greater during the first 
three months than during the following quarters. The 
more rapid wear at the commencement of the trial was 
ascribed by Mr. Hope to initial compression of the 
fibres : the blocks with vertical fibres presented a more 
compact surface than when they were originaUy laid, and 
the surface was so impregnated with sand that it had more of 
the appearance of sand than of wood. The following shows 
the total amount of wear at the end of 18 months : — 







Wear at the end of 18 months. 


Wood, vertical fibre 


• • 


•125 inch, 


or i inch 


„ fibre inclined at 75* 


•147 


»> 


A i> bare 


n ft 


60 


•182 


»» 


16 »> »l 


f» 99 


45 


•241 


ft 


i n »t 


>» » 


30 


•312 


)> 


tV »9 99 


»t 9t 


16 


•379 


»> 


i » Ml 


99 »> 


horizonlial 


•480 


)> 


jt „ bare 



It is clear that the resistance of the wood was most 
effective when the fibres were in a vertical position, and 
least effective when they were horizontal. The horizontal 
fibres presented, when worn, the appearance of heaps of 
broken strings. It is evident, farther, that the more 
nearly the fibres were presented in an upright position, 
the less was the wear, and, of course, the greater was the 
durability. 



CHAPTEE n. 

CONSTEUCTION OP MODERN MACADAM ROADS. 

In addition to the detailed accoimt of the construction < 
roads, given by Mr. Law, in the first part of this work, 
few words may be added as to the usual modes of constriu 
tion now adopted. The levels, gauges, plimmiet-rulei 
and prong-shovels, formerly employed in the setting on 
and construction of roads, described at pages 84 to 88 
are not now used. '' Boning rods " are used for fixini 
the inclination of the surface, longitudinally and tran* 
versely, by the eye. 

Mrst-elass Metropolitan Boads, — When the ground hasbeei 
excavated and levelled, it should be rpUed, when it consisi 
of day. A bottoming, or bed, 12 inches thick, of '* hard 
core,'* is laid on the ground; it may consist of brick 
rubbish, clinker, old broken concrete, broken stone o 
shivers, or any other hard material, in pieces. The bei 
should be rolled down to a thickness of 9 inches, and ap] 
loose or hollow places made up to the level. 

Next comes a layer of Thames ballast, 5 inches thidc 
rolled solidly to a thickness of 3 inches. The ballafl 
serves to fill up the vacancies in the bottoming, and, beix^ 
less costly, saves so much of the cost for broken granite. 

Broken granite, or macadam, is laid upon the prepare! 
surface of the ballast, in two successive layers, 3 inch€ 
thick, rolled successively, to a combined thickness c 
4 inches ; a layer of sharp sand, ^ inch or J inch thic 
should be scattered over the second layer, and rolled int 



METROPOLITAN ROADS. 135 

it with plenty of water. But it is better to add the sand 
^ and the water as the second layer of granite is laid, and 
to roll them well together. 

Broken Guernsey granite, which is hard and enduring, 
is the best material for the coating ; Aberdeen granite is 
softer, and is not so good for the purpose. Flints are, in 
some instances, laid instead of granite; but they are 
worst of all for the coat, for they are brittle, and are soon 
reduced, by the traffic, to small fragments. 

In transverse section, the contour of the road is a 
segment of a circle. Indeed, all roads and streets are, 
or should be, circular in section. The general practice is, 
in this respect, at variance with the practice recommended 
by Mr. Law, page 75, where he recommends that the 
section of the surface should be formed of two inclined 
. straight Hues, joined by a flat curve at the middle, form- 
ing a species of ridgo. The advantage of the circular 
section consists in the fulness given to the '' shoulders '' 
of the road, which lie in the lines of the traffic on each 
side of the centre line of the road, and thus present a full 
surface for wear. 

Seeand-elasa Metropolitan Moods are usually constructed 
of a hard core of brick rubbish, or other material, about- 
9 inches thick, and a layer of broken granite, or of flints, 
about four inches thick. The material is not, in general, 
submitted to rolling, except by the action of the traffic. 

Country Hoods. — ^The regular width of country roads is 
18 feet; but some of them are only 10 feet wide, and 
others may be more than 18 feet. The bottom is excavated 
with a flat floor, not being rounded to the contour of the 
surface. The bottom layer, or hard core, consists of any 
hard and dry rubbish: — ^broken bricks, lumps of chalk, 
or hard flints. The material most usually employed con- 
sists of flint-stones, which are got out of the fields. The 
C' largest stones, which may be as much as 6 or 8 inches 



136 



MODBRM UACADAH ROADS. 



ftcrosa, are laid at the bottom. Chalk flints answer best 
for the bottoming. They are rough, and they bind 
firmly together, and are open, affording &ee space for 
drain^e. I£ the bottom is of solid material, as chalk or 
rock-stuff, the bed is laid in to a thickness of 12 incheB. 
If it be soft, as of clay or of sand, it is made up to a 
thickness of 18 inches. 

The finishing layer, or coating, consiHts of flints of a 
smaller size ; they are broken up, if necessary, to the 
usual size of macadam, and are laid 6 inches thick. No 
binding of any kind ifi employed, nor is it the practice to 
roll the road^. 




The rise of a road, at the middle, is 3 inches for a width 
of 18 feet. The rule for the rise is to allov 1 inch for 
every 6 feet of width : — giving a slope of 1 in 36, which is 
sufficient for running off rain-water, and leaving the roads 
dry. For roads 10 feet wide, a greater degroe of rise is 
given, where ditches cannot be got in. Openings are 
made through the fences at each side to let off surface- 
water into the adjoining fields. Mr. J. G. Crosbie Dawson 
states that he has made many gravel roads, &om 12 to_ 



COCNTKY BOADS. 



137 



!)^' 18 inclLea thick, at a cost of tram 2b. 6d. to 3b. 6d. per 

•rj. square yard. 

^ Tke g;eneral conformation of a countiy road, vith 
hedges, and with an open ditch at one or both sides, for 
collecting Buifaoe and drainage vater, is shown by Fig. 40. 
Side ditches are a frequent cause of oTertums and other 
aooidents. The improred country road, proposed by the 
Committat ofth« Society of ArU,* is represented by Fig. 41, 




Fis. II.— PropoaaS Coimtry BiMd, ' 



in which the side drains are suppressed, and replaced by 
covered drains, vhich act also as subsoil land-drains. 
Wheel-tracks of asphalte, horse-tracks of concrete, and a 
foot-path of asphalts are also proposed. 



i the Societf of Arts <m Trariim m 



CHAPTEE m. 

MACADAMIZED BOADS.— WEAK- 

It was maintamed by Macadam (see page 90) 
for ease of draft, a yielding, elastic road waa prefen 
to a road constructed according to the prescriptioi; 
Mr. Telford, on a rigid or paved foundation. The 
tinction rests entirely upon the precise signification attac 
to the word ^' elastic." K the elasticity be perfect^ 
that of an indiarubber wheel -tire, where the reac 
or uplifting force is exactly equal to the resistanc 
depression under a load, it may be logically mainta 
that the elastic road is better for draft. But this oondi 
is impossible in practice ; and Mr. Provis exactly dei 
an elastic road as ** that which will give way by prese 
and rise again to its original position when the pressu 
removed " — tacitly assuming that time is consumed in 
reaction, after the pressure is removed. Moreover, at 
John Macneil justly observed, ** where there is a yiel 
and elasticity in the road, there must be motion amon{ 
particles with which the road is formed, and this m( 
produces wear." * And, again: *'K the road be wei 
elastic, and bend or yield under the pressure of the wl 
the particles of which it is composed will move and 
against each other, or perhaps break by the aotu 
heavy wheels over them." \ Herein lies the gist o 

* "Roads," by Sir Henry Pamell, page 412. 
t Report of the Sele Committee on Steam Caxriagee, 
page 97. 



WEAR. 139 

^ argument against the admission of any perceptible range 
f of elastic action ; and Sir John Macneil touched the essen- 
tial element of legitimate elastic action, when he located it 
'^ on the surface and at the point of contact." This is pre- 
cisely the mode of elastic action of a wood-pavement : — a 
material which, with its vertical fibre, acts as a coat of 
velvet might be supposed to do, simply to absorb and 
neutralise minute vibration ; and it is the only kind of 
action that is admissible in the work of a road. Sir John 
Macneil adduced the results of experiments on London 
streets, in which he found that, when broken granite was 
laid down, there was little crushing on the surface, but a 
good deal below. He found '^ that a great portion of the 
wear took place near the bottom; the stones there got 
roimd after a very short time. They were all jumbled 
^ together ; the lower part of the stratum was on day. 
' Before it became a solid mass at all, the wheels worked 
through, and the stones were kept in motion, and rubbing 
against each other, from top to bottom.'' Then he tried 
the experiment of laying ^' a portion on a very solid foun- 
dation, and the same quantity was put over it. I took up 
a portion of both roads," he adds, '^ and we found, where 
the road was about 15 or 16 inches thick [widi a 9-inch 
pavement], and the stones 6 inches thick over the broken 
pavement, they were quite square, and as perfect as when 
put on. In the other case [simple macadam], it was not 
Bo." "There are two things to be considered, when a 
road is newly made : there is very great wear indeed, in 
the first instance, if there be not a pitched foundation ; 
that is different from the wear that takes place when it is 
nearly consolidated. To bring it into a solid state, the 
wear is great. K there are 4 inches of broken stone on 
the top of a pitched foundation, you may get that road into 
^ a perfectly hard and consolidated state, by the ordinary 
iViravelling over a turnpike road, in about three months; 



140 MACADAM ROADS. 

but if you put on the same thickness of stone, without 
foundation, you will not get it into a perfect state in thr< 
or four times as long." * 

The bearing of Sir John Macneil's exhaustive eviden< 
is very direct upon the comparative wear of ''weak < 
elastic roads/' and roads with a rigid pavement-botton 
He adduces an instance in which an experiment was acot 
rately made to test the relative wear of roads so ooi 
structed : '' The wear was found to be 4 inches of haz 
stone, wheii it was placed on a wet day bottom ; while i 
was not more than half an inch on a solid dry foundatioi 
or with a pavement bottom, on a part of the same roac 
where it was subject to the same traffic." f 

Estimates have been formed of the relative tear an 
wear of roads due to the action of the horse-shoes and ib 
action of wheels. Mr. John Farey stated that a can 
horse, walking at a speed of 2i miles per hour, oould dra' 
with a force of traction of 100 lbs., on an average, f( 
8 hours a day ; but that a stage-coach horse, running at 
speed of 10 miles an hour, could not exert more tha 
28 lbs. force of traction, on an average, for H hours 
day. The comparative efficiency of the animal is readil 
worked out. The work done per hour, on duty, and p< 
day, are £ts follows : — 

Work done in poimdi 
through one mile. 
Speed in riva-««-. perhonr. perday.- 

miles per hour. a^»*^o^ mfle-pounds. mite-poiaM 

Cart-horse . 2} 100 lbs. 250 2000 

Stagecoach-horse 10 28 „ 280 420 

The comparison clearly indicates that, whilst the wai 
done by a horse per hour at work, is a little greater > 
10 miles per hour than at a fourth of the speed, the daj 
work, on the contrary, is very much less, — ^little more thi 

♦ " Roads," by Sir Henry Pamell, pages 412, 413. . 
t Report of the Select Committee on Steam Carriages, 18^ 
page 97. 



WEAK. 141 

a fifth." It is probable that the injury done to the road is 
in the same proportion as the day's work done. **In 
heavy wagons," says Mr. Farey, " drawn slowly by horses, 
the horses do far more injury, by digging and scraping 
with their feet, than is done by the horses in coaches and 
vans travelling quickly; because the wagon-horses, having 
a heavy pull to make, must choose places in the road 
where they can place their feet in depressions in order to 
get hold; hence, on a smooth, good road, they sHp, and 
scrape up the surface." Again : ** The horses, by treading 
with their feet, excavate and scrape out depressions in the 
surface of the road ; that is particularly the case before 
the road-materials are consolidated into a solid mass. In 
this manner, the horses, after injuring the road them- 
selves, prepare the way to further injury to the road by 
the wheels of carriages." * 

With respect to the comparative action on a road of the 
feet of horses and the wheels of vehicles, Mr. Telford con- 
sidered that the tearing up of a well-made road by horses' 
feet was much more injurious to the road than the pressure 
of the wheels. 

Sir John Macneil stated that a four-horse stage-coach 
weighed from 15i cwt. to 18 cwt., and frequently carried 
upwards of 2 tons of passengers and goods ; and the total 
average weight amoimted to from 2i to 2^ tons gross. 
The tires of the wheels were, in general, 2 inches wide ; in 
some instances rather less than 2 inches. Some tires were 
rounded, forming in cross section a segment of a circle 
1^ inch in diameter. The action of these rounded tires 
was found to be extremely injurious to the road ; coach- 
men complained that carriages fitted with such rounded 
wheel-tires ''ran wild" in descending hills in summer; 
and that they ran '' heavy" in winter, when the roads were 

* Report of Select Committee on Steam Carriagos, 1831, page 57. 



142 



MACADAM ROADS. 



8ofb and muddy. Mail-coaclies weighed very nearly 20 cwt. 
and frequently carried a ton of letters and parcels, in add! 
tion to their complement of passengers. The tires of theu 
wheels were 2i inches wide. Again, the four-horse vana 
which travelled at a speed of 6 miles per hour, weighed, €ft 
an average, 4^ tons gross, with 2i-inch tires. There wen 
four descriptions of wagon in general use— 8-horse, 6-hor8fli 
4-horse, and farm-wagons of 2 or 4 horses. Sir John Mai> 
neil maintained that, on all gravel roads, however made^ 
without foimdation or bottoming, the load on the road £oi 
a wheel 4 inches wide at the tire should not exceed 15 cwij 
and for wheels of less width, 10 cwt. He gave a tabh 
showing the weight actually carried per inch of width of tire 
bearing, and what he conceived might be the width of tira 
if they were made cylindrical, with an even bearing, allow 
ing 1 inch of total width of four wheels for each ton of grofl 
weight ; or 1 inch of width in each tire per 5 cwt. of grosi 
weight. 

Table No. 12. — Weight of Vehicles and Width op Tibbs o 

Common Boads. 

(Sib John Macneil.) 



Deaeriptioii of Vehide. 



Mail coach 
Stage coach 
Van 
Wagon • 

Do. 

Do. 



Speed in 

miles per 

hour. 



Average 

gross 

weight. 



miles. 
9 to 11 
8 to 11 
6 to 7 
2Jto3 
2|to3 
2|to3 



tons. 
2 



6 

SI 



Width 

of 

wheels 

and 

tires. 



inches. 

2i 
2 

2* 
9 

6 

4 



Frce- 
snre of jsoreper 

each indhof 
wheeL width. 



ewts. 

10 

12*5 

21-25 

25 

22-5 

17-5 



owts. 
4-40 
6*25 
8-29 
2-77 
3-75 
4*37 



Width « 

whedt 

allowiai 

5 ewt. pi 

indhoClfij 



inehM. 
8. 



6 



From the table it appears that, in the four-horse van, tl 
greatest load per inch of tire upon the road amounted 1 
8*3 cwt. i and though Sir John Macneil found that got 



WEAR. 143 

N hard roads may support concentrated loads of 10 cwt. per 
t inch of width of tire, he considered that, for " the generality 
^' of roads," the concentrated load per inch of width of tire 
ought not to exceed a maximum of 5 cwt. He judged that 
the wear of roads caused by horses' feet increased with the 
speed of transit ; and adduced in support of this conclusion 
the facts that, whilst a coach-horse, going at 10 miles per 
hour, ran 270 miles per month, and wore away 4 pounds 
of iron in shoes ; a wagon-horse going at 3^. miles per 
hour, and walking 26 miles per day, or 416 miles per 
month, wore away 4*8 poimds of iron in shoes. From 
these data, it appears that the coach-horse ran 67*5 miles 
for each ' poimd of iron worn off, and that the wagon- 
horse walked 86*5 miles for each pound of iron worn off. 
These data, though they show a greater rate of wear at 
\ the higher speed, scarcely suffice to confirm the conclusion 
y. drawn by Sir John Macneil ; for the wear of shoes is due 
entirely to abrasion, whilst that of the surface of the road 
is due to abrasion combined with excavation. According 
to another of his estimates, it appears that, in running 
63,000 miles, 1,000 pounds of shoe-iron were worn away; 
showing that 63 miles were run by a horse for each poimd 
of shoe-iron worn off. It also appeared that for an equal 
mileage of mail-coaches and stage-coaches, of which 
the hind wheels were 4 feet 8 inches high, and the fore 
wheels 3 feet high, the tires were worn down from the 
original section, 2 inches wide by f inch thick to a 
thickness of i inch, losing 327 poimds; showing that 
193 miles were run by a coach for each potind of tire-iron 
worn off, or three times the mileage run per pound of 
shoe-iron. 

From the evidence of the comparative wear of shoe-iron 

and tire-iron, and other considerations. Sir John Macneil 

framed an estimate of the relative proportions in which a 

^^ Toad was deteriorated by the action of atmospheric changes, 



144 MACADAM KOADS. 

wheels, and horses' feet. For " the generality of roads" 
the proportions were as follows :— 

Cause of Wear or Injury. For Fast Coaches. For Wagons. 

per cent. ■ per cent. 

Atmospheric changes • • 20 20 

Wheels .... 20 35*5 

Horses' feet that draw the vehicles 60 44*5 

100 100 

Mr. James Macadam, in 1831, considered that a vehicle 
of any description, required to cany a great load, say, 
5 or 8 tons, ought to have wheels with tires at least 4i inches 
wide, flat or cylindrical. He preferred that width to any 
other width, being of opinion that it was the maximum 
width of tire that could at the same instant touch the sur- 
face of a well-formed road.* For a gross weight of 8 tons, 
or 2 tons per wheel, it is seen that the weight amounted 
to 9 cwt. per inch of width— considerably in excess of the 
working limit assigned by Sir John Macneil. 

M. Dupuit tested the width of surface in active contact 
with tires of various widths, on roads sHghtly wetted; and 
he found that the marks of contact with the road traced on 
the middle of the tires were practically of equal width fox 
various widths of tire, amoimting to about 3^ inches on a 
tire 6f inches wide. The pressure appeared not to have 
been uniformly distributed over the width of surfiEUie in 
contact ; and near the edges of the tires the pressure was 
nearly nothing. On the tires of a stage-coach, 5^ inches 
wide, the width of contact was limited to 2i inches. IL 
Dupuit ascribes the limitation of width of contact to the 
natural rounding of the tires by wear and stress, towarde 
the edges, by which the circumference of the wooden felliee 
themselves are likewise roimded; and he condemns, ac 
illiisory, the use of wide tires for the better distributing d 
excessive loads. He maintains that wide tires are onlj 

* Beport of the Select Committee on 8team Carriages, 1831^ page 91] 



WEAR. 145 

useful when they take a bearing for the whole width, 
r which can only happen when the road ifi soft, loose, or in 
^ bad condition ; or when the ruts are fiUed up and require 
to be rolled. As a matter of fact, a 6i-inch tire practically 
becomes, after a few days, a 5i-inch tire ; and, afber a few 
months of wear, a 4^-inch tire. He adds that 6f-inch 
tires wear out afber running 10,000 miles, losing 530 
pounds of iron ; showing that for each pound of iron worn 
off, 19 miles were traversed: — ^less than a fourth of the 
mileage per pound deduced from Sir John Macneil's 
data for wagons, and coimtenancing, certainly, M. Dupuit's 
opinion that great width of tire is illusory, and adds weight 
without efficiency. 

From these and other considerations, it is obvious that 

the wear of macadam roads must necessarily be much 

;> greater than that of paved roads or streets. Mr. Mitchell's 

^ ' remarkable analysis of the material of a macadam road, 

about to be noticed, places this conclusion in a clear 

Ught. 

A cubic yard of broken stone metal, of an ordinary 
size — 2 inches or 2J inches cube— when screened and 
beaten down in reg^ar layers 6 inches thick, contains, 
according to Mr. Mitchell, 11 cubic feet of interspaces, as 
tested by filling up the metal with a liquid> Herr E. 
Bokeberg, of Hanover, who, says Mr. Paget, made many 
very careful experiments on the proportion of vacuity to 
solid material, found that, in a loosely-heaped cubic yard 
of broken stones, void space amounted to one -half of 
the total volimie. As the stones became roimded at the 
comers by wear, the vacuities were reduced to 37 per cent. 
of the gross bulk, or to 10 cubic feet These results indicate 
that the interspaces of the new stones were reduced by 
compression to nearly the same volxmie as was attained after 
the comers had been roimded without compression. The 
ift operation of consolidation necessarily reduces the thickness 



146 MACADAM ROADS. 

of the coating. A large portion of the vacant space be- 
comes Med with mud, which forms the cementing mattCi. ' 
ground from the metal. The primitive mass of 16 solid 
cubic feet of broken stone is, in fact, crushed into every 
variety of form down to the finest sand, — a small proportion 
only of the stones remaining of their original dimensions. 
Mr. Mitchell* gives the results of an analysis of a portion 
of the crust — 2 J cubic feet — of the macadamised road in the. 
Mall, in St. James's Park, which was taken up for examina- 
tion. The component parts of the sample were carefully 
separated and classed, when it was found that one cubio 
yard contained — 

Mud ....... 

Sand, with pebbles, not exceeding 3-16 inch thick 
Stones, from 3-16 inch to J inch 
Stones, from J inch to 1 inch .... 
Stones, from 1 inch to 2^ inch 

Total volume, 1 cubic yard, or 27 00 „ 100 

From this analysis, it appears that less than 9 J per cent. 
— say, one-tenth — of the original stone escaped unground ; 
whilst 40 per cent, of it was reduced to the state of mud. 
These proportions, taken as they stand, are too favourable 
for the duration of the stone in that instance, for, no doubt, 
the sample was a sample of the remains of stone, much of 
which must have been swept or washed off out of sight. 
Mr. Burt, therefore, cannot be much amiss in his estimate 
that one-third of the loose road-material used in London is 
literally wasted by being ground up under the traffic 
before the consolidation of the surface is effected. 

The logical inference is that a macadamised road is not 
properly fit for traffic unless it is condensed, consolidated, 
and reduced to a hard and regular surface by suitable 

* ^'A New Mode of Constructing the Surface of the Streets and 
Thoroughfares of London and other Great Cities," 1870. 



Cubio 

feet. 

11-00 


or 


Per 

cent. 
41 


2*40 


ft 


9 


6-66 


ff 


24 


4-48 
2-56 


it 


16* 



WEAR. 147 

!; appliances. The road-roller has long been successfuUy 
J» .mployed in France and Germany for this purpose. Mr. 
r Paget* states that a well-rolled road-covering contains at 
least from 70 to 80 per cent, of mass of stone, leaving only 
from 20 to 30 per cent, of intermediate space, most of 
which is filled, especially at the top, with clean sand. In 
a cubic yard, the spaces would amoimt to from 5^ to 8 cubic 
feet, which would prove that the spaces are reduced by 
rolling to nearly a half of the amount when the new metal 
is not rolled. It is scarcely necessary to insist on the in- 
crease of durability, and the clear gain in economy of 
maintenance, of the road, by efficient rolling. The reduc- 
tion of gross bulk by the process of rolling, is measured by 
the difference of the volumes of interspace, 13^^ cubic feet, 
or half a cubic yard, and, say, 6J cubic feet, the mean of 
{^s 5J and 8 cubic feet ; that is, the reduction is (13^^ — 6J =) 
V" 6i cubic feet, which is one-fourth of the primitive bulk, or 
one-half of the primitive volimie of the interspaces. 

It was said by Macadam that the annual wear of 
metalled roads amounted to from 1 inch to 4 inches of 
depth. The rate of vertical wear is readily calculated 
when the area of surface covered and the quantity of 
metal deposited are known. 

Since a cubic yard of loose broken stone contains only 
one-half of its volume, or 1 3i cubic feet, of solid stone, its 
weight, allowing 12 cubic feet of solid granite to 1 ton, is 

13'5 
approximately, 1 X — - = H *on. 

Again, one cubic yard is equivalent to 36 square yards 
1 inch deep ; and 1 ton of metal laid without compression 

to a depth of 1 inch covers an area of (36 x — =) 32 

square yards. When the metal is laid and rolled, the 

f^- ^ • " Report on Steam Road- Rolling,*' p. 10. 

h2 



148 MACADAM ROADS. 

primitive volume is reduced, as was found, by one-fourU 

and 1 ton of rolled metal laid to a depth of 1 inch, covei 

an area one-fourth less than 32, or (32 x f = ) 24 squai 

yards. 

On these data, the following rules are framed : — 

Rule 1. — To find the average vertical depth of wear per yu 

of a macadamised road, when the area of swrfacey and the weig] 

of metal laid per yea/r, a/re given. — ^Multiply the quantity < 

broken granite laid per year, in tons, by 32 when m 

rolled ; or by 24 when rolled ; and divide the product b 

the area covered, in square yards. The quotient is th 

average vertical depth of wear per year. 

For example, Mr. Hedman stated, in 1854, that on th 

Commercial Eoad, in the east end of London, 10 yard 

wide and 2 miles long, the quantity of coating of broke 

granite required was from 1 inch to H inches deep pe 

year, or a total of 1,200 tons of metal. The heavy traflB 

of the road was then, as it is now, conveyed on two line 

of granite tramway, consisting of four tracks 16 inchc 

in width, occupying together a width of 64 inches, or 1*7 

yards. The net width for macadam was, therefpr< 

(10 — 1-78 =) 8-22 yards. The length was (2 x 1,760 = 

3,520 yards ; and the area of macadam was (3,520 X 8*2 

=) 28,934 square yards. By the rule, for imrolled meta 

the average vertical depth of material supplied, and c 

„ 1,200 X 32 , „„ . , , . , . 

course worn on, was — . — , = 1-33 mches ; which ] 

i60,«7u4 

nearly the mean of 1 and H inches given by Mr. Eedmai 
The converse rule follows directly : — 

BuLE 2. — To find the area of mrface that can he covered I 
one ton of broken granite, when the thickness of the layer i 
^iven. — Divide 32 by the thickness of the layer, in inchei 
unrolled ; or, divide 24 by the thickness of the layer, i 
inches, when rolled. The quotient is the area in squai 
yards. 



RULE FOR WEAR, 149 

V 

K . 

•' When the quantity is given in bulk, the rule is as 

if follows: — 

BuiiE 3. — To find the area of mrface that can he covered hy 
one cubic yard of broken yramte, when the thichnesa of the layer 
is given, — ^When the metal is not rolled, divide 36 by 
the thickness in inches ; the quotient is the number of 
square yards that can be covered. When the metal is 
rolled, divide 27 by the final thickness in inches, to give 
the required quotient. 

The carriage-way of old Westminster Bridge, 30 feet 
wide, was worn away, according to Mr. Browse, at the 
rate of 5^^ inches annually ; the carriage-way of Bridge 
Street, adjoining the bridge, wears off 7 inches per year. 

The quantity of broken metal worn away annually from 
the surface of roads, is an exceedingly variable quantity, 

.^ dependent not only upon the nature of the traffic, but also 
upon the mode of maintaining the road. A simple method 
of approximating to the annual rate of wear, when direct 
evidence is wanting, is suggested by data given by Mr. 
Paget.* He takes the average price of the five-ounce 
Guernsey granite metalling, used in London in 1869-70, 
at 16«. per ton delivered on the roads, and he shows that 
the cost of the material formed a large proportion of the 
total cost for maintenance. For instance : — 

or 88 per cent. 
»» 98 „ 
w 89 „ 
» 90 „ 
»t 86 ,^ 
w 90 „ 

Totals . 4955 4511 „ 01 „ 

^ showing that about nine-tenths of the whole cost is 
* '* Report on Steam Boad-RoUing," page 32. 



Bond Street • • , 


Total cost for 
maintenanoe. 

£245 


Cost of 
material 

£216 


Piccadilly 

Bridge Street, Westminster . 

Parliament Street . , 


1384 
341 
528 


1359 
305 
473 


Victoria Street • , 


869 


744 


Kenf^Tifft^^n T^-oad • i 


1588 


1414 







150 MACADAM ROADS. 

expended on the purchase of metal. When the total cost 
is known, therefore, together with the superficial area oi 
carriage-way maintained, the cost may be converted into 
tons by dividing it by 16«., and the quantity and depth pei 
square yard, approximately, may be deduced. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

MACADAMISED KOADS:— COST. 

London. 

The price of Guernsey metalling, delivered in London, 
is now (1877) about 17«. 6d. per ton. Ai^ ordinary mac- 
adamised road, constructed in the best manner, with metal 
laid 9 inches deep, costs, at London prices, 6^. 3d. per 
square yard. 

It appears, from a table elaborated by Mr. Paget,* that 
in 1869 there were 1, 127 miles of macadamised roads in the 
metropolis, maintained by 39 parishes and district boards of 
works, comprising an area of upwards of 21^ millions of 
square yards. The expenditure for maintenance, exclusive 
of cost for cleansing and watering, averaged from four- 
teen of the returns, amounted to £250 per mile of road per 
year, equivalent to 2«. lOrf. per lineal yard. If the average 
width of roadway be taken at 10 yards, the cost would be 
at the rate of 3*4 pence per square yard. The ascertained 
costs of maintenance appear to have varied itom. If pence 
to 28, per square yard per year for broken granite covering ; 
and for granite, and flint and gravel coverings, taken to- 
gether, from IJ pence to 14 J pence. The following 
table. No. 13, is abstracted from the larger table of Mr. 
Paget ; — 

* '' Report on Steam Road-RolliDg.*' 



153 H&CASAH B0AD8. 

Tablb No. 13.— Macadamiud Boadb n Lohdoh: Ahnval Con o 

MaINTEKAHCB of 80HB OF THBBB BoASS IK 1808-69. 

(Eicloaive of Cleaudng and Watecing.) 



BoudofWoi-lu. 


Laid with broken 
granilB. 


I^dwith 
broken flints or 


Total of ™o- 


! 


1 


1 


S 


4 
1 

•< 


1 

M 

a. 

1'31 


5 


! 

."1 




St. Mary, Lambeth 
St. GBorgo, Han- 

8t. Leonard, Stoxe- 

dituh .... 

St. Mfuy, Newing- 

St. GUoB, Cambet- 
well .... 

St. Jiunes and St. 
John, Clerken- 
wtU .... 

St- George the Mar- 
tyr, Sonthwark . 

St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fielda .... 

Mae End Old Town 

St. John, Hamp- 
etead .... 

fcrict .... 
WandBworth— Bat- 

teraea .... 
Wnndflworth-Toot- 

ing, Streatham . 
Haoknay District . 
Sttand District . 
St. Saviour's . . 
Plnmatead . . . 


IS 
H 

6 
T 

i 

\5 
1 413 

7 

171 


feet, 
40 

33 
30 

20 


d. 

Si 

10 -t 

If 


21 

13 
flO 

13 


feet. 
40 


50 
40 D 




d. 

»!• 
5 

Hit 
it 
>i 

■! 



* Bsolndins OlaanBlnff and WaterlDg. 

t PriuoiiiM tbonu^Ubre of St. Martlii's-In-tlie-Flekla nut 3a. par agnan yard 

'^lrUaaort,afl4Id.,lBths«ia<: for maintenanH of Parliament Street, TrUle- 
hall. Great Oeona SCreat, Broad SanrjtaarT, Vlotoria Street, Bridge Street, Qreat 
Btdth BDeet, J^me* Street. EeDrin^ton Road, Eihibilian Boad, nineea Stnet^ 
and Booheatar Bow. Total area— IS,SW •qnate jaida. 



COST. 153 

\ The actual extent of the variation of the cost of mainte- 
f. nance of macadamised roads in London, is not revealed by 
' these tabulated statements. The costs for individual roads 
or streets, — principal thoroughfares, — exclusive of cleans- 
ing, have been stated, by various competent authorities, 
to be as follows :— 







Anntialoost. 




Year. 


Per aq. yd. 


Parliament Street • • • 


1856 


2s. 4d. 


Do. 


1869 


38. 3d. 


Bridge Street, Westminster 


1856, 1869 


3s. 6id. 


Great George Street, Westminster • 


1856 


ep. 


Westminster Bridge (Old) • • 


1854 


28. Od. 


Piccadilly .... 


1834—63 


28. 5d. 


Do. • • • • 


1870 


3s. 6d. to 4s. 


Kegent Street .... 


1876 


3s. 7d. 


Granboume Street and North Side of 






Leicester Square . 


1870 

• • 


2s. Od. 


Average annual cost 


2s. 7id. 



If the average amount of vertical wear be estimated 
from these rates of cost, in the manner before indicated, 
taking 90 per cent, as the cost for metal, the vertical wear 
would be found to vary from 1 inch to 7 inches per year. 
But, it must be admitted, this mode of estimation, though 
suggestive, is inexact. 

Suhu/rlan Sighwa/ya. — The Author is indebted to Mr. 
George Pinchbeck for statistics of the cost for maintaining 
the suburban highways of the Metropolis, Middlesex side, 
for one year, in or about the year 1855. The highways 
were comprised in the following Metropolitan Trusts : — 
Kensington, Uxbridge, Harrow, Kilbum, Highgate, Hamp* 
stead and Islington, Stamford Hill, and Hackney Lea 
Bridge. 

Total length of roads for this account, 123^ miles. 



h8 



154 



MACADAM BOADS. 



Day labour, inclnding the pumping of water . • 

Digging gravel and preparing materials, per contract 

Tram labour, including watering 

Flints, per contract . 

Gravel do. 

Granite and hard stone . 

"Wlieelwright work, per contract 

Implements .... 

Smiths ..... 

Carpenters .... 

Bricklayers .... 

Stand-posts, water-plugs, pumps : — 

Pavior's bill .... 

Water for Roads, from Companies 

Material and Labour . 



Bepairs 



Kent of Premises 

Salaries of Eight Surveyors, at £17 

Do. Engineer-in-Chief . 

Do. Solicitor 

Do. Accountant 



General Expenses 
Total Cost 



TotaL 


FtomflA. 


£9,500 


£77-08 


1,830 


14*84 


13,500 


109-50 


1,951 


15-82 


2,460 


19 94 


29,430 


238-60 


640 


5*19 


255 


207 


158 


1*28 


251 


2-04 


328 


2-66 


365 


2-96 


165 


1-34 


2,000 


16-22 


B62,833 or £509-5 


270 


2-19 


1,360 


11-03 


700 


5-68 


400 


3-25 


350 


2-85 



£3,080 or £250 



£65,913 or £534*5 



If the width be taken at an average of 30 feet, or 10 
yards, the area maintained per mile would be 17,600 yards; 
and the total cost would amount to 7*29 pence, say l^d., 
per square yard for the year, made up as follows : — 



Material and Labour 
General Expenses 



Per aqnare srard. 
6*95 pence 
*34 



M 



7*29 pence. 



There were required, in addition, the services of 42 Ck>m- 
miffiioners, which were rendered gratuitously. 



i 



COST. 155 

The cost for material — that is, gravel, flints, and granite 
and other hard stone — amounted to £35,671 per year, or 
£289*20 per mile, or about 4 pence per square yard j being 
54 per cent, of the total expenses. 

For the purpose of forming an estimate of the quantities 
of granite and flints consumed by wear, Mr. Pinchbeck 
calculates them from the total costs for the materials, 
allowing 15 shillings per cubic yard for granite and hard 
stone, and 4 shillings for flints. He thence deduces that 
the total quantities consumed were 4,000 cubic yards of 
granite laid over 100 miles of road, and 10,000 cubic yards 
of flint laid over, say, 25 miles of road ; being at the rate 
of about 7i inches deep of granite and of flints for the 
year. 

Local Roads, — ^The minor roads of the parish of Islington, 
36 miles in length, were maintained by the authorities 
themselves. The average cost during four years was 
£8,424 per year, or £234 per mile; which, taking an 
average width of 30 feet, would be at the rate of 3*13 
pence per square yard. 

Birmingham. 

According to the results of the experience of mac- 
adamised roads in Birmingham, in 1853,* it was found 
that the vertical wear in Bull Street was less than 
6 inches per year, where 2,484 vehicles, comprising very 
heavy traffic, passed in ten hours in one day. With this 
exception, the greatest amount of wear was 4 inches per 
year, and, taking the average wear for the whole borough 
at 2 inches per year, which was a very high rate, the total 
cost for maintenance was estimated at Ad, per square yari 
per year. Adding 2i.for the cost of watering and cleansing, 

* *' On Macadamised Roads for the Streets of Towns," by Mr. J. P. 
Smith, in the Proceedings of the Imtitution of Civil Engintera, vol. ziii 
page 221. 



156 MACADAM nOABS. 

the total annual cost was estimated at 6d. per sqnai 
yard. 

But the actual cost for the year 1853, when the actuf 
average wear was H inch per year, amounted to a littl 
oyer 3^i. per square yard. The items of cost are given a 
follows : — 

Length. Area. Material naed. CSo«tOi 

Miles. 8q. yds. Tons. materiil 

Urban streets 84 869,040 90,112 rag ttone, dra, at 8b. lid. £5»M0 18 

Suburban streets 

and roads . 116 1,429,120 86,107 pebUee and gravel, at 2b. 6d. 4,618 7 

160 1,788,160 66,219 10,468 6 

Mr. Smith takes the volume of materials at the rate c 
a cubic yard per ton, whence the calculated rates of vertica 
wear: — 

Vertical CkMtof 
Material, wear material 
Cnb.yds. per yd. pereq.yd. 
inchea. perTHtr* 
Urban stteeta • • • 20,112 2 4cL 

Suburban streets and roads . • 36,107 0*91 |d. 



Total • 56,219 1^ 1*40 

The cost for labour, haulage, management, &c., indusirt 
of cleansing and watering, amounted to £16,131 5«. 6<^. 
and the items of cost may be presented concisely thus :*- 

Birmingham. 1883. ^^ *!• ^ ^^"* 

Macadam . . . £10,463 6 l*40d. £70 

Labour, management, &c. 16,131 5 6 2*16d. 108 

26,594 11 6 8*56d. £178 

showing a total cost of 3*56 pence per square yard per yeai 
as before stated; or £178 per lineal mile of street am 
road. 

The statement in detail, supplied by Mr. Smith, show 
the respective amoimts for the various items of cost, as hei 
given. The proportional values of these amounts are adde 
as percentages of the total cost : — 



COST. 



157 



185S 


• 


Peroentb 


. £6,979 10 7 


26-3 


. 3,276 





12*3 


. 5,949 


18 6 


22-4 


. 4,513 


7 6 


170 


771 


3 8 


2-9 


965 


6 8 


3-6 


631 


7 2 


2-4 


12 





00005 


114 


6 4 


0-4 


423 


73 


1-6 


117 


7 9 


0-4 


. 2840 


6 1 


10-7 


£26,594 11 6 1000 



fiirminffham. 

1. Staff of officers and men 

2. Keep of 63 horses, shoeing, and vete 

rinajy expenses 

3. Ragstone and Hartshill stone 

4. Pebbles and gravel . 
6. Water 

6. Cleansing machines and brooms 
9. Team hire 

10. Kent . 

11. Clearing 

12. Wheelwright 
18. Stationery 
22. Sundry accounts 

Total cost for maintenance, cleansing, 
and watering 

Here it is shown that the cost for macadamising materials 
for maintenance amounted to about 40 per cent, of the 
total cost. The cost of coarse-grained schist, with 23 per 
cent, of lime, was 4«, 9d, per cubic yard. For heavy 
thoroughfares, it was broken up into cubes of about 
2 inches ; but, in some cases, where the traffic was more 
than ordinarily severe, the pieces were 4 inches in thick- 
ness. Generally, for streets with less traffic, the thickness 
was from 1 inch to li inches. The size of the stones was 
proportioned to the wear and tear of the streets, and was 
suited to the season of the year. 

In the management of repairs by Mr. Smith, they were 
executed during the winter months — ^November, December, 
January, and February — ^when the roads were in their wettest 
condition ; and during the other months of the year, the 
horses were employed in bringing, and the men in pre- 
paring, the broken stone and gravel. The new material, 
laid in the wet season, bonded, and became more rapidly 
consolidated, than if it had been laid down during drier 
weather, and there was less need for watering it. The 
consequence was that, during summer, loose stones were 
scarcely to be seen upon the roads. 



158 MACADAM ROADS. 

Wliilst the average cost for maintainiiig the whole 
the macadamised streets and roads of Birmingham 1 
been shown to be about Sid, per square yard per year, 1 
following estimates were framed by Mr. "W. Taylor, of 1 
first cost, and the cost for maintenance and cleansing 1 
streets of the greatest traffic in Birmingham, when m 
adamised, and when paved with granite sets ; taMng 
period of fifteen years for the duration of the sets, e 
taking a vertical wear of 4 inches of macadam annually ; 

Maoadam 
Birmingham. Per squaie Per jy 

yard. a. 

Macadam 6 inches thick, first cost . . Is. 6d. or 1 i 

Coating laid twice a year, 4 inches thick,! lAa ixa h « 
annuaUy, 14 years at Is. . . / ^*®- ^^ " ^* ' 

15s. 6d. „ 12v 
Cleansing, 15 years at 4d. • • • 5s. Od. „ 4'( 



Total cost for macadam, in 15 years • 20s. 6d. ^ 16> 



Fftving. 
Per square Per yea 

yard. a. 

Paving, first cost • • • 7s. 6d. or 6*0 

Kepair, 15 years • • • Is. 6d. „ 1*2 



9s. Od. „ 7-2 

Deduct, value of old stone • • 2s. 6d. „ 2*0 



6s. 6d. 5*2 

Cleansing, 15 years at Id. • • Is. 3d. „ 1*0 



Total cost for paving, in 15 years 7s. 9d. ,, 6*2 

Deeby. 

The streets of Derby are, or at least they have be 
until recently, macadamised, with one exception, wh 
is paved. The following instructive table gives particul 
of cost for maintenance and cleansing of twelve princi] 
streets in Derby, and the proportional traffic* 

♦ Slightly adapted from a Table given in a Report of Mr. E. 
EUice-Clark, Survey or to the Borough of Derby, May, 1876. 



COST. 



159 



I^o. 14. — Db&bt. — Macadamtbkp Stbbbts, C06T8 FOB Mainti* 

MANCB AND ClBANSINO. 



B of Streot. 



3 Qate 
den* 8 Street 
wick » • 
skite . 
Biarket 
iter's Street 

m Boad 

>n Street . 
it Street 
ines's Street 
Lb Rottd 



rages for 
icadam 



} 



Axcft. 



aq. yd. 
2931 
1203 
984 
1562 
1695 
3230 

4859 

2847 

1245 

995 

4728 



ent Street, ) 
ingdown } 
' years ) 



3483 



MateriaL 



-J^^Anniial 

mainte. ^^^ 
. Gleaiis- 

ykrd. I TT^^ 



Broken boulders 
Do. granite . 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. boulders ) 
and granite / 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 



Set83"x 5" 



11 



nil 



3 



3 



4i 



2i 



Total 
annual 
oofltfar 
mainte- 
nance 
«nd 
deans- 
ingper 
aq. yd. 



1 3i 



2i 



ibJ 



Nam 
of vebi-i 
olesin 

IS 
boon. 



yehklee 
1268 
585 
1258 \ 
1506 
2031 
2762 

1272 

1200 

1250 

711 

1931 



1431 



1658 



. is to be remarked, in this table, that the boulder 
adam of Bridge Gate incurs a higher cost for mainte- 
ce than any of the granites. Wardwick, upon which 
greatest cost for cleansing is expended, is cleansed 
jr. The average annual cost for maintenance for eleven 
adamised streets is lid. per square yard, and for 
using 4id. ; whilst, for the seven years during which the 
ng has been down, it has not cost anything for main- 
nce, but it has cost for cleansing 2id, 
I. EUice- Clark has formed estimates of the cost for 
traction and maintenance of granite -set paving, in 
titution for macadam, for five streets in Derby ; from 
h tlie following table, No. 15, is compiled: — 



UACADAH OOADB. 



Tablb No. is. — Debbt; — Ebtdutid Gobt posFATiRa Aim 
mo Five Stsbbiv. 
Oianite Seta 3 indies wide by S inches deep. 





y^ 


^3? 


7^. 


Total ™t 
perjqnare 


fs. 

11 


r 




msnl. 


TotaL 


Per 
year. 


Total 


Per 
year. 


Total. 


fa- 


f 








•1 






> VI 








Bridge Gate 

St. llelen'9 Street 






K-fi 


7 n 


3'H 




1(1 






?.fl 


i:< 1) 


ft-4 


7 fi 




2{l H 


K 




1 




■.n 


n r< 


+■7 


fl fl 


'^^^ 


m 


7 






Tenant Street . 


■!H 


i;( (1 


ft'Ji 




:m 


?(1 '^ 




H 


1 


Siddala Road . 


■i-i 


111 6 


*'7 


(i 6 


2'44 


ly (I 


7 


1} 




Averagea 


23 


- 


6'3B 


- 


3'0 


- 


8'36 


18 


1 



The firBt cost inclades the cost for a foundation of ooi 
Crete. No dedactioa has been made by Mr. £llice-01ai 
for the Talue of the old materials ; this is taken as eqa 
Talent to the coat of removing the existing macadam. I 
the estimates for maintenance, proTision is made for taikin 
up, re-dressing, and re-lajing the stones once during tb 
period. 

From the foregoing data, a comparison is readily frame 
between the costs in petpetuit; tor macadam already lai 
and new granite-paving, including a foundation of ooi 
Crete, for the five streets named in the last table :— 



f 



COST. 



161 



Tablb No. 16.-— Derby: — Comparativb Costs por G&anitb Pave- 
ment AND Macadam. 



Pavement of Granite Sets, 3 inches by 5 inches deep. 




Name of Street 


Dura- 
tion of 
Pave- 
ment. 


Total cost for pave- 
ment per sq. yd., 

including founda- 
tion of concrete. 


Total cost for 

macadam, already 

laid, per square 

yard. 


Number 
of 

vehicles 

in 18 

hours. 


For the 
whole 
period. 


Per year. 


For the 
whole 
period. 


Per year. 


Bridge Gate 
St. Helen's Street 
London Road 
Tenant Street . 
SiddalsEoad 


Tears. 
24 
29 
32 
28 
32 


8. d. 
25 U 
25 4 

21 8 
23 8 

22 4 


s. d. 

10 
8# 


8. d. 
49 
47 9 
24 8 
42 7 
18 6 


s. d. 

2 i 
1 7 
9 
1 6; 

lu| 


Vehicles. 
1^68 
585 
1272 
1250 
1931 


Averages 


29 


24 2 


10 


39 11 


1 4J 


1261 



Stjndeeland. 

Mr. D. Balfour* reported, in 1876, on the cost for main- 
tenance of the highways of the Sunderland and Houghton- 
le-Spring District, before and after the passing of the 
Highway and Turnpike Act of 1869. For the maintenance 
of TTj- miles of highway, the following were the respective 
costs. The last two lines are added by the writer : — 



Average Annual Expenditure. 



liaterials and Labour . • 
Gfeneral Charges. • • 

Total Cost . 
Do. do. per mile . 
Do. do. per square yard | , 

aUowing width of 30 feet / ^'^*^ 



During last 
8 years. 
Old Act. 


During last 
6i years, 
New Act. 


During last 
8 years. 
New Act. 


£1,903 


£1,735 


£1,509 


— 


284 


277 


£1,903 


£2,019 


£1,786 


£24*5 


£26 


£23 



3-55d. 



8*14d. 



* ** Road Legislation and Surveying." By D. Balfour, A.I.C.E., 
Surveyor and Engineer to the Sunderland and Houghton-le-Spring 
District Highway Board, 1876. 



162 MACADAM ROADS. 

DiSTBIOTS KEAB EDINBUBOHy GlASOOW, AND OaBLISLI 

Mr. James H. Cuiminghain, in his paper already not 
gives the following particulars of cost of oonstmctior 
macadam roads in the south of Scotland : — 

Country Boads (1861 — 1874) cost from U, 2d. to U. 
per square vard. 

Town Eoads, founded on shivers, or on hard set stone : 

15 inches of metal (1871) cost Is. 9d. per square yard. 

16 „ „ (1874) „ 2s. 4d. „ „ 
18 „ „ (1873) „ 2s. Hid. „ „ 

Of whin metal, from 2 inches to 2^ inches thicky—-^ 
average price (1861 — 1874) was 4«. lOd. per cubic ya 
In Edinbugh (1874) the price was 6«. 9d. to 7». Bd. ] 
ton, averaging 6«. Sd, per ton, and as, according to 1 
Cunningham, one cubic yard of whin metal, contain] 
40 per cent, of vacant space, weighs 27 cwt., the aven 
price is at the rate of 48, lOd. per cubic yard, — ^the sa 
as the average already given. 



CHAPTEE V. 

CONCRETE ROADS. 

Me. Joseph Mitchell designed a concrete macadam sur- 
face, in which the spaces, otherwise vacant, and ultimately 
filled with the muddy cementing matter of worn macadam, 
are, in the construction of the concrete road, filled with 
an admixture of Portland cement, or other hydraulic 
cemont grout. The concrete thus formed rapidly becomes 
a uniform and impervious mass, which is wholly unaffected 
by heat or moisture. It is mixed in these proportions :— 

Broken stones • • .4 measoreB. 

Clean sharp sand • • 1| to 1|- „ 

Portland cement • • • 1 ,, 

80, for a cubic yard, or 27 cubic feet, of broken metal, 
6} cubic feet, or 1 J barrels (of 4^^ cubic feet), of Portland 
cement, are required. The broken metal should be of the 
hardest quality, of uniform size, thoroughly screened ; and 
it should, when in the screen, be dipped up and down in a 
large tub of water, and then thrown on the platform on 
which the concrete is to be made. Cement of the best 
quality must be employed, and the sand should be sharp, 
dean, and gritty. The surface of the ground is brought 
to form, and rolled several times. The concrete is then 
laid on the surface in a layer 3 or 4 inches, and is left for 
three days to harden. The second layer of 3 or 4 inches 
is next laid on the first, and immediately rolled to form 
with a heavy iron roller, as heavy as two or three men can 



i64 CONCRETE ROADS. 

draw. The cement should be left for three weeks, to alio 
it to become quite hard, before the road is opened £< 
traffic, although a week has been found to be a suffidei 
interval. 

Mr. Mitchell states that a concrete road, 7 inches dei 
at the middle and 5 inches at the sides, is sufficient f< 
ordinary traffic. For heavy traffic, a depth of 8 inches 
recommended. 

The first piece of concrete road was laid, in 1865, i 
Inverness, and consisted of 45 lineal yards of the approai 
to the goods station of the railway. In 1870, after tl 
road had been under traffic for 4^ years, it was reports 
that the wear of the surface was scarcely appreciabl 
whilst the adjoining macadamised road had been oootc 
frequently every year. 

Another specimen, 50 yards long and 15 yards wid 
was laid in 1866, on George IV. Bridge, Edinburg] 
where the traffic is heavy and continuous. At the ex 
of 3i years, under traffic, the surface was perfectly soiu 
and immovable. 

The amount of vertical wear, during the periods abov 
named, appears not to have exceeded i inch. But Mr. 
H. Cunningham, writing in January, 1875,* stated that 
was then much worn at the surface, in consequence, ] 
thought, of its great hardness and rigidity. 

A concrete road, of 6 inches average depth, would oo 
in London, by Mr. Mitchell's estimate, 6«. lOd. per squa 
yard, against 6«. 3d. per square yard for an ordinal 
macadamised road, constructed in the best manner, wil 
9 inches of metal. 

* See Mr. Chmningham's paper on ** Streets," in the IVoeeedmft 
the Edinburgh and Leith Engineers* Society, 1874-75, page 18. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

MACADAMISED ROADWAYS IN FRANCE. 

M. Dumas, in the article already referred to (page 20), 
maintained that, if a macadamised road be properly and 
actively watched, levelled, and cleaned, a foundation, as 
such, is of no special utility, and may be suppressed ; and 
that the road should be simply a imiform bed of small 
materials. 

The width of the old roads, he says, was excessive, 
amounting sometimes to nearly 80 feet, with a pavement 
in the middle, from 16 to 20 feet wide. They are now 
made of widths of from 8 to 14 metres, or 26 to 46 feet. 
Type-sections of French and Belgian roads and streets are 
shown in Figs. 42 to 44. 

There is no need, says M. Dumas, for great thickness of 




Fig. 42.— Section of Bne de RivoU, FariB. 



road, provided that a compact and impermeable mass be 
formed, completely shielding the ground from moisture. 
The least thickness that may be given depends on the size 
of the materials. If the pieces are 2 inches or 2i inches 
diameter, mixed with pieces of smaller size, a solid road* 



MACADAMISED ROADWATS I 



way may he formed, of a tbickneBB not exceeding 4 iaolu 
Inferior quality of material, bad ground, or heavy trafi 
does not imperatively demand greater thickneBB, if ii 
road be Trell and continaoualy maintained. Four inch 




Fig. M^iype-Secfion, 



of thickness may be regarded as sufficient : it may be pi 
dent to mate a tbictness of 6 inebes ; and any exci 
above 8 inches is completely useless. 



s=> 




.— Type-Secaon, Belgfnia. 



The curvature of the old roads was escessive. The ri 
was &om 1 in 14 to 1 in 12. The m.oBt convenient rise 
1 in 33, which ia much more than sufficient for awell-ke 
road. The minimum appears to be 1 in SO ; which is t] 



CONSTRUCTION. 167 

slope upon which the weight is in equilibrium with the 
frictional resistance on roads in good condition. When 
newly made, the rise may be 1 in 25, to allow for the 
greater wear at the centre than at the sides. The form of 
the base, or surface of the ground, may follow the curva- 
ture of the surface ; but M. Dumas prefers a horizontal 
line, as in all respects preferable. A road 10 metres, or 
83 feet wide, with a rise of 1 in 33, and an average thick- 
ness of 4 inches, on a horizontal base, would have, accord- 
ing to M. Dumas, a thickness of 8 inches at the middle or 
crown, and 2 inches at the sides. But these measure- 
ments are not consistent with each other. 

The material for the road must have the qualities of 
hardness, and facility for binding. The largest pieces 
must pass through a 2^-inch ring; the smaller pieces 
occupy the interspaces. The 2i-inch gauge is perhaps too 
large for very hard material, but it is more than sufficient 
for the softer materials. The smallest dihris of broken 
material should be preserved, and spread on the surface. 
For gravel, the lower limit of size is fixed by the use of a 
sieve having J-inch meshes ; otherwise there may be no- 
thing but sand for binding. The smallest pieces should 
be on the upper surface ; if not, the upper pieces are 
broken. It is well, finally, to break the pieces on the 
made surface : the dShris binds. 

For the consolidation of the road, it should be roUed 
and watered. The cylinder of the roller should be from 
6 feet to 6^ feet in diameter, and 5 feet wide ; weighing, 
empty, 3 tons, and full, 6 tons. The maximum weight, 
when loaded, should be from 8 to 10 tons. These weights 
give a pressure varjring from 112 pounds to 370 pounds 
per inch of width; the sufficiency of which has been 
proved by experience. The empty roller is first used; 
then the full roller; and, lastly, the weighted roller. 
$and or other binding, with water, are thrown on the 



IC8 MACADAMISED ROADWAYS IN FRANCS. 

surface at intervals ; the water helps to bind the nc 
material. The material binds most speedily when tl 
thickness is 4 or 5 inches. For this thickness 8 or 1 
traverses are sufficient: — ^two traverses dry, with tl 
empty roller ; two, with a layer of detritus and the empl 
roller ; two with the full roller, two with the loaded rolls 
and one at an interval of from 8 to 15 days after the roa 
is opened for traffic. The same number of horses peo 
form the work of rolling from first to last. But the sm 
face of inclined portions may be injured by the feet of th 
horses ; and the injury is partially prevented by increai 
ing the nimiber of horses. It is nearly impossible to rol 
over inclines steeper than 1 in 20. 

If the metal is more than 4 or 5 inches thick, it shouli 
be deposited in two successive layers, to be rolled suooei 
sively ; although the first layer shoidd not be oompleid; 
rolled ; and the second layer should be laid after the sm 
face of the first has been roughed by the traffic. 

The surface is kept up by the use of a stamper a 
rammer, weighing from 15 to 20 pounds, which is 8 inchfl 
in diameter at the base, and is shod with iron. In sod 
cases, stamping may be applied with advantage, insteai 
of rolling. 

A road constructed on the system above described 
4 inches thick, is superior to a road 8 or 10 inches x 
thickness, consolidated by wheels, and with successii 
additions of material. 

The fianks of the road or the bermes (aecdtements), ooi 
sisting of the natural ground, are fit for traffic during ti 
greater part of the year. 

**A11 these proceedings," says M. Dumas, "have, fi 
their basis, the principle of the maximum of heauty.^^ 



CHAPTEE VIL 

STONE PAYEMENTS-CITY OF LONDON. 

has been stated that the streets of London were, pre- 
islj to the introduction of granite SQts, p&ved with 
)bles or boulder-stones, which were bedded in sand, and 
stituted pebble-paying. This pavement was gradually 
lerseded by a pavement of irregular blocks of stone, and 
mately by rectangular granite sets, or '' cubed granite/' 
^ey are sometimes designated ; untlL, in 1B48, there re.- 
ined only one nule of pebble-paving in a total lengQi 
\0 miles, in the City alone. Granite sets of comparatively 
^e dimensions were at first employed. They were 
tn 6 to 8 inches in width on the surface, by horn. 10 to 
inches in length, with a depth of 9 inches. As origi- 
ly laid, they were merely laid in rows on the subsoil^ 
1, after the usual process of grouting and ramming, 
street was thrown open for the traffic which was ex- 
ited to perform the last duty of the pavior, and to settle 
h stone upon its bed. The large wooden rammer, of 
pounds weight, was obviously insufficient for the pur- 
16 of enabling the pavement to resist, without fdrther 
vement, the percussion of heavily weighted wheels. In: 
10, however, and probably for some time previously, it 
I become the general practice to make a good sub- 
itum of ** hard core," consisting of shiverSy'bioken stone, 
sk rubbish, clinker, or other hard material, — not 
6ssarily of the size of macadam^ nor, on the oontraiy, 

z 



170 STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OP LONDON. 

laid on a payement on the Telford system of road-making, 
but a medium between these extremes of practice, such as 
Telford himseK recommended in 1824. The substratum! 
of hard core has been usually laid to a depth of from 
9 inches to 12 inches ; but a thickness of 15 inches has 
been laid down in the principal streets of the City. Upon 



A 2' f n 

S i ^ i — i^n 33,0 

I 



Pig. 45.— stone Pavement of King William Street, City of London. 

the hard core was laid a stratum of sand, into which fSMJ 
stone sets were bedded. Fig. 45 shows a section of j 
King William Street, as originally paved. 

The following table, No. 17, gives the dates of the 
mation of some of the earliest carriage-way granite pai 
ments laid in the leading thoroughfares in the City 
London, with their superficial dimensions, and the len( 
of time that they remained before being removed to othe 
places.* 

* This table is compiled from the Reports of lieutenant-Cole 
Haywood, Engineer and Surveyor to the Commissioners of Sewc 
of the City of Iiondon. The writer is indebted to this vali 
series of Reports for the greater proportion of the materials emplo^ 
in the preparation of what follows with respect to the streets of till 
City of London. 



• 



DVBATION OP EAKLT PAVEMENTS. 



171 



Jo. 17. — CiTT OP Loin>oN: — ^Easlibst Ca&riaob-wat G&akitb 

Payembnts in Lbadino Thobouohpakes. 
Aberdeen Ghnnite Sets, 6 inches wide by 9 inches deep. 



if Thocongh- 


When 




Time 


v> « 


«ne. 


laid. 


up. 


down. 


Bemarka. 




Year. 


Year. 


Yean. 




Street • 


1828 


1848 


20 , 




te Hill 


w- 


1844 


16 




te Street . 


n 


1847 


19 




o^te St. 1 
lioat . j 


n 


1853 


25 




Y 


1829 


1841 &*43 


11&13 


Bemored fnr wood paTing 


nde 


»> 


1843 & '44 


14&15 


f Do. do. 
\ 1843 to 1846-47. 


gdon Street 


1830 


— 


— 


Belaid in 18R8 


ir Street 


» 


1845 


15 




kte Street . 


>» 


1842 


12 


Bemoved for wood paving 


gate Street . 


1831 


1867 


26 




il'sChurch- \ 
I 1 


n 


1847 


16 




rn 


n 


1849 


18 




Ineedle St. . 


ji 


1862 


31 




Street . • 


1832 


1846 


14 




arch Street • 


n 


1852 


20 




Q. Street 


» 


\ 1856 


24 




ook 




i 






Moorfields 1 
s 5 in. by 7) 
Villiam St. . 


1833 


1 

1 ^ 

1 
1 


— 


Still down in 1863 


1834 


i 1849 


15 


' 


B Street 


1835 


1850 


15 




r^ne . 


1837 


i 1856 


19 




[flditch • 


»> 


1853 


16 




•tireet* • • 


1838 


1856 


18 





arly the whole of the stones which formed these early 
nents was removed to and laid in places of secondary 
3 within the City, where their duration has been as 
as, and in some instances greater than, it had already 
in the original thoroughfares. 

e cost for reparation, up to the year 1840, of 36 streets 
dth granite sets 6 inches wide and 9 inches deep, in- 
ig nearly all the streets named in the preceding table, 
alculated by Mr. Kelsey, formerly the City Surveyor, 
he results are given in the following table, No. 18„ 

i2 



172 



STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OF LONDON. 



Table No. 18. — Cost fok Beparation or Oabrtaoe-way Payembnts, 

Laid with 6-inch Granite Sets, in .he City of London, up to the 

year 1840. 



Name of Street. 



Aldgate High Street 
Aldgate Street, and 

Aldgate 
Aldersgate Street • 
Arthur Street West 
Bishopsgate Street 

Without 
Bishopsgate Street 

Within 
Bud^e How and 

Watling Street . 
Cannon Street. 
Cheapside and Fo :1- 

try 
Coleman Street 
Comhill . 
Dowgate Hill . 
Farringdon Street . 
Fenchurch Street . 
Fleet Street . 
Fish Street Hill . 
Gracechurch Street . 
Holbom Bridge and 

Skinner Street 
Holbom Hill . 



Average 
cost of repa- 
ration per 
square yard 

per year. 



ponce, 
over J 

over 
over 



over 



Name of Street. 



over 



nearly 1 



not 
over 
nearly 
not 
over 

nearly l\ 
not 
not 1 

not ^ 



Holbom . 

King Street, Snow 
Hill . . . 

King Street, Cheap- 
side . . • 

Leadenhall Street . 

Long Lane 

Lombard Street 

Ludgate Hill and 
Street . 

Newgate Street 

New Bridge Street 
(part of) 

Old Bailey (part of) 

Pavement, The 

Queen Street . 

Shoe Lane (part of) . 

St. Pauls Church- 
yard . 

Threadneedle Street 

Walbrook 

Wood Street . 



Avemge 
oostof rcpt" 

zatkmper 
sqiiareyuA 

per year. 



pence, 
over 1 

over f 

not I 

nearly 2 

not 

nearly 



4 



Average cost for re- 
pair, say 



not 



not 

not 
not 
not 

over 
not 

over 



8 



2f 
1 



1 penny 



The average cost for repair, according to the table, may^ 
be taken at Id, per square yard per year. The first coft 
was considerably affected by the nature of the pavement . 
laid, — ^the size of the stones, the nature of the granite^ and 
the market price of the material. Colonel Haywood eeti-. 
mated that, for stones 9 inches in depth, it ranged from 
11«. to 17«. per square yard. 

The long continuance of the system of paving with large 
blocks resulted from the experience of their great dura- 
bility and economy in first cost. But they did not afford!^ 



4 



tNTBODUCnON OF THBBB*IKCH 8BT8. 173 

dnt foothold for horse-trafflo. Granite sets of less 
were subsequently laid: — they were 5 inohes and 
OS in width ; and, finally, sets of only 8 inches in width 
Laid. The 8-inch sets, with a depth of 9 inches, al- 
ii they were considered to be the least durable, and 
reatest in first cost, proved to be by far the safest for 
g, and they gave more satisfEuHion than the wider 
The merit of their introduction is due to Mr. Walker, 
* whose direction Black&iars Bridge was, in 1840, 
I with 8-inch granite sets. Mr. Walker attached 
importance to the obtainment of a solid substratum. 
iMars Bridge, to the paving of which allusion has 
iy been made, was closed for some weeks, in order 
ihe concrete foimdation might have time to set and 
•n, before the pavement was laid down. The narrow 
te sets were laid with a great degree of accuracy, and 
hole mass was bedded as if it was composed of bricks : 
ones were bedded in good mortar, and the joints were 
illed with it, and in consequence of the careM work- 
tiip, with the use of narrow stones, the work remained 
for 18 years, at the end of which time it was lifted. 
)m that time — 1840 — ^the use of 8-uich sets was ex- 
d, tmtil, in 1848, there were, in the City of London 
, three miles of carriage-way paved with them. The 
ring analysis, prepared by Colonel Haywood, shows 
ingths of the various kinds of pavement in the City 
ndon, in November, 1848 : — 

CiTT OF London Payembntb, in Notbmbeb, 1848. 

Mflei. 
^way pavement of pebbles or boulders . . about 1 

B^way payement of 6-incli, 5-inch, and 4-inch 

anite sets (nearly the whole being 6-inch sets) . ., 28^ 

^-way pavement of 3-inch sets • . . „ 3 

pavement, various kinds ' . • . • *. i 

amised road, in Finsbury Circus • • • n i 

one paving, courts, alleys, &c. • • • m 16^ 

Total . • • • 60 



174 STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OP LONDOIT. 

In 1851, there were 51 miles of public ways in the City 
containing 

441,250 square yards of carriage-way, averaging for, say, 34} xnilei^ 

about 22 feet wide. 
328,907 square yards of footway. 



770,167 



In 1866, Colonel Haywood reported that there were 
then 50 miles of public way : — 

Hilfli. 

Main thoroughfares • • • • ,7 

Collateral thoroughfares • . • • ,28 

Minor streets, courts, alleys, passages, &c. • .15 

60 

Area of carriage-way, about • • 390,260 square yards. 

Bo. footway ,, • • 309,018 „ 



699,278 



Eegarding the question in all its bearings, Colonel 
Haywood concluded that the 3-inch granite sets, being 
safest, as giving the best foothold, were the best for large 
towns with great traffic. On such a pavement, horses 
were less strained, there was less wear and tear of vehideiB^ 
and a greater degree of quietness and general comfort 
They made the most even pavement, and they retained an 
even surface, longer than any other stone pavement that 
had been tried. 

In adopting, in 1848, the conclusion that 3-inch sets — 
that is, granite sets 3 inches in thickness, with a depth of. 
mkiSluL^^ — ^were the best for large towns, Colonel Haywood 
11«. to 17«. blP *^® experience of a trial piece of what was 

The long con?S pav^iJ^o^^* ^^ Mount Sorrel granite, which 
blocks resulted fro'iS^^' ^ Watling Street, and relaid in 
biHty and economy in ^e^ived its name from the circum- 



THE EUSTON PAVEMENT. 176 

stance of its having been laid about the year 1843, at the 
depcurture side of the Euston Station of the London and 
North Western Eailway. The same sort of pavement had 
previously been tried experimentally^ and for the first time, 
in 1838, at Birmingham, at the crossing of a street, where 
heavy loaded wagons were constantly passing over it, and, 
in 1850, it was stated by Mr. William Taylor* to be in as 
perfect a condition as when it was first laid. Mr. Taylor'^ 
motives for advocating the Euston pavement, were based 
upon the principle advocated by Macadam,— 'to provide a 
foundation possessing a certain amoimt of elasticity, but of 

' sufficient strength to support the surface material ; but he 
substituted '' one stratum of solid granite,'' in the form of 
paving-stones 4 inches deep, for an equal depth of mao- 
adam or broken ring-stone : — thus endeavouring to com- 
bine the elasticity, so-called, of a macadam road, with the 
durability of a paved road. As laid at Euston, the ground 
was first removed to the depth of 16 inches below the in- 
tended level of the pavement, the bottom being formed to 
the convexity of the intended surface of the street. A 
layer of coarse gravel, 4 inches thick, was spread upon the 
"bottom ; and coifipressed by being rammed equally through- 
out. Upon this layer was placed another layer, 4 inches 
thick, of gravel mixed with a small proportion of chalk, or 
of hoggin, and rammed likewisis. A third layer of the 
same materials as the second, but of a finer quality, was 
distributed, and the whole was well rammed together, to 
form a solid and level surface ready to receive the pave- 
ment. Upon a 1-inch bed of sand, stones of Mount Sorrel 

' granite were laid, measuring 3 inches wide, averaging 

• Froeeedings of the Institution of CivU Engin$$r$^ 1840-60; 
ToL ix., p. 214 :— " Observatioiifl on the Street Faying of the Metato- 
polis ; with an Account of a peculiar system adopted at the London 
and North- Western Railway Station. Euston Square^" by Williaai 
Taylor. 



176 STONE PAVEMENTS— CITY OF LONDON, 

4 inches in length, and from 3 to 4 inches deep, neatly i 
dressed and squared ; and carefully and closely jointed, in ^- 
order to prevent any single stone from rocking in its bed. * 
A rammer of 55 pounds weight was then applied over 
the whole surface, after which the pavement was covered 
with a sprinkling of screened gravel. The maximum, 
cost of the Euston pavement, the foundation included, 
was said to amount to 128. per square yard. Mr. Dock- 
ray, resident engineer of the railway, in testifying to 
the excellency of the Euston paving, stated that the car- 
riage-way had previously been substantially executed, 
according to the old system, with stones 8 indies deep, 
laid upon a substratum of concrete ; but that the stones 
became much rounded on the upper surface, and were 

• 

required to be removed. In the Euston pavement he 
stated that, by reason of the smallness of the stones, 
they never became rounded on the upper surface by 
wear, as was the case in ordinary pavements of large 
stones. The Euston pavement was subsequently laid in 
the large esplanade in front of the booking offices at 
Euston station. The carriage-way traffic at Euston sta- 
tion has of course been of a light order, — ^limited to 
carriages, cabs, and omnibuses. 

Reverting to Colonel Haywood's piece of Euston pave- 
ment, in Watling Street, he had experienced a difficulty in 
obtaining a satisfactory test of the durabilities and cost of 
various pavings ; and, with a view towards the settling of the 
question of the most useful dimensions of granite sets, for 
the carriage-ways of the City, he recommended that different 
sorts of stone-paving should be laid in Moorgate Street. 
The experimental pieces were laid, all at the same time, in 
October, 1848. The situation was well chosen, for the 
different pieces of paving were as nearly as possible sub- 
jected to the same amount and kind of traffic, with the 
usual disturbing and destructive influences. The dimen- 



EXPERIMENTAL PAVING. 



177 



fiions and the first costs of the experimental paving ore 
exhibited in Table No. 19« 

Table No. 19. — Citt of London z—Exfbsimbntal Fayzno hi 

MooBOATB Stbbbt, 1848 — 56. 
DimensionB and Fir»t Cost. 



Name of Ontnite. 




first cost 

per square 

yard com* 

plete. 


Depth. 


Width or 

thickness 

atthesor- 


Length at 
thesnzikoe. 


1. Blue Aberdeen . 

2. Mount Sorrel . 
8. Blue Aberdeen . 

4. Mount Sorrel . 

5. Blue Aberdeen . 

6. Mount Sorrel . 


inches. 
9 
9 
9 
9 
6 
6 


inches. 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 


inches. 
8 to 12 
8 to 12 
8 to 12 
8 to 12 

5 

5 


s. d.^ 
18 8 
14 9 

16 3 

17 
10 9 
12 



" NoTB TO Tablb. — The' cost of the substratum is not included in 
the above prices, but the whole of the specimens were laid upon a 
si^bstratum of equal depth and compactness, and the cost for a founda- 
tion may be taken for aU practical considerations, as being the same 
for the whole. The prices given, therefore, are for the new granite 
surface only, laid and grouted with lime and sand, and left oomplete. 

The pavings were duly and oarefully maintained during 
the eight years from October, 1848, to October, 1856, under 
Colonel Haywood's personal superintendence. The accounts 
of charges for maintenance were accurately kept, and the 
results, with additional particidars, are given in Tables 
Nos. 20 and 21. 



13 



178 



STONE PAVEMENTS— CITY OP LONDON. 



Table No. 20. — Citt of Londoit : — ^Expsbdibiital Paying nr Moc 

Street, 1848—56. 
Cost for BeparationB. 



Name of Gzanite. 



1. Blue Aberdeen 

2. Mount Sorrel 

3. filue Aberdeen 

4. Mount Sorrel 

5. Blue Aberdeen 

6. Mount Sorrel 



Averages . . . 



Cost for 
repara- 
tion in 
8 years, 
per sq. 
p-d. per 
year. 



Annnal 
interest 
at 6 per 
cent, on 

first 
cost, per 
sq. yrd. 



d. 
2-076 

•96 
4*62 
1872 
6*684 
5-844 



3-672 



Cost fori 
repara 
tionand 
interest 

to- 
gether, 
persqr. 
]rardper 
year. 



d. 

8-20 
8-70 
9-74 
10.20 
6*46 
7-20 



8-41 



d. 
10-27 
9-66 
14-36 
12-07 
1314 
1304 



12-08 



Date of first Rparatioiii after 
down the several pavcnnenti 
October, 18ia 



In quarter ending M'maa 

Inlialfjear 

In „ 

In „ 

In quarter ending Mar. 25 

In half year ending M'mac 



»» 
** 
»» 



ft 



Table No. 21.— City op London: — ^Experimentai. Pavino 

Mo ORG ATE Street, 1848 — 66. 
Data showing Oomparatiye Values. 



Name of Granite. 


Number 

of stones 

in a square 

yard. 


Area of 
surface of 
one stone. 


Cubic 

contents 

of one 

stone. 


Area 
relaidin 
8y6az8. 


Areao 

new sun 

laidiB 

8yesa 




stones. 


sqnnre 
inches. 


cubic 
inches. 


percent. 


peroeni 


1. Blue Aberdeen . 


29 


44-7 


402-2 


1198 


1-68 


2. Mount Sorrel . 


25 


51-8 


466-6 


41-8 


•76 


3. Blue Aberdeen . 


35 


370 


333-3 


243-6 


3-93 


4. Mount Sorrel . 


34 


38-1 


3431 


108-7 


•82 


5. Blue Aberdeen . 


61 


25-4 


127-0 


263-2 


20-17 


6. Mount Sorrel . 


67 


22-7 


113-7 


3U8-1 


707 



From the foregoing data, it appears that Aberdeen stoi 
required earlier and more extensive repair and rene^ 
than Mount Sorrel stone ; and that the pavings compoo 
of the smallest stones needed more reparation, and t 
insertion of a greater quantity of new stone, and o< 
more for repair, than those composed of the larger stoni 
Colonel Haywood states that these conclusions accord wi 



GRANITES THAT HAVE BEEN TRIED. 179 

r 

the results of his general experience ; but that the single 
conclusion which could safely be deduced was that, within 
the limits of the sizes of stones laid in the experimental 
paying, the cost for repair upon similax paving was in- 
versely as the size of the stones. 

In 1855, the experimental paving was to a great extent 
relaid; and in 1858 it was wholly relaid. In 1864, when 
it had been down altogether 16 years, it was removed. 
The first cost averaged 14^. Zd, per square yard, and the 
total cost for laying and repair during the 16 years it was 
down, not including any charge for interest on first 
outlay, was — 

First Cost . • lOfd. per square yard per year. 

Cost for Repair • • 4}d. „ „ 



Total Ck)st . . 15id. 



n 



Beferring to Table No. 20, it is seen that the average 
annual cost for repair, during the first 8 years, was only 
3*67 pence per square yard. The greater cost during the 
last period of 8 years, arose no doubt from the inferior 
condition of the pavement, due to the loss of depth of the 
sets by wear; and to some extent, also, from the augmented 
traffic. 

Granites of various qualities have been tried for carriage- 
way pavements in the City : — Aberdeen, Quemsey, Henn, 
Devonshire, Cornish, Moimt Sorrel. The harder and more 

durable granites, like the Quemsey and the Mount Sorrel 
granites, though the more economical, possess the fault of 
slipperiness when set in pavement ; the less durable granites 
wear roughly, and therefore afford' a better foothold Ibr 
horses. Hence it is that, for the sake of public convenienoe, 
the hardest and most durable granites are not employed. 
The hardest granites have invariably caused so much dii^ 
satisfaction that they have had to be removed before they 
had been down many years. For instance, Penmaenmf 



180 8TOKE PATEMEJrre— CITY OF lOSDGN. 

greywacke paying was laid in Newgate Street in 1851, and 
it was removed after a trial of 2i years, as it was the cause 
of repeated complaints of slipperiness and noisiness. The 
Aberdeen blue granite sets have for the most part been 
employed in the construction of City pavements ; they ara 
considered to be the best, taking together the first cost, 
the durability, and the absence of slipperiness. 

Since the cost of a pavement depends upon the material 
of which it is formed — ^the width of the street, the extent 
and nature of the traffic, and other conditions — it fol- 
lows that, in no two streets is the endurance or the cost 
the same, and the difference between the highest and the 
lowest periods of endurance, and amount of cost, is veiy 
considerable. The practice pursued, almost uniformly, 
with respect to the rotation of granite paving, is to lay 
the new gr^aite in the main thoroughfares ; when their 
pavements are considerably worn, and the stones require 
to be reworked before they can be advantageously relaid, 
or when an entire relay of the surface is needful, the worn 
granite is removed, and new granite laid in its place. In 
this way, it most commonly occurs that the pavements in 
main thoroughfares are removed before they are worn out. 
The old material is taken to the stone-yard, where it is 
mixed with the general stock, reworked, sorted into sizes, 
and laid in other, and secondary, thoroughfares when 
needed. Thus the duration or life of the stones may be 
doubled, or more than doubled. ''Indeed, with the excep- 
tion of the portion worn off by the friction of the traffic, 
not a fragment of granite paving may be said to be lost. 
Affcer passing its first years in a leading thoroughfare, it 
goes into a secondary thoroughfare until completely worn 
down and rounded, and will even then command a price of 
from U. 6d, to 28, 6d. per square yard. Not even a frag- 
ment that is knocked off the component stones, when 
undergoing the operation of being dressed into shape, is 



TRAFFIC IN THE CITY. 



181 



lost ; as it is made available either directly for macadam- 
'ising, or for forming substrata to other pavements ; or, if 
euch employment cannot be found for it, it will always com- 
mand a good price by its sale. In truth, granite can only 
be said to be worn out when it has been broken up for 
macadamisation, and then crushed into powder by the 
vehicles." 

It is due to the system of rotation, above described, 
which largely conduces to the general convenience, that 
although the general cost for repairs is accurately known, 
the cost of most of the pavements individually, during a 
term of years, cannot be arrived at, excepting by estimation. 

Moreover, it is to be borne in mind, on the question of 
the durability and cost of stone pavements, that the traffic 
of the City has not been stationary, but that it has gradu- 
ally increased in the course of years, and that, to arrive at 
a just conclusion, the traffics of the periods brought into 
the comparison are to be duly considered. The following 
is a selection of a few principal streets in the City, with 
average nimibers of vehicles by which they were traversed 
in 12 hours during one week-day, between 8 a.m. and 
8 p.m., in July 1850, and in June, July, 1857. These 
data are abstracted horn reports made by Colonel Hay- 
wood : — 

Table No. 22. — City of London: — Number op Vehicles which 

TRAVERSED FiFTEEN PRINCIPAL ThOROUOHFABBS IN 12 H0VB8, 
IN 1850 AND 1857 ; WITH A FEW DATA FOB 1865 AND 1871. 





Number of Vehicles 




1 


Name of Thorough&re. 


wk[cb traversed the 


In 24 honrs. | 




street in 12 hours. 








year 1860. 


year 1867. 


year 1866. 


year 1871. 


Temple Bar . . • • 


7,741 


9,883 


11,972 


— 


Ludgate Hill 


6,829 


10,626 


— 


— 


Cheapside .... 


11,053 


13,512 


— 


11,900 


Poultry .... 


10,274 


11,667 


— 


9,600 


Cornhill .... 


4,916 


5,256 


— 


— 


Old Broad Street . 


— 


— 


— 


2,600 


Caixied forward . 


1 









182 STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OF LONDON. 

f 

Tablb No. 22 — continued. 



Name of Thorofngh&re. 


Number of Vehicles 

which tnvened the 

street in IS hoars. 


In841iofi]r8. 


Brought forward 
Leadenhall Street 
Lombard Street . 
Fenchurch Street . 
Bishopegate Ut. Within 
KiRhopsgate !St. Withou 
Gracechutxih Street 
London Bridge 
Newgate Street . 
Aldersgate Street . 
Blackfriars Bridge 
Southwark Bridge 


t '. 

• 


year 1860. 

5,930 
2,228 
3,642 
4,842 
4,110 
4,887 
13,099 
6,375 
2,690 
5,262 


year 1867. 

4,325 
1,644 
5,273 
6,283 
5,804 
5,267 
18,179 
8,341 
2,719 
6,723 


year 1866. 

7,366 

19,405 

3,936 
9,660 
4,700 


yearl871. 
2,600 

7,400 


Totals .... 


93,778 


115,402 







Note to Table. — ^Equestrians were included and numbered as 
vehicles. These numbers were so small as not materially to affect the 
quantities. 

The gross increase of traffic, from 93,778 vehicles in 
one day in 1850, to 115,402 vehicles in one day in 1857, 
amounted to 22^ per cent, in seven years, or at the rate of 
about 3 per cent, per year, on the traffic observed in 
1850. But, it must be remarked that the traffic may not 
be similarly augmented in every street individually, sincd 
the streams of traffic are modified by the opening of 
new streets and new railway stations. Instances of such 
fluctuations are observable in the numbers of vehides 
given in the last column of the table. 

The following data for the duration of 3-inch granite 
pavements in the streets of the City, have been gleaned 
from Colonel Haywood's reports. It is shown that the 
paving only lasted 6 years in the Poultry; and it may here 
be noted that the granite pavements of the Poultry, next 
to the kerbs, or next to the tramways, needed repair at 
about the end of the flrst year. Omitting the very short 



GRANITE PAVEMENT, THREE-INCH SETS. 



18 



and very exceptionally tried pavement of tlie Poultry, a 
well as the second pavement in Cheapside, which wa 
prematurely removed, the average of the observed dura 
tions was 15f years : — 



Table 23. — Duration of Granite Payembnts in bomb Principal Stj 

IN THE City op London. 1846 — 1863. 

Aberdeen Granite Sets, 3 inches wide and 9 inches deep. 



Bitoation. 


Laid. 


Belaid. 


Tnlren 
up. 


Dura* 
tion. 


ObseryatioBs. 




Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


Years. 


/ Cost for rei 


Poultry 


1846 


— 


1852 


6 


< 2-66d. per sqi 
( yard per yeai 


( 


1846 


1853 


1861 


15 




Cheapside (portion) ( 


1861 


— 


1870 


9 


( Taken up for 
\ phalte. 


Cheapside (east end) 


1847 


1853 


— 


— 




St.Paul'sChurchyard 


1847 


1853&'58 


1863 


16 




Ludgate Hill . 


1844 


1853 


1863 


19 




Ludgate Street • 


1847 


1853 


— 


—— 


I Cost for re] 


Fleet Street . 


1846 


1853 


1860 


14 


I 3d. per sqi 
( yard per yoaj 


Newgate Street 


1846 


1854 


— 


— 




Skinner Street 


1845 


1848&'56 


— 


— 


Widened in 18^ 


Threadneedle \ 
Street (West) . ] 

Fenchurch Street 
(East) 


1848 
1846 


1857 
1852 


1862 


14 




Fenchurch Street 
(West) 


1845 


1852 


1861 


16 




• 


1845 


1852 


1857 


12 




Leadenhall Street - 


1857 


1863 


— 


— 


fK^laid with < 
third new sto 


Princes Street 


1850 


1857 


^— 


^^ 


Sets 4 in. X 9.i 


Average duration, omitting the Poultry an 


id the Bi 


jcond payement i 


Cheapside as exceptional install 


Lces, 15^ 


^ years. 



To the above data for streets, may be added the follow 
ing data for bridges :— 



184 



STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OF LONDON. 



Continuation op 


Tabt.e No. 23. 


Situat'on. 


Laid. 


Belaid. 


Taken 
up. 


Dura- 
ticm. 


Obserrations. 


London Bridge j 
Blackfriars Bridge . 


Year. 
1830 
1842 
1840 


— 


Year. 
1842 
1851 
1853 


Years. 
12 
9 
13 


> 6-inch sets. 



In 1854, Colonel Haywood had estimated the total dura- 
tion of the granite pavement of Fleet Street at 12 years. 
It may be seen from the table, that it lay actually 14 years 
till it was removed. He added that, after having been 
re-dressed, it would last 15 years more in secondary streets. 
The total life of such pavement amounted thuB, by estima- 
tion, to 29 years. 

The cost for repairs of Fleet Street was stated, in 1854, 
to be Sd, per square yard per year. The average cost of 
repairing the granite pavements of the streets of the City, 
in 1854, was also Sd. per square yard per year.* 

Colonel Haywood, in 1853, made a carei^ estimate, 
based on the experience of City pavements, of the cost 
and the duration, or life, of a pavement of 3*inch Aberdeen 
granite sets, 9 inches deep, laid in such a thoroughfare as 
Gracechurch Street, in which the traffic as indicated in the 
table, No. 22, was rather below the average of the prin- 
cipal streets. This estimate was based on the prices of 
1842, in which year he assumes the laying of the pavement 
for the purpose of a direct comparison with the cost of 
Carey's wood pavement in Gracechurch Street. The cost 
of the first 3 -inch Aberdeen granite sets laid in the City 
was 14«. 6d. per square yard, laid and grouted complete, 
exclusive of foundation. The duration was taken at 25 
years, as from 1842, — assuming that the granite was not 

♦ Stated by Colonel Haj'wood. — See Proceedings of the Institution 
of Civil Engineer Sy vol. xiii. page 231. 



I 



GRANITE PAVEMENT, THREE-INCH SETS. 185 

removed until it was quite worn out. During this time, it 
would have required three general relays, at a cost of 
Is. per square yard, in addition to ordinary repairs, costing 
id. per square yard per year, for 20 out of the 25 years 
of life, allowing the £rst £ve years free of cost for re- 
pairs: — 

Per sq. yd. Per sq. yd* 

for 26 years. per year. 
B. d. d. 

First cost, exduding foundatioii • . 14 6 6 96 



Repairs ; three relays at Is. . • • 3 01 
Ditto, 20 years at |d. per year • . 1 3 J 



2-04 



Total Expenditure 18 9 9 

Deduct Talue as old material • • • 2 3 1*08 



Net total cost .... 16 6 7*92* 

This estimate was formed on the assumption that the 
■» stone would have been worn out where it was first laid. 
In actual practice, it would have lain there from 14 to 18 
years, and would have been removed to streets of inferior 
traffic, where it would have lasted at least as long again. 
The total life would thus have reached to from 30 to 40 
years ; and this may be taken as the actual life of 3-inch 
granite sets under the given conditions, with a value as old 
material of from U. 6d. to 28. 6d. per square yard. If the 
whole life, as for Gracechurch Street, be taken as 35 years, 
it will appear, from a calculation similar to the above, that 
the net total cost is 7d. per square yard per year. 

London Bridge was considered by Colonel Haywood to 
be the busiest thoroughfare in the world. In the course 
of 12 hours, in one day in 1850, it was traversed by 13,099 
vehicles. The whole surface of the bridge was covered 
with a bed of clay, 15 inches thick, thoroughly puddled 
and well beaten together. Upon this a 3-inch layer of 

* Colonel Haywood makes out the cost per square yard per year at 
^■i%bout 7id. 



186 STONE PAVEMENTS— CITY OF LONDON. 

fine sand was laid ; next, a bed, 12 inches deep, of fine 
fiint stones broken into small pieces, not larger thaii 
2 inches in diameter, well dressed and rolled. Finally, it 
was paved with granite sets 6 inches b j 9 inches deep, 
and was opened in 1830. After a period of 12 years, it 
was, in 1842, replaced by new paving, when the old stone 
was sold for Sa. per square yard. The second paving, laid 
in 1842, was formed of 3-inch Aberdeen granite sets, 
9 inches deep ; it was down 9 years, and was taken up 
and replaced with new granite in 1851. The second 
paving, though lifted, was not worn out; the average 
wear of the stones was estimated, from the result of careftd 
observation, at first 2 inches of depth, — ^being, at the rate 
of '222 inch per year ; and, had they been dressed, sorted, 
and relaid, with a small quantity of new stones to supply 
the deficiency of those which were very much worn, or 
badly cut, they would have lasted 7 or 8 years more upon 
the bridge, and would then have been fit to lay in a 
secondary thoroughfare. They would have been relaid 
on the bridge, but for the fact that more time would have 
been consumed by this process, than by repaving with 
new material. 

The total area of the carriage-way of London Bridge is 
8,950 square yards. The following were the expenses 
actually incurred on the pavement, from 1842 to 1851 :— 

Per sq. yd. Per aq. yd. 
For 9 years. for 9 years, per year. 

First cost .... £3,850 16 19 6 22 

Repairs for 9 years . . 277 11 1 4*86 1-87 

Total expenditure . . . 4,128 7 20 10*86 2 8-87 
Deduct allowance for old stones 757 3 10 5*11 



Ket total cost for 9 years . 3,371 7 17 0-86 1 10} 

The cost of the substratum is not included in this state- 
ment of expenditure. The high first cost was occasioned] 



COST AND DURATION OF GRANITE PAVEMENTS. 187 

by the great difficulty experienced in obtaiuing 3-incli 
stones, wbich. had but recently been introduced, unless a 
high price was paid for them ; together with the forcing 
of the labour, and the performance of the work by a 
half-width at a time. 

The paving of Black&iars Bridge, in 1840, with 3-inch 
sets has already been noticed, page 173. The paving con- 
sisted of Aberdeen stones and Ghiemsey stones, and was 
done at a cost of 20«. per square yard, including a foun- 
dation of concrete 12 inches deep. The average amoimt 
of wear, after 13 years' work, were IJ inches of the Aber- 
deen granite, and J inch of the Ghiemsey granite.* 

In 1871, Colonel Haywood made estimates, based upon 
past experience, of the durability and cost, imder not un- 
favourable circumstances, of Aberdeen granite pavement, 
3 inches wide and 9 inches deep, in Gheapside, Poultry, 
Old Broad Street, Moorgate Street, and Lombard Street, 
which, varying in width as well as in the nature of the 
traffic, might be taken as types of the leading thorough- 
fares of the City. The cost of pavements generally had 
augmented gradually during the previous 30 years. In 
1854, the cost was from 15«. to 17^. per square yard. 
In 1871, the price of paviors' work, above described, 
complete, except the foimdation, was 15^. iid. per square 
yard; but he adopted, in his estimates, a cost of 168. per 
Bquare yard. 

The estimated duration of a granite pavement in Gheap- 
side was 15 years ; and assuming one entire relay, and 
allowing for the value of the old stone when removed at 
the end of the time, the total cost during the period of 
15 years would be £1 4«. ^d,, or 1^. 7 id. per square yard, 
per year. 

Similarly, for the Poultry, Old Broad Street, Moorgate 

* Proeeedingi of the Institution of Civil Engineers^ vol. ziii. 
page 237. 



188 



STONE PAVEMENTS CITY OF LONDON. 



Street, and Lombard Street, suitable periods of duration 
were assigned, and one general relay during the time, with 
allowance for the value of the old stones. The following 
table comprises particulars of Colonel Haywood's esti- 
mates for the several streets :— 

Table No. 24.— Estimated Duration and Cost op Gbanitb Pavb- 
MENTs IN Principal Cabbiaoe-ways in the Gitt of London, 1871. 

Aberdeen Granite Sets, 3 inches wide by 9 inches deep. 



Situation. 


Width 

of 
Street. 


Daily 
traffic in 
24 hom-B 


Dura- 
tion of 
the 
Pave- 
ment. 


First 

oost per 

square 

yard. 


Total oost, 
induding 

main- 
tenance, 
and de- 
ducting 
for old 
stones. 


Average 

total cost 

per sguaze 

yard per 

year. 


Cheapside 
Poultry . 
Old Broad Street 
Moorgate Street 
Lombard Street 

Averages . 


Feet. 
30 
22 
24 
32 
17 


Vehicles. 

11,900 
9,600 
2,600 
7,400 
2,600 


Years. 
15 
8 
20 
15 
20 


B d. 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


s. d. 
24 4} 
22 4 
20 11 J 

20 7 

21 4^ 


e. d. 

1 7 

2 9 

1 o; 

1 4 
1 (^ 




— 


— 


15-6 


16 


21 11 


1 7 



The average estimated duration indicated by this table 
is nearly identical with that which is deduced from actual 
observation in the previous table, No. 23. 

Typical sections and plans of a dO-feet street for the City of 
London, Figs. 46, 47, and 48. — For these illustrations the 
Author is indebted to Colonel Haywood. The extreme 
width of the street is 50 feet, between the houses: — 
divided into 30 feet for the width of the carriage-way, 
and 10 feet for each footway. The bed of the road is 
excavated to a depth of 21 inches below the finished level 
of the street, following the contour of the surface. A 
layer of broken stones, 9 inches tLick, is distributed over 
the ground, and is covered by a layer of hoggin or small 
gravel and sand, 3 inches tliick, as a bed for the paving. 



FIFTY- FEET STRBBT. 



Ill 



190 STOKE PATEMENTS CITY OF LONDOW. 




80UTHWARK STREET. 



The paving coasiBts of granite sets o 



" cubes," 



I inches 




wide and 9 Inches deep, and 

of lengths varjing froia 10 to 

15 inches, grouted at the joints. 

The rise of the pavement is 

6 inches Hot the width of 30 

feet, or 1 in 30 for the average 

inclination, the contour being 

a segment of a circle. The 

footpaths are laid with 3-inch 

■ York pavement, bounded by a 

T- granite kerb 12 inches wide, 

I and 9 inches deep, showing 

i 6 inches above the roadway 

I pavement. 

Southtcarh Street, Soufhtoari, 
I Figs. 49 and 50. — This is a 
^ g'ood example of a first-claas 
■^.Metropolitan street, arranged 
J with a suliway and a sewer at 
^ the middle, and cellarage at 
I each side. The street is 70 
f feet wide between the houses, 
[ comprising two 12-feet foot- 
^ ways, and a carriago-way 46 
Bfeet wide. For the construc- 
tion of this street, the ground 
was levelled, and iho soft 
places cleared out. It was 
covered with a bottoming of 
brick rubbish, varying from 
6 to 10 inches deep, which 
was rolled and hound with 
sand. Upon this bottoming 
was laid a stratum of ooncretfl 



STONB PAVEMENTS. 



12 incIieB thick, coneistmg of blue lias lime and clean 
Thames ballast, in the ratio of 1 to 6 by measure. A 




layer of sand or hoggin, 1^ or 2 inches thick, vas dis- 
tributed over tiie concrete as a bed for the granite sets, 
Trhich were 9 inches deep and 3 iuches wide. The atonal 

were set close and grouted together. 



CHAPTEE Vin. 

STONE PAVEMENTS OP LIVERPOOL. 

AccoEDiNG to the report of Mr. Newlands, the borough 
engineer of Liverpool, in 1851, there were 174 miles of 
carriage-way, and 69 miles of courts and passages, com- 
prising — 

Square yardfl. 
Carriage-wayB • • 2,243,560 

Chaimels • • 231,362 

2,474,922 

Footways 1,048,264 



3,523,186 square yards. 

From this it appears that the average width of the car- 
riage-ways and channels together was 8*1 yards, or Sl4*3 
feet. The covering of the carriage-ways con8is1;ed foi 
the most part, — ^to the extent of nearly two-thirds, — of 
boulder paving; one-fifth consisted of macadam, 8 per 
cent, only consisted of pavement of greywack6 sets from 
Penmaenmaur, and 6 per cent, consisted of sand and 
ashes. 

The actual cost for the construction of several streets 
with greywacke pavement, in 3-inch sets, is given in Table 
No. 25. The channels were of Penmaenmaur stone, and 
the crossings of granite. The cost for the preparation of 
the foundation is included. The foundation consisted of 
a bottoming of ballast prepared and covered with gravel 
and sand, upon which the sets were placed. 

K 



194 



STONE PAVEMENTS OF LIVERPOOL. 



A similar table, No. 26, gives the cost for the con- 
struction of several streets with boulder paving; from 
which it may be seen that the boulders were bedded on 
the ground, without the intervention of a hard bottoming. 

Table No. 25. — Ltvbkpool Streets : — Cost pob Constbuction phb 
Square Yard of the Garriaoe-watb of Six Streets or 

DIFFERENT LOCALITIES. 

Greywacke Set Pavements. — Sets, 3 inches wide, 7 inches deep. 



Materials. 

Stone Sets . 
Gravel, Sand, ( 
Ballast ; 

Lime . , 

Crossings . 
Channels . 

Materials 
Cartage 

Total Cost for) 
Materials / 



Name of Street. 



strand. Temple. 



pence. 
3714 

6-38 

1-23 
3-14 
1-60 



pence. 

29-47 

6'90 

2-28 
2-76 
6-69 



48-49 
13-60 



62-09 



47-09 
8-26 



56-35 



Graf- 



Crosby.; ^^j^. 



Bnm- 
ford. 



pence. 

2472 

8-23 

1-19 
2-28 
2-58 



pence. 
36-26 

•89 

1-08 

-03 

3-18 



pence. 
38-72 

203 

2-65 

-67 

4-40 



39-00 
2-34 


41-44 
4-04 


41-34 


45-48 



48-47 
1-42 



49-89 



EUiot. 



pence. 
26-92 

2-08 

1-01 
10-07 



40-08 
1-97 



42-05 



First 
Coflts. 



penoe* 
32-20 

4*09 

1-67 
316 
3-07 



44*09 
6-27 



49-36 



Labour. 

Paviors 
Labourers . 

Labonr . 
Use of Tools . 

Total cost for ) 
Labour / 



5-69 
11-43 



1702 
•90 



17-92 



6-92 
12-23 

19-16 
1-33 



20-48 



4-69 
9-58 



14-27 
•51 



14-78 



1-93 
4-84 



6-77 
•45 



7-22 



3-29 
10-38 



13-67 
•72 



14-39 



I 7^89 



7-89 
•39 



8-28 



{ 



4-19 
898 



13-12 
•72 



13*84 






Total Cost for j 
Materials & > 
Labour ; 
or 



80-01 
6s. 8d. 



75-83 
6s.3|d 



56-12 
4s. 8d. 



52-70 
4s,4|d. 



64-28 
5s.4^d, 



60-33 
48. 2Jd. 



63.20 
5s. 3^ 



STONE PAVEMENTS OP LIVEEPOOL. 



195 



Table No. 26. — ^Livebpool Streets : — Cost por Constrxtction per 
Square Yard op the Oarriage-'ways op Six Streets in dip- 
PERENT Localities. 

Boulder Pavement. 





Name of Street. 


Ayerage 
First 
Costs. 


Spencer 


Hygeia. 


Sheri- 
dan. 


JnbQee. 


Hope. 


Hope 
Place. 


Materials. 

Boulders . 
Channels . 
Crossings . 
Gravel and Sand 

Materials 
Cartage 

Total Cost for 1 
Materials 


pence. 
14-61 
4-08 
•27 


pence. 

17-52 
3-96 
1-88 


pence. 

12.28 

9-82 

13-60 

•22 


pence. 

13-06 

6-39 

8-51 

•61 


pence. 

9-76 

4-51 

3-35 

•41 


pence. 

11*26 

6-80 

1*66 

•69 


pence. 

13-08 

5-93 

4-88 

•32 


18-96 
2-83 


23-36 
3-76 


35-92 
8-34 


28.57 
5-49 


18-03 
306 


20-40 
1-21 


24-21 
411 


21-79 


37-12 


44-26 


34-06 


21^09 


21^61 


28^32 


Labour. 

Paviors 
Labourers . 

Labour . 
Use of Tools . 

Total Cost for ] 
Tjabour 


3-61 
6-27 


3-24 
4-86 


2-83 
11-74 


4-17 
4^98 


2^88 
3-30 


3^80 
4^53 


3^40 
6-78 


8-78 
•51 


8-10 
•48 


14-57 
•98 


9'16 
•37 


6^18 
•62 


833 
•46 


9^18 
•67 


9^29 


6-58 


16-56 


9^62 


6^80 


8^79 


9^76 


Total Cost for ] 
Materials & V 
Labour, J 
or 


31-08 


35^70 
2/llJ 


69^81 
4/11} 


43^58 
3s.7}d. 


27^87 
2s. 4d. 


30^40 
2s. 6^. 


38-07 
3s. 2d. 



These tables adSbrd good selections of instances to show 

how much the cost is influenced by the circumstances 

under which the work is done. The cost of the materials 

used in set-paving does not vary so much as the cost of 

^sartage and of labour, which depend upon the distance of 

k2 



196 STONE PAVEMENTS OF LIVERPOOL. 

a street from the docks whence the material is conveyed ; 
and upon the length of the day and the state of the 
weather, and other circumstances affecting the conve- 
nience for operations. 

From these tables it appears that the average costs for 
the construction of the carriage-ways of Fenmaenmaur 
sets and of boulders, were composed as follows : — 

LivBBPOoL. Pemnaenmaur sets. Boulders. 

s. d. s. d< 

4 1^ or 78 per cent. 2 4^ or 74 per cent* 

1 2 or 22 „ 9} or 26 „ 



Katerials 
Xiabour 



Total cost . 5 3^ 100 3 2 100 

In introducing a comparative statement of the «.tititi«1 
cost for maintenance of set-paving, boulder-paving, and 
macadam, Mr. Newlands fixed the first cost — 

LiTEBPOOL. First cost. 

For Bquare-set paving, at 48. 6d. per square yard. 

„ boulder paying „ Is. 8d. „ 

„ macadam „ Is. 8d. „ 

These amoimts were probably based on wider averages 
than those which have been deduced &om the foregoing 
tables. However that may have been, Mr. Newlands, in 
1854, stated that, at Liverpool, the first cost for a set-paved 
road was 6«. per square yard, and that of a macadam 
road was 28. per square yard.* 

The average cost for maintenance for the three yean 
1848 — 50, is given for 27 streets, of which nine were paved 
with squared sets, nine with boulders, and nine were laid 
with macadam. Summaries of the costs are given in 
the table. No. 27. 

Mr. Newlands explained that the averages here derived 
were not to be teiken as for long periods, — especially for the 
boulder paving, much of which was required shortly to be 

* Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers^ vol. ziii., 1853-54, 
age 240. < 



STONE FAVEMEirrS OF LIYEBFOOL. 



197 



Tablb No. 27.— LivBRPooL Strbbts: — ^Annual Cost por Main- 

TBNANOE of 27 StREBTS, DEDUCED FROM THB AYBRAGED ChAROES 
FOR THREE YEARS, 1848-50. 



Penmaenmanr set paying. 


Boulder paving. 


Macadam. 


Street 


Annnal 

cost per 

square 

yard. 


Street. 


Annnal 

cost per 

square 

yard. 


Street. 


Annual 

cost per 

square 

yard. 


St. James' . 
Park Lane . 
Whitechapel. 
Dale . 
Castle . 
North John . 
Marybone 
Water . 
Leeds . 


pence. 
-08 
•29 
•11 
•38 
•17 
•26 
•09 
•19 
•06 


Blnndell 
Mersey . 
Flint . 
Simpson 
Snarling 
LmiekilnLane 
Burlington . 
Soho 
Fox . 


pence. 
.65 

•79 
•73 

1-95 
•37 
•62 

114 
•18 

101 


Church 
Berry 
Benshaw . 
Qt. George 
Park liane 
Myrtle 
Hanover . 
Gt.Howard 
St. Anne . 


pence. 

8^60 

8*33 
18-31 

3-81 
16-29 

6-82 
14^61 
12-64 

380 


Averages 


•18 


• • • 


•82 


• • • 


10*23 



renewed. He deduced &om the tables that, when the mac- 
adam was subjected to heavy loads, the annual cost of 
maintaining it was nearly equal to the cost of renewing 
it) and that the vertical wear amounted to 12 inches per 
year. Where the loads were light, although the traffic was 
great, the wear of the macadam was only about half as 
great as under heavy loads; and that, under the same 
circumstances of traffic, the expense was reduced when 
the street was wide and open, and the moisture was 
rapidly evaporated by the action of the sun and the air. 
He concluded from the experience of Castle Street, Dale 
Street, and Marybone, that set-paving would last 20 years 
before requiring to be renewed. He decided, finally, that 
the total annual costs of maintenance were respectively. 



LlTBB?00L. 

For square-set paving 
„ Boulder paving . 
.. Macadam • 



Haintenanoe ammally. 
•28 pence per square yard. 

. 6*80 

. 1600 



» 



ft 



n 



>> 



CHAPTER IX. 

STONE PAVEMENTS OP MANCHESTER. 

The eaxly payements for the streets of Manchester ooo 
sisted of boulder stones brought from the sea-coasts c 
Wales, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, like those < 
Liverpool, which have already been described. But lili 
construction of boulder pavement has long since been dii 
continued ; the importation of boulders into Manchesti 
ceased about the year 1840. There yet remains a ooi 
siderable area of such pavement, particularly in the old< 
streets of small traffic, in the outskirts. They are in procei 
of renewal with granite sets. When finely broken, tl 
boulder stones make an excellent '^ racking" or packii 
for paving sets. 

The principal thoroughfares, according to Mr. H. Eoyl 
District Surveyor,* are paved chiefly with syenitic granit 
or with trap-rock sets. The most usual dimensions of tl 
sets are 5 inches, 6 inches, and 7 inches in depth ; tto 
3 to 3 1 inches in width, and from 5 to 7 inches long. Tl 
largest and deepest sets are laid in streets having tl 
heaviest traffic. Cubes of 4 inches were tried, some yea 
ago ; but it appeared that they were unfitted for resistu 
the lateral stress of the traffic, — ^particularly on streets 
considerable inclination. Stones are obtained from, li 
The Welsh Granite Company, and the Portnant Gran 

* See a paper " On Street Pavements in Manchester," by Mr. 
Royle, District Surveyor; read July 9, 1876, before the Associat 
ot Municipal and Sanitary Engineers and Surveyors. 



STONE PAVEMENTS OF MANCHESTER, 199 

>any, near Carnarvon. 2nd. The Syenite Gb'anite 
►any, Portmadoc. 3rd. From greywack6 quarries at 
laenmanr, North Wales. 4th. From quarries at Glee 
Shropshire. 5th. From Newry, Ireland. It is said 
the prices of sets from these quarries are nearly the 

3 secondary streets, of little traffic, are paved with 
f millstone-grit, brought from the mountainous dis- 
of Lancashire and Derbyshire. 

cadam, which is regarded in Manchester as an expen- 
luisance, is being gradually replaced with granite 
lent. 

3 paved carriage-ways are constructed in the foUow- 
lanner: — ^A foundation, not exceeding 15 inches in 
less, is laid, of cinders and other hai:d material, 
ling 3 inches of gravel as a bedding for the sets, 
raffic is turned over this foundation until it becomes 
i and the temporary gravel surface is renewed from 
X) time. When the surface has become sufficiently 
the sets are bedded upon it, and well beaten, and 
ire racked with clean small broken stones, or with 
)d gravel. The joints of the stones are then Mled up 
m asphaltic fluid mixture composed of coal-tar, pitch 
from coal-tar, gas-tar, and creosote oil ; in the pro- 
n of 1 cwt. of pitch to 4 gallons of tar, and 1 gallon 
mote, — proportions which are varied somewhat accord- 

the quality of the pitch employed. The mixture is 
i and boiled for from 1 to 2 hours, in a boiler adapted 
9 purpose, before it is poured into the joints. 
I use of the pitch-composition for closing the joints 
I stone -sets was originally suggested by Mr. Ron- 

a chemist, of Manchester ; and the good reputation 
achester pavement is, in a great measure, due to the 
^ent of this compound for jointing, together with 
lid foundation prepared for the pavement. The 



200 STONE PAVEMENTS OF MANCHESTER. 

jointing is impervious to moisture, and possesses a degree 
of elasticity sufficient to prevent it from cracking. It 
adapts itself to all temperatures. Sometimes, as Mr. Eoyle 
observes, in the heat of the summer, the asphalte, as he 
calls it, rises out of the joints, and slowly flows to the 
channels ; but this, it is said, rarely happens, and it hap- 
pens only when the asphalte has not been properly pre- 
pared. It follows that the foundation is always dry, and as 
no material rises from below, the formation of mud is pre- 
vented, and the cleansing of the surface is eeisily done. 
The foundations of hard core, prepared in the manner 
described, have given entire satisfaction; and there has 
not been any need for the employment of concrete in 
foundations. 

The pitch obtained for the jointing of the pavement has, 
during the leist 10 or 12 years, deteriorated in value for 
the purpose, — since the demand for gas-tar for the manu- 
facture of aniline and other dyes, which has greatly in- 
creased, — ^by the removal of that ingredient in virtue of 
which the asphalte retained its elasticity and adhesive- 
ness. The deficiency is partially supplied by the addition 
of the gas-tar, which is added to the pitch whilst it boils. 
Still, it is said, the asphalte laid in the old pavements 
was much better than that which is now made ; and the 
carriage-way pavements more recently constructed are not 
likely to last so long in good condition as the older 
asphalted pavements. 

The cost for repaving an old street with sets 6 inches 
deep, exclusive of the cost for foundation, and without 
taking credit for old material, is as follows : — 

For stone sets, 6 inches deep • . 8s. 4d. per square yard. 

Labour, carting, gravel, asphalte . 28. 6d. to 28. 9d. „ 

Total lOs. lOd. to lis. Id. „ 

The amount of the second item for labour, &c., is a mini- 



STONE PAVEMENTS OF MANCHESTER. 20] 

mum in summer, wlien the men work for 54^ hours pe: 
week; and is a maximum in winter, when the hours o: 
labour are fewer. The average cost for the year is 11« 
per square yard. 

Mr. Eoyle states that the cost for maintenance o: 
asphalte-granite pavement is in simple proportion to th< 
density of the traffic ; at the centre of the City, the cos 
is greatest. He adds that the average duration of th< 
pavement, as first laid, is 14 years; at the end of whici 
time it requires to be entirely relaid ; and that a sinking 
fund of Sd. per square yard per year would provide labou] 
and material for maintenance in perpetuity. 

Macadam in Manchester. — ^The cost of macadamising 
Albert Place, Manchester, in 1852, exclusive of founda- 
tion, comprising an area of 1,373 square yards, was ac 
follows : — 

Per M. yd 
8. a. 

606 tons 9 cwt. of macadam at 10s. . £303 4 6 4 5 

Labour . . . . • 11 18 8 2 

Carting • . . . . 24 16 4^ 4^ 



Total • • • 339 18 6i 4 11| 

Taking the weight of one cubic yard of macadam sA 
li tons, the bulk of the macadam used was (606*5 x i=^] 
539 cubic yards, which was equivalent to a layer 9 inches 
in thickness. The cost of maintenance, including scav- 
enging, was 1«. lid, per square yard per year. 



K S 



CHAPTER X. 



WEAR OP GRANITE PAVEMENTS. 



It has been stated that the greywackS sets from P( 
maenmaur are practically limitless in their resistance 
wear ; and, as a corollary, they make dangerously slipp( 
pavements. Next to these, the sets of Guernsey gran 
may be ranked. Mount Sorrel granite comes after ; a 
Aberdeen granite sets, the most generally popular, are ' 
softest and the least durable ; that is, they wear the m 
rapidly. The order of resistance to wear of other stoi 
— ^the results of Mr. Walker's experiments, — ^has h 
given, page 126. 

The data for the vertical wear of granite pavem( 
forming the basis of the following table, No. 28, 
collected from various sources*: — 

Tablb No. 28. — ^Wbae op Carbiagb-wat Patbxbnts in thb C 

Aberdeen-granite stones. 



LOOALITT. 


Year of 
obser- 
vation. 


Width 

of 
stones. 


Num- 
ber of 
years 
aown. 


Amount of Vertical wear. 


Total 


per Year. 


Watling Street 
Great Tower Street . 
Bfshopsgate Street 
Without 

St. Paul's Churchyard 
Fleet Street . 


1844 
P 

1860 

1847 
1846 


Inches. 
6 
6 

6 

6 
6 


Years. 
17 
9 

20 

16 
14 


Inches. 

H 

2 
2 


Inch. 

•066, or T^ 

•139,orf nearlj 

•106, or ^ fullj 

•126, or i 
•143, or } 


Poultry . 
London Bridge 
Blackfriars Bdg.(old) 
Do. (Guernsey stones) 


1862 
1851 
1863 
1863 


3 
3 
3 
3 


6 

9 

13 

13 


IJtoli 
2 


•230, or f 

•222, or f 

•116, or 1 

•019, or ^V 



♦ Chiefly from the Froceedinga of the Institution of Civil Eng%i 
vol. ix., page 214 ; and vol. ziii., page 221. 



WEAR OP GRANITE PAVEMENTS. 



203 



It may be expected that there is a correspondence be- 
tween the intensity of the traffic and the rate of vertical 
wear of the several granite pavements. But, in forming 
such a comparison, there is another factor to be introduced, 
— ^the width of the pavement ; for the vertical wear may 
be expected to be directly as the quantity of daily traffic, 
and inversely as the width of the street ; and the quotient 
of the traffic by the width, or the number of vehicles per 
foot or per yard of width, measures the intensity of the 
traffic. The following table, No. 29, has been constructed 
to show to what extent the relation holds good for such of 
the thoroughfares as have had their traffic observed. The 
traffic, showing the number of vehicles that traversed each 
locality in ten hours in one day, in 1850, already given in 
a previous table, is calculated for one foot of width of each 
locality ; and the last column contains the products of the 
relative intensities of traffic, in colimin 4, by the periods of 
year required to wear the pavement through equal vertical 
depths of one inch. These products represent proportion- 
ally the relative amoimts of traffic which caused equal 
amounts of vertical wear : — 

Table No. 29. — Wear op Cakrtaoe-way belatitb to Intensity of 

Traffic. 

Aberdeen Granite Stones. 



I 



LOCALITT. 



Sets 6 inches wide. 

Gt. Tower Street 
Bishopsgato St. 
Without 

6t.Paul's Church- 
yard 
Fleet Street 



Approxi-I 

mate j 

average \ 

width of i 

pavement.! 



Feet. 

16 

22 

(narrowest 

part.) 

33 
80 



Vehides in one day 
in 1850. 



Total. 



Vehicles. 
2,8U0 
4,110 

6,829 
7,741 



Per foot 
of width. 



Number of 
yean to 

wear away 
one inch. 



Vehicles. 
181 
190 



207 
258 



Years. 
7-2 
9*6 

8 
7 



Belatiye 

amounts of 

trafBofor 

equal 

amounts of 

yertioal 

wear. 



Col.4xeoL6i 

1,303 

1,824 

1,656 
1,806 



204 



WEAR OF GRANITE PA^TEMENTS. 



Tablb No. 29 — continued. 



JjOCAUTT^ 


Approxi- 
mate 
average 
width of 
pavement. 


Vehicles in one day 
in 1860. 


Komberof 
1 yearsto 


Relative 

amounts of 

traffic ftir 

equal 

amounts of 

vertical 

wear. 


TotaL 


Per foot 
of width. 


wear away 
oneineh. 


Sets 3 inches wide. 

Poultry . 
London Bridge . 
Blackfriars Bdg. 
(old) . 


Feet. 

22 
35 

28 


Vehicles. 

10,274 
13,099 

5,262 


Vehicles. 

467 
374 

188 


Tears. 

4-4 
4-6 

8-7 


CoL4x 001.6 

2,066 
1,683 

1,636 


1 

1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 



Supposing that the intensities of traffic be truly measured 
by the quantities in the 4th column of the table, and that 
the wear had been exactly in the inverse ratio of the in- 
tensity of traffic, the relative products in the last column 
should have been equal to each other. But the quantities 
in the 4th colunm can be but roughly approximate to each 
other, for they are based on but one day's observations ; 
besides, the traffic, though it was distinguished according 
to the nimiber of horses to a vehicle, was not classified so 
as to distinguish goods traffic j&om passenger traffic. 
There is, nevertheless, a remarkable degree of correspon- 
dence in the products or measures of performance. The 
Poultry exhibits the highest product; and that is con- 
sistent with the fact that the traffic consisted of a less pro- 
portion of waggon traffic than that of London Bridge or 
Fleet Street, and that the traffic of the Poultry was limited 
to a walking pace. Again, though there is a much 
larger proportion of heavy traffic over London Bridge, 
yet the heaviest traffic moves at a walking pace, and 
thus the pavement holds a high position in the order of 
relative duration. It is remarkable, too, that Blackfriars 
Bridge, with an intensity of traffic exactly one half of 



WEAR OF GRANITE PAVEMENTS. 205 

that of London Bridge, shows, in column 5, about twice 
the actual duration ; and that, consequently, the products 
in the last column are substantially identical. The per- 
formance of Bishopsgate pavement is high; and the 
highness of the rate may be partially attributable to 
the fact of the irreg^arity of width of the street, for 
here and there it expands into large bays which dilute 
the traffic to some extent at certain localities. 

The evidence in the last table supports generally Colonel 
Haywood's conclusion, drawn &om the results of his 
observations, that the duration of a pavement is ** almost 
exactly " in the inverse ratio of the amount of the traffic 
over it. 

From the foregoing materials, some useful general data 
may be adduced for the wear and duration of granite pave- 
ments. For the seven pavements named in Table No. 29, 
the traffic and the wear were as follows : — 



Abkbdun Gbahitb Fatbubnts. 
Great Tower Street ' 


Vehicles per 
foot of width. 

181 


Vertical wear 
per year. 

'139 inch. 


Bishopsgate Street Without 
St. Paul's Churchyard . 
Fleet Street 




190 

207 
258 




•105 „ 
•125 „ 
•143 „ 


Poultry . 
London Bridge . 
Blackfriars Bridge (old) 




467 
374 
188 




•230 „ 
•222 „ 
•115 „ 


TotAlfl 

Averages . • 




. 1,866 vehicles. 1*079 inches. 
266 „ -154 „ 



From these averages, it appears that the wear per 100 
vehicles per day per foot wide, was equal to ('154 X iM=) 
•058 inch, or about tV inch per year. 

To apply this rate of wear to the representative streets 
in Table No. 24, page 188, the daily traffics in 12 hours are 
here taken, for the sake of uniformity of comparison :* — 

* These traffics are taken from a tabic of Asphalte Pavements, in a 
following page. 



206 



WEAR OF GRANITE PAVEMEKTS. 



Gheapside • 

Poultry 

Old Broad Street 

Moorgate Street 

Lombard Street 

Average 



298 vehicles p^ 


foot of width. 


363 


»t 


9> 


103 


n 


l> 


188 


if 


n 


147 


» 





220 



The average duration of the gramte payements in these 
streets is given in Table No. 24 as 15*6 years. Take it 
at 15 years, as a round number. Then, the total vertical 
wear of the pavements when removed is (i'^ X 15 X 
m =) 2-06 inches, say 2 inches. 

Again, the stones, after having been redressed, last 20 
years longer, in minor streets, for which the traffic averages 
150 vehicles in 12 hours, per foot of width. Then the 
total vertical wear in the minor streets is (fS X 20 x 
^^i =) 1*875 inches, or, as a round number, 2 inches. 

Table No. 30. — City op London:— Recapitdlation op Data on 
THE Weak and Duration op Aberdeen Granite Pavements. 

Sets, 3 inches wide ; 9 inches deep. 



Aberdeen Ghranite Pavements. 


Vertical wear. 


Duration. 


Vertical wear per 100 vehicles in 12 
hours per foot of width, per year . 
Total vertical wear in principal streets 
Ditto additional ditto in minor ditto . 
Total vertical wear when laid aside . 
Remaining depth when laid aside 
Depth of new sets .... 


Inchefl. 

A 

2 
2 
4 
5 
9 


^ Years. 

1 
15 
20 
85 



Here it is seen that 3-inch sets may be reduced by wear 
to 5 inches of depth, when they are treated as worn out, 
and are laid aside. 

The depth of a stone-set should be proportioned to the 
width at the surface. For insuring steadiness and re- 
sistance to the vertical and oblique forces applied to it by 



WEAR OF GRANITE PAVEBfENTS. 207 

the traffic, the depth of a set cannot be too great ; but it 
may be too small, for the resistance to displacement be- 
comes less as the depth is reduced in proportion to the 
width. A flagstone laid in a foot pavement is an extreme 
case in point : it can, if at all loose, be more easily tilted 
on its bed, by forces acting on it, which may act with 
leverage, than if it were one of a row of flags on edge 
placed side by side. For reasons of this nature, old 
paving stones, from 6 to 8 inches wide, are to be met with 
in London, having a depth of 11 or 12 inches. Modern 
granite sets, 3 inches wide, are made 7 or 9 inches deep ; 
and if 2-inch sets were used, a depth of 6 inches would be 
sufficient for stability. Thence there is a saving in first 
cost by laying narrow sets. 



CHAPTEE XI, 
STONE TRAMWAYS IN STREETS. 

Mb. Walkeb laid down two granite tramways on the 
Commercial Eoad, in the east of London ; they consisted 
of two uniform lines of "tram-stones," each 16 inches 
wide, and 12 inches deep, and 5 or 6 feet in length, placed 
at a suitable distance apart, to carry the wheels of yehides. 
The interspaces are paved. Such tracks are laid in several 
narrow streets in the City of London, at Holyhead, and in 
other places. When they were first laid down in England, 
each wheel -track had kerbs at the outer sides; but in 
recent constructions these have been dispensed with, and 
vehicles may move freely from one part of the road to 
another. From the experiments of Sir John Macneil on 
the resistance of granite trackways, the resistance amounted 
to only 12i lbs., or 13 lbs., per ton of gross weight: — ^less 
than half the resistance of granite paving. On an incline 
of 1 in 20, it is reported, the resistance was 132lbs. per 
ton, against a resistance of 295 lbs. per ton before the 
tracks were laid. In Glasgow, a tramway consisting of 
cast-iron plates, 2 inches thick, 8 inches wide, and cast in 
lengths of 3 feet, is laid in Buchanan Street, on a gradient 
of 1 in 20, where it has been down for 40 years. 

Granite tramways* are in general u^e in Northern 

* For the particulars of Italian tramways, the writer is indebted 
to the valuable " Report on Stone Tramways in Italy," by Mr. P. Le 
Neve Foster, Jun., C.E., appended to the Report of the Committee of 
the Society of Arta on ** Traction on Roads," June 26th, 1875. 



erONB TBAMWAT8. 209 

lot onl^ in the streets of the pnncipal cities — as 

tfilan, and Verona — but 

smaller towns, as Chl- 
ifoitara, and yigerano. 
msiat of two parallel 

granite blocks, usually 
es wide, 8 inches deep, 
eet in length, bedded 
rer of sand. See Fig. oj 
le lines are 2S inches ^ 
ind the interspace, or 

for horses, as well as 
ir portions of the road- ^ 
e paved with cobbles T 
i from the Po, or from 
ivera. These stones 
be egg-shaped, with a 
m diameter of from 

inches, and a depth of 
; to 5i inches. The 
■ is usually fonned with 

inclination downwards 

the centre. By this 
nent, the space between 
s serves as a channel to 5 
the surface water, and b 
ded with stone grat- 
iced at suitable inter- . 

shown in Fig. 52, -*- 
ch the water escapes 

sewers. The surfaces 
rams are slightly in- 
>wards each other, the 
Iges being | inch lower than the outer edges 
le interspace is concave, having a, versed erne or 




210 STONE TBAUWATS. 

depreeBioQ of 1^ inchee. The foundation of the roadv 




n^. W — Trannnyi hi ITorUieni ItnlT IntenBcUon otTninmiyiBt 



STONE TRAMWAYS. 211 

of a layer of screened gravel, al>out 6 inchee deep, 




placed ou the Burface of tlie ground, and well rammed and 



STONB TRAMWAYS. 




watered, so as to fom 

a compact maee. Tw( 

inches of sand is lai< 

OS the gravel, as i 

bed for the paving 

stones. The uppei 

surfaces of the trami 

are dressed flat, ant: 

the ends square, tt 

form close joints. Th( 

stone gratings for tht 

S gullies are 32 inchec 

% long, formed witb 

•Q three slots, 12 inobei 

-S long and li inch 

^ wide. After the trams 

J are placed, the othei 

^ portions of the pave- 

^ ment are completed. 

I After the surface has 

J been well rammed 

i with a wooden ram- 

I mer, it is watered 



and covered with a 
bedding of sand i 
inch deep, so as to 
fill the joints by de- 
grees. On ste^ gra- 
dients, the surfaces 
of the trams are 
grooved diagonally. 



STONE TRAMWAYS. 213 



B^ Schedule of Faices in Milan. 

Granite blocks for trams, from the' quarries of St. 

Fedelino, including labour for setting, per lineal 

yard ...... 10s. 8}d. 

Granite blocks from Mont Orf ano per lineal yard 8s. 

Do. do. do. \ 

not including setting / » » ^^' ^^^ 

Paving with cobbles . . per square yard lOJd. 

Pit sand . . . per cubic yard Is. ejd. 

River sand, from the Tidno or the Adda „ Ss. O^d. 

Screened pit gravel . . • m Is. If d. 

Do. do. from the Adda . „ 2s. lid. 

Ck>bbles for paving, from the Adda or i 

theBrembo } » OB. ^d. 

Do. do. from the Ticino . „ 48. 3d. 

Do. do. from the Lambrol 

or the Senese / " ^^' ^^i^' 

Stone gratings for gullies . . . each 13s. 9d. 

^ Wages : — Stone mason . . per day 2s. to 2s. 9d. 

Labourer ... „ 10^. to Is. 7d. 

Pavior ... „ lOjd. to Is. 7d. 

Labour : — Dressing ends of granite ) %«...., 

blocks to form joints 1 P^' ^""^ ^^ 2s. to 3s. 4d. 

Dressing sides of blocks f. Is. 

Dressing upper surface ) «*. ^j 

of blocks . ./ « ^^^ 

Repairs : — ^Removal and rebedding « 

of stones, including Lgr lineal yard Is. Id. 

dressmg upper sur- ( 

face and ends . . ^ 
Removal, without re-dressing „ lOd. 

Cutting diagonal grooves v 

f inch deep, 4 inches > per square yard 8d. 

apart, on trams . ) 

From these prices, it is calculated that the cost of a line 
of tramway, comprising two lines of trams and the inter- 
mediate paving, amoimts to £1,778 per mile. 

On wide thoroughfares, as at Milan, there are three or 
four lines of granite tramway. But» on some lines, the 
"^ interspace is paved with Dutch clinker bricks. 



814 8TONE TaAMWATS. 

A Member of tlie Oommittee of tlie Society of Arts pro 
posed a new form of tramway and road, in wMch a -line o 
asphalte trame is laid on a road formed of hard concrete 
See Fig. 55. 

The design for a concrete road is based upon the prin 




Tig. Se.— FropoHd BaaAvnj 'with 'Wiaa-tnukt of Aiiihilte. 

dple of Mr. Mitchell's concrete macadam, already noticed 
Another design by the same member is illustrated b; 
Fig. 56. 



CHAPTEE Xn. 

WOOD PAVEMENT. 

Wood-paving, originally, was, like granite-paving, laid 
in large blocks, and without any width of joint or inter- 
space, — ^like the hexagonal paving introduced from Eussia, 
measuring 8 or 9 inches across ; and like Carey's original 
paving, in blocks 6 inches wide, and 12 inches long, a 
sample of which remains to this day in Bartholomew Lane. 
But, like granite-paving, wood-paving best answers its 
i|)urpose when it is restricted, in the width of sets or 
blocks, to 3 inches, 3J inches, or 4 inches, with inter- 
spaces, to afford the necessary stability for a Tnininium 
depth, and the necessary foothold for horses. 

Wood-paving is, by almost universal practice, laid with 
the fibre in a vertical position, — on end. This is the 
best position for wear, for endurance, and for safety. 

According to the best experience of wood-paving, it 
should consist of plain rectangular blocks, solidly set upon 
a foimdation of concrete, with water-tight joints. A 
wood pavement so constructed as to fulfil these conditions, 
gives satisfaction on the five points of convenience, cleans- 
ing, maintenance, safety, and durability. Unless the 
foimdation be rigid, it is impossible to preserve a soimd 
pavement ; and as in macadam, so in wood-pavement, the 
dogma of elastic action has been exploded by experience, 
for it was foimd that such a degree of elasticity as is 
afforded by the reaction of vertical wood-fibre, against 
^ vertical pressure, is quite sufficient to absorb the shook 



216 WOOD PAVEMENT. 

of a horse's hoof, and to soften the strokes of loader 
wheels. 

As with granite sets, so with wood blocks, the gang 
of a horse's hoof is the measure of the proper maximni 
width. The most common width of blocks is 3 inches 
but they are sometimes made 3^ inches or 4 inches wid( 
The advantage of the narrower width consists in thic 
that, besides affording a more ready foothold, narrowe 
blocks have more stability than wider blocks of the sam 
depth; and that, in short, the narrower the block, th 
shaUower it may be made, — so economising materia: 
Mr. Carey's practice affords an illustration in poini 
His original blocks, which were 6 or 7 inches wide» wer 
made 8 inches and 9 inches deep ; according to his latee 
practice, his blocks are only 4 inches wide, and they ar 
only 5 inches or 6 inches in depth. The course of th 
practice of wood pavement is strictly analogous to that o 
granite-set pavement. It may be added, that the leng^ 
of a block should be suitably proportioned to the widtb 
A length of 12 inches for a block 3 inches wide, ha 
been tried and found to be too much : — ^the blocks wer 
subject to splitting across. 

The normal dimensions of wood blocks in curren 
practice are : — width, 3 inches ; depth, 6 inches ; lengtli 
9 inches. These are in the proportions of 1, 2, and 8. 

The next essential provision is an interspace of suit 
able width between the courses of blocks, to make i 
good joint, affording, at the same time, foothold wher 
the joints supply the only fulcrum. The blocks are se 
end to end in each course ; and the width of interspac 
between the courses varies from about i inch to |^ incfa 
Experience has decided that the narrower the interspace 
the better for the durability of the pavement. 

The streets of the City of London afford the best ani 
most exhaustive available experience of wood-payementS| 



CHAPTEE Xni. 

CARETS WOOD PAVEMENT. 

Oabet's pavement, already described^ page 17, was the 
first durable pavement that was laid in the City. In July, 
1841, this pavement, of pine blocks, was laid in Mincing 
Lane, and in October and November, 1842, it was laid 
in Qracechurch Street, covering an area of 1,623 square 
yards. The blocks were from 6^ to 7^- inches wide, 18 to 
15 inches long, 9 inches deep for Mincing Lane, and 
8 inches deep for Oracechurch Street. The foundation 
consisted of a layer of Thames ballast. 

The cost for the wood pavement of Qracedhurch Street, 
including a foundation of ballast, but not excavation, was 
14«. 2d. per square yard. In 1844, two years after the 
pavement was laid, it was ''much worn," and there were 
" several short holes in various places." It had been for 
a considerable time in a bad condition, when it was relaid 
in September, 1847, five years after it was laid ; and a 
portion was relaid a second time in 1850, whilst ordinary 
repairs were made when required. In 1853, the paving 
was worn out, having been down 11 years, and it was re- 
placed with new paving of the same kind, at a cost of 
I2s. Sd, per square yard. The second pavement was relaid 
in 1857, four years after it was laid, and again in 1861 ; and 
in Jime, 1865, it was removed, having been down for 
11 years and 7 months. The costs of laying aod main- 
iaining the two successive pavements were as follows *— 

L 



218 



caret's wood pavement. 



Tablb No. 31. — Crrr op London:— Cow op Cabit's Wood Pati 
MBNT IN Gracbchubch Stkbbt, 1842 to 1865. 



Coita. 



First cost, including^ 
a foundation of > 
ballast . . .J 

Relays and repairs 

Total expenditure 
Deduct value as old ) 
material . » . / 

Net total cost 

Add, cost for gravelling 



persqtiare 
yard. 



l8t Pavement ; 
dnztttion 11 yeanu 



per 

square 

yaHper 

year. 



a. d. 

14 2 

4 



18 2 
1 



17 2 



8. d. 

1 3i 
4} 



1 8 
1 



I 7 



SndPaTement; 
duration 11*6 yean. 



yazd. 



s. d. 
12 8 
17 H 



29 9} 
1 



28 9^ 



• • 



per 

square 

yard per 

year. 



8. d. 
1 1 

1 6}| 



2 6} 
1 



2 5| 



BothPave 
rnenta; 
duration 
S8'6; 



per sqnan 
yard pec 



8. d. 

1 2J 
11^ 



2 H 

1 



2 




sj 



Total cost of the pavement for 22*6 years, 1842-65 



2 2 



The foregoing statement exhibits the cost for two com 
pletely new wood pavements laid and worn out in Ghracechtiicl 
Street. They were succeeded by a third new pavemenl 
on the same system, costing lU, 6d, per square yard, laii 
in 1865. This was taken up, half worn, in 1871, haTinj 
been laid down 6 years ; and replaced by asphalte. Th 
cost for maintenance during that time was 6«. lid. pe 
square yard, or Is, l^d. per square yard per year. Th 
cost for maintenance appears to have been a very variabl 
item of expenditure. The costs for the three successiv 
pavements are here brought together for comparison :— 



Cabby's Wood Pavembvt. 


Duration* 


Cost ftnr Budn* 


Oracechoroh Street. 


years. 


tenanoe per aqua: 
yard per year. 

8. d. 


1st pavement • • 


11 


44 


2nd ditto . • • 


11-6 


1 H 


3rd ditto . • • 


6 


1 If 



Totals 



28-6 



11} 



Carey's wood pavement. 



219 



The fluctuations of cost may not be readily accounted 
or ; but it is clear that the generally increased traffic was 
one cause of the greater expenditure on the second and 
third pavements. The general total cost for maintenance 
may be taken at U. per square yard per year. 

Carey's pavement was laid in Mincing Lane in July, 
1 84 1 , and was taken up and replaced by pavement of the same 
kind, 9 inches deep, in August, 1860, having been down 19 
years and 1 month. This was the oldest wood pavement then 
in existence in the Metropolis. During that period it was 
turned and relaid, and again relaid, the tops of the blocks 
having been cut off; and it was at other times exten- 
sively repaired. There is no other instance in this 
coimtiy of so long a duration in a wood pavement in a 
public thoroughfare. The second pavement, though not 
worn out, was taken up in August, 1873, to be replaced 
asphalte. The following table, No. 32, shows the first 
costs and the costs ft)r maintenance of Carey's wood 
pavement in Mincing Lane : — 



Table No. 32. — City op London : — Oaaet's Wood Paybxbnt in 

MiNCiNO Lanb, 1841 — 1872>. 



P 



i 

CoBtS. 


let Pavement : 
duration 19*1 years. 


2nd Pavement : 
duration 18 years. 


BothPave- 

ments; 

duration 

82*1 years. 


I>er sqnare 
yard. 


per square 

yard per 

year. 


per square 
yard. 


per square 

yard per 

year. 


per square 

yard per 

year. 


First cost . 
Belays and repairs 

Total expenditure 
Deduct Talue as 
old material . 

Net total cost 


s. d. 
14 4 
13 4 


s. d. 
9 
8*4 


a. d. 

9 2 

22 6| 


a. d 

84 

1 8} 


8. d. 


27 8 
1 


1 6-4 
0-6 


31 ^ 
1 


2 5} 
1 


1 lOi 
0} 


26 8 


1 *J 1 


30 ^ 


2 4i 1 


1 9J 



l2 



220 



CARBY 8 WOOD PAVEMENT. 



In Mincing Lane, as in Graoeohnrch Street, the cosi 
for maintenance of the second payement was much greatd 
than that of the first payement, and for the same reason; 
thus: — 



Cabvt's Wood PATEmxT. 
Minofag Lane. 

1st pavement 
2nd ditto . 

Totals . 






Duration* 

Tears. 

191 
13 

32*1 



Cost fisr main-., 
tenance per ^ui 
yardptf Te0> 

O" 8-4 

1 H :. 



1 li 



The two series of Oarey-pavements, in QracechTircl 
Street and Mincing Lane, have supplied yaluable ezpe 
rience of wood paving, and they have, therefore, bed 
treated here somewhat in detail. The following taUi| 
No. 33, is given by Colonel Haywood, comprising ft 
general results of the duration and cost of Carey's pavi 
ments in the City :— 



Table No. 33. — Cabby's Wood Paybments in thb Citt or LoiiM^ 
C0NSI8TINO OF Larob Blocks : — Du&ation and Cost. "* 













Total 








First cost 


Cost flor 


averaei 


Stbbkt. 


Date when 


Duration. 


per square 


repairs 


oostv* 




laid new. 




yard. 


per SQTuure 
yard. 


sqmN 

yardp* 

yesr. 


Large Traffic. 
















Yrs. Mon. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. 1. 


Comhill . . 1 


May, 1866 
July, 1866 


10 2 
6 8 


12 2 
11 6 


17 4J 
8 9| 


2 11; 

3 ii 


Gracechurch ) 
Street . j 


Nov. 1863 


11 7 


12 8 


17 H 


2 4 


Jime, 1866 


6 


11 6 


6 11 


8 d 


Lombard \ 
Street . . / 


May, 1861 


9 4 


9 6 


6^ 


X 4 


Sop. 1860 


10 7 


9 2 


20 2 


2 r 



Carey's wood pavement. 



221 



Tablb No. Zd^-eofUinued. 



Stbkbts. 


Date when 
laid new. 


Duration. 


First cost 

per square 

ywd. 


Cost for 

repairs 

per square 

yard. 


Total 

average 

cost per 

square 

yard per 

year. 


Small Traffic. 
liOthbury . | 


May, 1854 
Aug. 1866 


Yrs.Mon. 

12 3 

6 1 


s. d. 
12 6 
12 6 


8. d. 
28 4} 
3 b\ 


s. d. 
3 4 
2 7J 


Mincing T«ane 


July, 1841 
Aug. 1860 


19 1 
13 


14 4 
9 2 


13 4 
22 6| 


1 b\ 

2 b\ 


Bartholomew ) 
Lane . . / 


May, 1864 
Aug. 1866 


12 3 
5 5 


12 6 
12 6 


17 b\ 
3 llj 


2 b\ 

3 oi 



>>>. 



Cost for Foundations included, but no Excayation. No deduction 
is made for the value of old material. 

All the second wood pavements referred to in this table 
were removed before they were worn out, and replaced 
with asphalte, except the last. Nearly all of them would, 
by relay, with the insertion of some new wood, have en- 
dured a few years longer. Taking all the pavements 
together, the following averages are deduced : — 



AverajKs for 
Carey's Pavement. 

Streets of large traffio . 
Streets of small traffic . 

Total averages . 



Duration of 

Pavemen*** 

Years. 


Total cost 
per square yard 
per year. 


906 


28. r^d. 


11-33 


28. 4id. 



1019 



28. 6d. 



It may be added that Carey's paving in Bartholomew 
Lane has recently (February, 1877) been extensively re- 
newed. It was newly laid in August, 1866, and the 
original paving, in its entirety, has thus lasted 10 J years. 

As just now mentioned, Carey's recent wood pavement 

consists of wood blocks, 4 inches wide, and 5 inches or 

r6 inches deep, according to the traffic of the street, and 



222 Carey's wood pavemeiit. 

9 inches long. The ends only of the blocks are form 
on Mr. Carey's original model, Fig. 11, with doub] 
bevelled surfaces, salient and re-entering to the exte 
of 5-16 or I inch, which come together for the purpo 
of preventing the shifting of the blocks, and of distribi 
ing the pressure on one block over the contiguous blod 
The paving is placed on a bed of ballast or sand, 2 inch 
deep, laid on the old bed of the street ; and the joini 
f inch wide, are grouted with lime and sand. It 
needless to remark that this pavement can only endu 
when it is laid on a previously existing foimdation; othe 
wise, if laid with 2 inches of sand on a loose excavate 
bottom, it cannot be durable. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

IMPBOVED WOOD PAVEMENT. 

Tbib payement was introduced from the United States, 
where it lias been known as the Nicolson payement. It 
has already been noticed, page 14. The first piece was 
laid, in 1871, in the City of London ; but the practice of 
the proprietors of this pavement has, since that time, been 
considerably modified. Their practice has been, after 
excavating to the profile and section of the street, to lay a 

• bed of sand, fine mortar stuff, or dry earth, 4 inches deep, 
on the bottom. On this bed, two layers of 1-inch deal 
boards, previously dipped in boiling tar, were dose-laid 
transversely and longitudinally. On these boards, wood 
blocks, 3 inches wide, 6 inches deep, and 9 inches long, 
also dipped in tar, were placed in transverse courses, the 
heading joints abutting, whilst the courses were inter- 
spaced by {-inch fillets of wood nailed to the floor, and 
through the blocks. The {-inch joints were made tight 
by a boiling mixture of tar and pitch poured into the 
spaces to a depth of an inch or two. The spaces were 
then filled up with dry ballast, which was rammed down 
by means of a flat caulking iron made for the purpose ; 
and filled up with the tar mixture. The surface was 
then strewed lightly with small gravel, over which boil- 
ing tar was scattered from a pail fitted with a flat- 
nozzled spout. Finally a sprinkling of sand was thrown 
over the surface. The gravel and tar ooating was worked 

pr. into the surface by the wheels of traffic Spaoei^ i inch 



224 IMPROVED WOOD PAVEMENT. 

wide, were left between the heads of the blocks in eae 
course, and grouted. 

The tar and pitch mixture, in the proportion of 3 
gallons of tar and 4 cwt. of pitch, were boiled tog^the 
in an iron kettle, for at least four hours, until they ac 
quired such a consistency that, when cold, the compoun 
should become elastic and tough. When not sufficient! 
boiled, the mixture became brittle when it cooled, an 
was broken up by wheels and feet. The object of th 
elastic binding was to form a surface which should ooi 
tinue water-tight, as had long been effected by the sam 
means in the granite pavements of Manchester. 

The principal advantage claimed for this system wai 
that the flooring of planks formed an elastic foundatioz 
and distributed the weight applied on one block over 
large surface, whilst the additional elastic action mini 
mised the wear of the blocks. There was an inconsif 
tency in the principle of the construction, for it wa 
presumed that the bed of sand would solidly support th 
flooring, at the same time that the flooring was expected t 
yield elasticaUy imder pressure. Again, so soon as leal 
age, even to the slightest extent, conmienced, by whic 
surface-water was allowed to penetrate downwards hi 
tween the paving blocks, there was nothing to prevent i1 
reaching to and saturating the substratimi of sand; sine 
the boards, although close-laid, were not tongued, and tli 
water could pass through them with comparative freedon 
The saturated substratum became mobile, and subject 1 
movement under variations of pressure. Consequenth 
when a load passed over the surface, the boards, opposin 
an inconsiderable resistance to deflection, were presse 
downwards by the load, into the quicksand, and they r< 
covered their normal position when the load passed awa^ 
In this manner, a pumping action was set up, and the sau 
and water, mixed with other loose matter at the botton 



IMPROVED WOOD PAVEMENT. 225 

"was pumped up to the surface in the form of mud and 
slime. Thus t^e pavement became gradually undermined, 
and the undermining process was accelerated by the form 
of the pavement itself, which presented a continuous dia- 
phragm under which the exhausting process was extended, 
as by a diaphragm-pump. It is scarcely necessary to add, 
that the wetter the weather, the greater was the action of 
undermining. 

But, in addition to the general liability to leakage of 
water through the pavement, there is a special difficulty 
in keeping it watertight at the kerbs, where it is compara- 
tively overhung and unsupported, and where there is, at 
the same time, a constant supply of water for penetration, 
so long as there is any water in the channels. 

A serious consequence of the flexibility of the pavement 
is the numerous breakages of the blocks by splitting, caused 
by the unequal stress and leverage of the load on blocks 
which are supported by a floor partly non-resisting and 
partly resisting. 

A small sample of the Improved Wood Pavement, 468 
square yards, was laid in Bartholomew Lane, in the City 
of London, in December, 1871. This is a short street of 
very little and light traffic. This pavement, which was the 
first of its kind laid in London, continues now (1877) in 
fair condition, but many of the joints are open. 

The enduring power of the pavement has also been 
tested in thoroughfares of heavy traffic. In Aug^t, 1872, 
Bnd January, 1873, an area of 6,066 square yards was laid, 
with 4-inch blocks, in King William Street and Adelaide 
Place, on the approach to London Bridge, from the Statue. 
In the course of the following three years, the foundation 
was rather extensively undermined, by the causes which 
have already been described, — ^particularly near the kerb 
on one side ; — so much so as to cause the pavement to be 
. leflected in many places to the extent of an inch under 

Ld 



226 IMPROVED WOOD PAVEMENT* 

the wheels of passing vehicles, whilst the mud was seeik 
bubbling up from below. The pavement was lifted about 
the month of January, 1876; and it was found that tha 
substratum of sand had been partially washed away, and 
that, in the lines of regular traffic, the blocks had lost 
about i inch in height, on an average, by vertical wear* 
The pavement was renewed on the same system. 

The Improved Wood Pavement which was laid, in 
November, 1874, in Bishopsgate Street Without, in the City 
of London, is a more recent instance of the undermining 
influences set up under the action of heavy traffic, brought 
to a head during the past winter (1876-77)^* which has 
been a sesuson of unusually heavy and continuous rain. 
The pavement, though it had not (in February, 1877) been 
down 2^ years, had already been extensively undermined, 
and it was observed to be subject to deflection to the 
extent of half an inch, at some places, under passing 
wheels. At the same time, the collateral symptom of mud 
working up through the joints, became manifest. 

The obvious remedy for the pumping action through the 
pavement is to lay a rigid foundation under the pavement. 
The flooring, to be stiff enough, would require to be con- 
structed of two layers of 3-inch battens. But a less costly 
method of providing rigidity has been adopted in the oon- 
struction of the new pavement now being laid to replace 
the defective pavement above referred to, which has 
been taken up. There is a thin bed of concrete, upon 
which a single layer of 1-inch boards is laid, and the 
blocks, 3^ inches wide, are laid, as before, upon the board- 
ing. The joints between the courses of the blocks are 
only -ft- inch wide ; they are fllled for half the depth with 
an artiflcial asphalte, consisting of chalk, pitch, and coal- 
tar, boiled together, and are fllled to the top with a grout- 
ing of gravel and blue lias lime. It may be added that, for 

width of 18 inches at each side of the roadway, at the 



IMPROVED WOOD PAYEMEKT , 227 

oHaimels, the boards are not laid, but their place is occu- 
pied by an additional depth of concrete, to afford a rigid 
support, so as to resist deflection, and the entrance of 
water at the edges. 

The carriage-way of Ludgate Hill was paved on the 
original S3rstem of the Improved Wood Company in 
November, 1873. The pavement has been worn into 
bumps and hollows, and is about to be entirely renewed. 
It has been proposed to renew the pavement by laying 
die wood blocks on a foundation of concrete 6 inches thick, 
with a 2-inch bed of sand intervening. 



CHAPTEE XV. 

OTHER WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

LignO'JMRneral P<wemmt. — ^This pavementy known also i 
Trenaunay's system, was imported from France. It wi 
the first system of wood pavement that was provided wil 
a hard concrete foundation, and moulded exactly to tl 
required curve of the road. The concrete is laid wit 
cement or blue lias lime, and besides supplying a fin 
foundation, it closes the surface against underground exhi 
lations. Blocks of hard wood,— oak, elm, beech, or ash,- 
are laid on the concrete ; their upper and lower surface 
are cut at an oblique angle, of about 60°, to the grain, i 
order that the fibre may be presented obliquely to tl 
wearing surface, and that each block may be partial] 
supported by the next block in the course upon which 
leans. The courses are laid transversely, and the indini 
tion of the blocks is alternately to the right and to the le 
in the successive courses. The upper edges of the bloc] 
are chamfered. A groove is cut horizontally along tl 
sides of the blocks, near to the base, which is filled wil 
the asphaltic mastic used for jointing — so forming an add 
tional tie. The joints are only partially filled with masti 
and they are filled up with a grouting of lime and sand. 

The blocks are previously subjected to a process call< 
mineralisation : they are placed in drying chambers heat< 
with steam-coils, and exposed to a continuous current ^ 
air. When dried, the blocks are withdrawn, and plung< 
into tanks containing the mineral oils, consisting of hydr 



OTHER WOOD PAVEMENTS. 229 

carburets ; they quickly absorb the oils, with which, it is 
said, the wood becomes saturated, and are so rendered 
tougher and more durable. 

Though the employment of hard woods is a specialty of 
this process, mineralised firs also are used, and they are 
placed upright, with vertical fibres. But it is claimed 
that, in hard wood, a less depth of block suffices than in 
soft wood, and that thus the costs for the two classes of 
wood are equalised. 

The first piece of this pavement laid in the City of 
London, was laid in Gracechurch Street, near Talbot Court, 
in August, 1872. On a bed of concrete, 4 inches thick, 
mineralised elm blocks were laid, bedded in Portland 
cement. The blocks were 3^ inches wide, 7^ inches long, 
and only 4^ inches deep. The joints were partially filled 
with heated mastic, and filled up with a grouting of lime 
and sand. The pavement was relaid in 1875, after having 
lain three years, and a portion of it was replaced with 
new blocks. 

The next piece of paving was laid, in 1874, in Fore 
Street, which is entirely paved on this system. On a con- 
crete bed of blue lias lime, 6 inches thick, hard-wood 
blocks were placed, 3^^ inches wide, 7i inches long, and 
4 J inches deep. The wood used for nearly the whole of 
the surface was beech; supplemented by blocks of oak 
and of elm. The lines of channel are formed throughout 
of elm blocks. 

Lastly, Coleman Street was, in 1875, paved with vertical 
blocks of mineralised fir, 3 inches wide, 9 inches long, and 
6 inches deep, with f -inch joints ; on a concrete founda- 
tion 6 inches deep. 

Asphaltic Wood Pavement. ^^ On this system, originally 
patented by Copland, a solid concrete foundation, 
6 inches thick, is laid to the curvature of the road; 
it is composed of blue-lias lime and baUast, in the propor- 



230 OTHER WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

tion of 1 to 5 or 6. TTpon this foundation^ a coat of 
mastic asphalte, f -inch or f -inch thick, is laid, as a bedding 
for the wood blocks. The blocks are 3 inches wide, 6 inches' 
d^ep, and 9 inches long, of Baltic fir, laid in transrerse 
courses, butt-jointed, with A-inch interspaces. The inter- 
spaces or joints are run up with melted asphalte to a depth 
of about 1 ^-inches. The correct interspacing of the courses 
is ensured by placing long strips of wood -Ar-inch thick, 
against each course as it is laid. The asphalte, when 
poured, remains for two or three minutes in a fluid con- 
dition, and it partially re-melts the coating on which it 
rests, and unites with it, whilst it adheres flimly to the 
blocks. The whole structure thus becomes solidified as 
one mass, and the joints are filled up with a grouting of 
sand and hydraidic lime. The grouting serves as a non- 
conductor of heat, and fixes the grit and gravel which it is 
usual to strew over a newly-laid wood paving, for the pur- 
pose of indurating the surface of the wood. 

The first piece of Copland's pavement in London was 
laid at the east end of Cannon Street, in 1874, on a concrete 
foundation, 9 inches thick, made with Portland cement ; a 
layer of mastic asphalte, f-inch thick, w£U3 spread over the 
concrete, and carried the wooden blocks, which were of 
soft wood, and had been steeped in tar. The blocks were 
laid in courses across the street, with f-inch joints between 
the courses. Each block had two holes -H--inch in diameter, 
and t-inch deep, bored in each side ; and when the joints 
were filled to half their depth with ^^ liquid asphalte," the 
asphalte of course occupied the holes. The upper part of 
the joint was then rammed with screened gravel, and 
grouted with tar and asphalte, and the pavement covered 
with screened gravel and sand. 

The lateral holes have not, in later pavements on this 
system, been made in the blocks. It was found, no doubt, 
that they were an entirely useless refinement. 



OTHER WOOD PAVEMBVTS. 231 

The asplialtic wood payement appears to liave answered 
well. In Bristol, it has been laid for upwards of two 
jears, in Broad Street and at the Exchange, and Mr. E. 
Ashmead, the Engineer, reports that it is wearing well. 
He maintains that the principal advantage of the pave-, 
ment is '4ts impervionsness to water." It is stated that, 
on lifting a portion of this pavement after having been 
down two years, the foundation was found to be as dry as 
when the pavement was laid. 

SarrUon^s Wood Pavement. — ^This pavement is analogous 
to the Asphaltic Wood Pavement. Upon a concrete foundar 
tion, it is proposed to place strips of wood, 2 inches wide 
by i-inch in thickness. Upon these, 3-inch wood blocks 
are to be placed, and heated asphalte is to be poured into 
the joints, penetrating under and adhering firmly to the 
blocks. On this system, an under coating of asphalte 
would be formed in sections by the successive poiirings 
into the joints, instead of in large sheets as formed by the 
Asphaltic Wood Company. This system does not recom-^ 
mend itself. The multiplication of attachments by pieces 
of wood is objectionable. 

SensorCs Wood Pavement, — On a solid substratum of blue 
lias lime concrete, 6 inches thick, covered by a 2-inQh 
layer of cement-concrete of a finer quality, a coat of ordinaiy 
roofing felt is spread ; — ^the felt having been previously 
saturated with a hot asphaltic composition of distilled tar 
and mineral pitch. On this felt, as on a carpet, cushiony 
and impervious to moisture, blocks of Swedish yellow deal, 
oontaining resin sufficient for preservation, are laid. The 
blocks are 3 inches wide, 6 inches deep, and 9 inches long, 
are placed with the grain upright, and laid closely to-^ 
gather end to end, in rows across the street The rows 
are also driven together and dose-jointed idth a strip of 
saturated felt in each joint. The width of the interq[iaoe(i 
is thus reduced to the simple thickness of the felting, and 



232 OTHER WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

does not exceed, if it even amounts to, a quarter of an inch. 
At intervals of every tliree or four rows, a row of blocks 
grooved along the middle is laid, to aid in giving foot- 
hold. The surface is dressed with a hot bituminous com- 
pound and fine clean grit. 

This pavement was laid in Oxford Street in two lengths, 
between Princes Street and Marylebone Lane, and be- 
tween Hereford Gardens and Edgware Boad; and was 
opened for traffic in December, 1875. For the 18 months 
(to Jime, 1877) during which this pavement has been open, 
it has, according to the report of Mr. H. T. Tomldns, the 
Surveyor, given very great satisfaction, and it continues 
in excellent condition. A piece of Henson's wood pave- 
ment was laid in LeadenhaU Street, in the City of London, 
in August, 1876. 

Norton^ % Wood Pavement, — ^This pavement was evidently 
designed as a compromise, to do away with a foundation 
of concrete, whilst securing the advantage of a firm base. 
A thin bed of baUast is laid on the subsoil, and brought to 
the profile of the street, to receive the pavement. The pave- 
ment consists of slabs or structures, 7 feet long, and 3 feet 
wide, composed of blocks of yellow Baltic timber, 3 inches 
wide, 6 inches deep, and 7 inches long, fixed to a backing 
of 2-inch boards, with a strong bituminous cement. The 
joints are run with the same material. Between the slabs, 
the joints, i-inch wide, are filled with powdered rock 
asphalte, in a heated state, well rammed and levelled to 
the surface of the blocks. A small piece of paving on this 
system was laid at the east end of Gannon Street, in 1874. 
It has been occasionally under repair, and is now (Feb- 
ruary 1877) in bad condition: — ^bumpy, and depressed at 
the edges of the slabs. 

MowhmU Wood Pa/cement. — This pavement reverts to the 
simple type of wood pavement, formed of fir blocks, 
3 inches wide, 6 or 7 inches deep, and 9 inches long, with 



OTHER WOOD PAVEMENTS, 23d 

joints^ transversely, J-incli wide, filled with a grouting of 
'blue lias lime and sand. It is laid on a foundation of 
concrete made with Portland cement, 6 inches thick. The 
earliest piece of Mowlem's paving was laid in Duke Street, 
Smithfield, in June, 1873. A small piece was laid at the 
east end of Gannon Street, in September, 1873« Portions 
of the blocks were creosoted. 

Stone^a Wood Pavement. — ^A concrete foundation is formed, 
compressed by machinery. Ghrooves, f -inch deep, and ^ 
3 inches apart, are cut by machinery in the surface of the 
concrete. Wood blocks, 3 inches wide, 5 inches deep, and 
6 inches long, are placed on the concrete, being shaped to 
fit into the grooves. The blocks are in transverse courses, 
with l^-inch joints, which are filled with gravel, and run 
with heated tar. A specimen was laid in King William 
Street, near to Clement's Lane, in July, 1873. Having 
been completely worn out by the traffic, it was taken 
up and replaced by the Improved Wood Pavement, in 
October, 1876. This new pavement was constructed with 
one layer of boarding on concrete and sand. 

GahrieVs Wood Pavement. — Wood blocks, 3 inches wide, 
6 inches deep, and from 7 to 11 inches long, are placed, 
with the intervention of a little sand, on a foundation of 
concrete, composed of Thames ballast and Portland cement 
or ground lias lime, of from 6 to 9 inches in thickness. 
Two small fillets are secured to one side of each block, so 
as to keep the blocks steady during the process of grout- 
ing. The joints are filled with a grout of lime and sand, 
and the whole surface of the pavement is covered with a 
layer of hoggin and sand. The eastern and the greater 
part of the south side of St. Paul's Churchyard were laid 
with this pavement in 1875. 

WiUon^B Wood Pavement. — ^This pavement is formed of 
blocks 3 inches wide, 6 inches deep, 8 inches long, laid 
on a foundation of blue lias concrete 6 inches deep, on 



234 



OTHER WOOD PAVEMEKTS. 



which a j^-inch layer of sand is spread, to bed the blocks. 
Two small fillets are secured by brads on the side of each 
block, so as to keep the blocks steady imtO. the process of 
grouting is completed. The grouting for the joints con- 
sists of blue lias lime and sand. A piece of this pave- 
menty 419 square yards in extent| was laid in Fetter Lane^ 
iu October, 1876. 

Tablb No. 34. — City op London :— "Wood Patehents. 











Date ^Hien the 


Situation. 


Name of Wood 


LsDgih. 


Area. 


pavinff-wM 
oompleted. 




Payement. 










Yards. 


Sq. yds. 




Bartholomew Lane . 


Carey's Wood 


40 


468 


Jan. 1872 


Birchin Lane . 


»» 


28 


77 


June, 1866 


Jewry Street . 


»» 


42 


253 


Feb. 1872 


Little George Street 


»» 


24 


148 


Feb. 1872 


Gannon Street 


$$ 


— 


9,061 


Sept. 1874 


Houndsditch,N.W. ) 
half . . J 


>» 


— 


1,826 


May, 1874 


Barbican, athirdpart 


>» 


^ 


800 


Oct. 1875 


Bartholomew Tjane . 


Improved Wood 


48 


392 


Dec 1871 


Qreat Tower Street ) 
and Seething Lane j 


1* 


76 


448 


Aug. 1873 


King William St./ 
between Ghrace- 
chiirch Street and > 


















#9 


311 


6,066 


Jan. 1876 


Gannon Street,and 










Adelaide Place .. 










Ludgate Hill . 


n 


266 


2,639 


Nov. 1873 


Aldersgate Street,&c. 


n 


— 


6,884 


Sept. 1874 


Barbican, a third part 


»» 


— 


606 


Nov. 1876 


St. Mary Axe, &c. . 


ft 


— 


1,662 


July, 1876 


Biflhopsgate Street \ 
Without . j 


n 


— 


— 


Feb. 1877 


Gracechurch Street, ) 
near Talbot Court / 


Ligno-Mineral 


27 


440 


Aug. 1872 


Fore Street 


If 


— . 


3,822 


Dec. 1874 


Coleman Street 


n 


^^ 


2,291 


June, 1876 



OTHER WOOD PAYEMBNTS. 



235 



Tablb No. 84 — continued. 



Sitnatioo. 


Name of Wood 
Pavement. 


Length. 


Axea. 


Date when the 
pavinffwas 
oompTeted. 


Duke St., Smithfield 
Houndsditch, S.E. \ 
half 
Wormwood St., &o. 


Mowlem's Wood 

M 

n 


Yards. 
134 


\1t 

1,832 
689 


June, 1873 
May, 1874 
June, 1875 


GaimonStreet,8am- ) 
pie at east end . ] 
Barbican, a thirdpart 
St. Bride Street . 
Queen Street • 


Asphaltio Wood 
n 

n 


=— 


299 

785 
1,774 
2,169 


July, 1874 

Oct. 1875 
Not. 1876 
July, 1876 


Gannon Street, earn- *> 
pie at east end . ) 

St. Paul's Ghurch- 
yard, east end and 
part of south side ) 


Norton's Wood 
Gabriel's Wood 


— 


4,907 


1874 
Jan. 1876 



In the Appendix is given a table by Oolonel Haywood, 
showing the condition of the wood pavements in the Oity 
of Londoni as existing on the 1st Februaiy, 1877. 



CnAPTEE XVI. 

COST AND WEAK OP WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

Cost. — The first cost of wood pavements in tlio City cf 
London, including foundation, but not excavation, has 
been as follows : — 



Improved Wood. 


Laid. 


First cost. 






King William Street . 


1873 


188. Od. per sqiiare yard 


Ludgate Hill . . . . 


1873 


188. Od. 


>» 


»» 


Great Tower Street and 










Seething Lane 


1873 


168. Od. 


ff 


» 


Bartholomew Lane . « 


1871 


168. Od. 


f» 


9f 


Cabby's Wood. 










Bartholomew Lane • 


1872 


128. 6d. 


n 


W - 


Houndsditch . . • , 


1874 


138. 6d. 


» 


99 


MowLEM*s Wood. 






1 


• .- 


Duke Street , . . , 


1873 


158. 3d. 


>♦ 




Houndsditch . 


1874 


178. Od. 


)» 


n 



The Asphaltic Wood Pavement has been laid in Bristol 
for 14«. Qd. per square yard. 

With regard to the cost for maintenance of wood paving, 
the Improved Wood Company contracted to maintain the 
pavements of King William Street and of Ludgate Hill, 
1 year free, and 15 years at 1«. Qd, per square yard per 
year; and the pavements of Great Tower Street and Seething 
Lane, 1 year free, and 15 years at 1«. Zd. per square yard. 
These terms are equivalent to a total cost per square yard 
per year for 16 years, of 2^. 6}^^. for the first and second 



COST. 237 

streets, and 2«. 2d. for the third. But in King William 
* Street, the pavement was renewed three years afber it was 
first laid ; so that the actual total cost must be something 
considerably greater than the contract cost. 

The Asphaltic Wood Paving Company maintain the 
Bristol pavement for Is, per square yard per year for 10 
years ; equivalent to a total cost for this period of 2«. 5^. 
per square yard per year. 

Messrs. Mowlem and Go. maintain the pavement of 
Duke Street for 2 years free, and 3 years at U. per jsquare 
yard per year. Also, the Houndsditch pavement, for 
2 years free, and 5 years at 9d. per square yard per year. 

Mr. Carey maintains the Houndsditch pavement, for 
2 years free, and 5 years at Is, per square yard per year. 

Mr. G. J. Crosbie Dawson* gives the cost of the ligno- 
Mineral Pavement as follows : — 

VeataqpiKnjtBtiL 
Hard wood, induding concrete fotmdation . . 14b. 6d. 
Mamtenance for 10 years, after the first 2 years . Os. 8d. 
Yellow deal, including concrete fonndation . • lis. 6d. 
Maintenance for 10 years, after the first 2 years . Os. lOd. 
Footways, including foundations . . . . 5s. Od. 

The price of Mr. Henson's pavement, as laid in Oxford 
Street, is 12«. per square yard, if only 2 inches of Port- 
land cement concrete is required ; and 14«. if with 6 inoshes 
of the same concrete. 

Mr. Ellice-Clark gave, in 1876, the coist for vaiioiiB 
pavements, if laid in Derby, from which the following 
particulars are deduced : — 

9V»telin 
First cost Period of Ootk amuiftl ooit 

AspHALTBfi.— DsBBT. pet sq. yard, majntenanfle. per year. per year. 

Linimer 16s. Od. 13 yzs. Os. 7d. Is. 9|d. 

Val de Travers, with 

iron studs . . 17s. 6d. — — — 

• *< Street PaTements," in the Journal of th§ Zw^rpcoi T^^tmhmU 
'•) 8oci$tff, 1876. 



238 COST AND WEAR OF WOOD PAVEMENTS. 



Wooi>. 










Caxey . 


. 14s. 9d. 


lOyrs. 


Is. 6d. 


28.10^ 


Asphaltio Wood . 


. 148. 3d. 


13 „ 


Ob. 7d. 


Is. Sid. 


ligno-Mineral :-~ 










Yellow deal • 


• Us. 6d. 


17yr8. 


Is. l}d. 


Is. OJd. 


Hard wood . 


• 148. 6d. 


17 „ 


Os. 6^ 


l8. d^d. 


Improved wood . 


. 158. Od. 


16 „ 


US. 9^d. 


Is. S^d. 


Gbanitb . • 


. 138. Od. 


28 „ 


Os. 3^ 


Os. 8|d. 



In these estimates for Derby, except those for Carey's 
Wood, and the Improved Wood, the cost for a foundation 
of concrete is included, but no excavation. 

That wood pavement, properly seasoned and properly 
laid, with watertight joints, whether lime -grouted or 
asphalted, may last for many years without suffering 
decomposition, has been amply demonstrated by the expe- 
rience of Carey's pavements in the Ciiy of London, which 
were laid in 1841. In New York, it appears, the average 
duration of wood pavement is only four years, for " it is 
estimated that the wood pavements become worn out and 
useless at the rate of 25 per cent, per annum." The fedlure 
arises, not from simple wear, but from decay; and ''the 
process of disintegration is much accelerated by the con- 
stant wear and pressure from the wheels of vehicles, and 
by the sudden changes of temperature which characterise 
our climate."* But the information is not of that pre- 
cise character which would make it of use for comparison 
in England. It has, indeed, been averred that the wood 
was unsound when it was laid* 

Wear. — In the City of London, the abrasive wear of wood 
pavement in the lines of trafiGlc has been recently ascer- 
tained, in a few instances, by direct measurement, by the 
writer and others, to be approximately as follows : — 

* Commimications from the mmiicipal authorities of New York and 
Paris on the '^Eesults of their Experience of Wood PayementB in 
those Cities." 1876. 



WEAR. 239 









ThnA 


Vertioal Wear. 




Wood Paybirvt. 


down. 


TbtaL 


Per year. 


ilaide Place, 












idon Bridge 


ImproTed Wood Co. 


3yr8. 


iinch 


•29 inch 


lopsgate St. 












Ithout 


do. 


do. 


2i„ 


f « 


30 „ 


rer Hill . 


Carey's • 


• • 


fi u 


H „ 


70 „ 


tholome^ 












me 


do. • 


• • 


5 „ 


i » 


•16 „ 


inon St. 


do. • 


• 


2io 


i » 


•30 „ 



3 amounts of wear in the first, second, and fifth in- 
3S are practically the same, namely, *30 inch per year, 
gridths and the daily traffics at the places where the 
iirements were made, may be taken, for the first in- 
B, at 41 feet and 16,000 vehicles in 12 hours ; and for 
econd instance, 22 feet and 8,000 vehicles. For the 
nstance, in Gannon Street, the measurement was made 
>pposite Mansion-House Station, where there is much 
traffic. The normal traffic is upwards of 6, 000 vehides, 
t may be taken as double, or 12,000 vehicles, at this 
with a width of 36 feet. The comparison, then, stands 



Width 
of street. Traffic per day. 
laide Place . 41 ft. 16,000 vehicles, or 390 vehicles per ft. wide 

lopsgate St. 

thout . . 22 ft. 8,000 „ or 364 „ 

non Street . 36 ft. 12,000 ^ or 333 „ 






362 „ „ 



)m these data, it appears that, for a traffic of 362 
les in 12 hours per foot of width, the vertical 
amounts to '300 inch per year. The wear for 100 
les per day per foot of width, is, therefore, equal to 
X i^ = ) '083 inch, or tSr inch per year, 
perience is wanting, — at least in England, — ^for deter- 
g the minimum depth to which wood-block paving 
1 be worn, before being removed. It is said that, in 



240 COST AND WEAR OP WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

some instances, ligno-mineral and other wood blocks hfl 
been worn down to a depth of 2i inches when they w( 
removed. Su£B.cient depth of block is required for stabili 
in wood-paving as in stone -paving; and, reasoning 
comparison, it would appear that there may be some mista 
in the first design of wood-paving, by limiting the depl 
when new, to 6 inches. The motive for this limitation 
depth, it can hardly be questioned, is one of economy 
first cost; but when it is observed that Carey's earli 
wood-pavements in the City of London, which had 8 ind 
and 9 inches of depth, have far surpassed in duration mc 
recent pavements having only 6 inches of depth orij 
nally, it would be well for wood-paviors to try ba< 
and revise their designs on the basis of a 9-inch depth 
block for heavy traffic. In forecasting the amount 
vertical wear to which such blocks may judiciously 
subjected, it may be premised that, for equal origii 
dimensions, the amount of vertical wear maybe at lei 
as much for wood, as it may probably be, and as has be 
indicated, for stone-sets ; for the geometrical form of t 
wood-block admits of a more secure and more permaiK 
joint being made than for the roughly squared stone-s 
Empirically, then, the total vertical wear may be tal 
at 1 inch on a depth of 6 inches, and 4 inches on 
depth of 9 inches, leaving stumps of 5 inches to be : 
moved. But, it is scarcely necessary to add, that in or< 
that a wood-pavement should be capable of underg^j 
such amounts of wear, it must be solidly and rigidly oc 
structed with thoroughly seasoned close-grained wood a 
watertight joints, and thoroughly drained. Moreov 
time, the destroyer, is an element, and, in making ei 
mates, it is necessary to impose a limit to the durati 
of wood, independent of the resistance to wear. In 1 
following table, the limit of endurance is taken at 
yeazs ; — 



WEAR. 



241 



Tablb No. 35.^Wood Patbmxnt :— Estimated Dubatioit. 

Vertical wear, i^ inch per year ^ 100 vehideB per day per foot of 

width* 



• 


Height of blockt. 






6 inches. I 7 inches. 1 8 indies. 


9 inches. 


TraffiA per foot of 
^ridth per year. 












MaziTrnim amoant of Tertical wear. | 




linoh. Sinohes. 


Sinohes. 


4 inches. 




Yehiolei. 


Yean. 


Years. 


Yean. 


Yean. 


100 


12 


20 


— 


— 


200 


6 


12 


18 


24 


300 


4 


8 


12 


16 


400 


3 


6 


9 


12 


500 


2* 


6 


7 


H 



I 

I 



CHAPTEE XVn. 

ASPHALTE PAVEMENTS. 

The employment of asplialte for tlie carriage-way 
streets was commenced in Paris, where, in 1854, the B 
Berg^re was laid with Val de Travers asphalte. In 18^ 
three sides of the Palais Eoyal were laid with the materi 
which was brought to the ground in the state of xo 
crushed into smaU pieces, and was heated and powder 
by decrepitators. The foundation of concrete was abo 
6 inches thick ; the asphalte was 2*4 inches thick in t 
Hue St. nonor6 and the Eue Bichelieu, and 2 inches in t 
Hue de Yalois. The price was 20 francs per square met 
or 13«. 4d. per square yard. The success of these pa^ 
ments was, it is said, complete, in spite of an unpropitic 
season ; and, in 1859, the Eue des Petits Champs was la 
But, the conditions were unfortunate. The street h 
been occupied by drainage works, and had been filled w 
loose soil to a depth of from 10 to 13 feet. On a 4-ii 
bed of concrete, 2 inches of asphalte was laid ; the wc 
was carried on in rain and snow, and in January the sir 
was opened for traffic. Cracks in the roadway immediat 
appeared, owing to the constant wet during the process 
laying, and the settling of the soil. Each damaged p 
was repaired in succession. The price paid for the work "¥ 
15 francs per square metre, or 10«. ^, per square ya 
including the concrete at 2 francs per metre, or Is, 4d. ] 
yard^ This price was to serve as a basis for fnture p; 
posab for re-paying streets mih compound asphalte :— 



ASPHALTE PAVEMENTS. 243 

the standard of 4 inches of ooncrete, and 2 inches of asphalte* 
ei The conversion of the street-pavements into asphalte work, 
on a large scale, was commenced in 1867. Seyssel-rock 
asphalte was laid in the Hue Bichelieu and elsewhere, and, 
according to report, answered perfectly welL 

Asphalte Pavements in the City of London. 

The first pavement in asphalte, laid in the City of 
London, was laid of compressed Val de Travers asphalte, 
in Threadneedle Street, near Finch Lane, in May, 1869. 
The next pavement was laid, in October, 1870, in Cheap- 
side and the Poultry. Asphaltio pavement was rapidly 
extended to other streets in the City, until, at the end of 
1873, the total area of carriage-way covered by asphalte 
amounted to about 61,000 square yards, extending over 
7,484 lineal yards, or 4 J miles, of thoroughfare. From 
these data, it appears that the average width of car- 
riage-way so laid was 24 feet 4 inches. The details are 
given in a following table. Meantime, the various kinds 
of asphaltic pavements that have been laid and tried in 
the City of London, are now to be descdbed. The par- 
ticulars for description have been gleaned, for the most 
part, from Colonel Haywood's reports. 

Fdl de Travers Compressed Asphalte Pavement. — Carriage- 
ways are constructed with a foundation of concrete, of 
from 6 to 9 inches in thickness, according to the traffic in 
the street. The rock in its natural state is broken up and 
reduced to powder by exposure to heat in revolving ovens. 
It is then lodged in iron carts with dose-fitting covers, 
and brought upon the ground, takoA out, laid over the 
[ surface, and, whilst hot, compressed with heated irons into 
»* a homogeneous mass without joints. The finished thick- 
s' ness is from 2 to 2^ inches, according to the traffic, and 
Ifr the material is further compressed and consolidated by the 



ILW O 



244 ASPHALTB PAVEMENTS. 

action of the traffic : by as much as 20 or 25 per cei 
according to the statements of the Company. 

The pavement laid in Threadneedle Street, aires 
noticed, was laid on a foundation of concrete 8 ind 
thick ; a coating of mastic, ^-inch thick, was laid over i 
concrete, and over this, 2 inches of Val de Travers co 
pressed asphalte. The mastic was applied to expedite 1 
work ; but it has not been used in any other pavemi 
formed in the City. 

The next pavement that was laid, — in Cheapside a 
the Poultry, — ^was 2 J inches thick, with a foundation 
concrete, 9 inches thick. The cost was 1«. dd. per sqtu 
yard for concrete, and 16*. Sd. for asphalte: together, 1 
per square yard. 

Vdl de leavers Mastic Asphalte Pavement, — ^In laying ti 
pavement, the rock is ground to a fine powder, and plac 
in caldrons on the ground, with an addition of from 5 
7 per cent, of bitimien. When heated, it becomes sex 
fluid ; then, 60 per cent, of grit or dry shingle is added 
the melted mass, and after having been thoroughly mix( 
the compound is spread over the bed of concrete in o 
layer. In March, 1871, George Yard, Lombard Street, ^ 
paved with this mastic asphalte, in a layer 1^ inches tbi< 
on a bed of concrete 6 inches thick. The price, includi 
concrete, was 12«. per square yard. 

Zimmer Mastic Asphalte Pavement, — The rock is brok 
uj) and mixed with clean grit or sand, of different sis 
according to the place in which the pavement is to be la 
A small quantity of bitumen is added to the materia 
The mixture is heated and made liquid in caldrons on t 
spot, and the compound is run over the surface of t 
foundation of concrete, and smoothed with irons to t 
required profile. It is run in two layers, the lower 
which is made with grit of a larger size than that of t 
upper layer. The total thickness of asphalte, when finishiE 



A8PHALTB PAVEMENTS. 245 

is from 1^ to 2 inclies, according to the traffic. This 
asphalte was first laid in Lombard Street, and the pavement 
was finished in May, 1871. The concrete was 9 inches, and 
the asphalte 2 inches thick. The price of the concrete 
was 28. Sd.y and of the asphalte 13«. 4d,; together, 16«. per 
square yard. 

JBamett^s Liquid Iron Asphalte Pavement. — ^This is made 
either of natural or artificial asphalte, mixed with pulverised 
iron ore or sesqui-oxide of iron, and a small proportion of 
mineral tar. The materials are heated in a caldron, and 
melted, then run over the surface, and smoothed like other 
liquid asphaltes. The usual thickness is 2^ inches. It was 
first laid in Moorgate Street, in October, 1871. The price 
was 13«. 6d. per square yard, exclusive of foundation. 

Trinidad Asphalte Pavement. — ^This is a compound of 
Trinidad pitch, broken stone, chalk, and other ingredients 
comminuted and mixed together. It is laid as a heated 
powder. A piece of this pavement was laid in Princes 
Street, in June, 1872, for which the price was 10«. Sd. per 
square yard. This pavement showed signs of wear directly 
it was opened for traffic. It was continually under repair, 
but it got cut to pieces, and was taken up in the end of 
October, and replaced by Val de Travers Asphalte. 

Patent British Asphalte Pavement. — This pavement does 
not contain any natural asphalte. It is composed of cer- 
tain oUs, caustic lime, pitch, sawdust, and iron slag or 
grit ground to a powder. The mixture is heated in a 
boiler, and, in a semi-liquid state, run over the surface of 
a bed of concrete. This pavement was laid next the 
Trinidad asphalte, in Princes Street, in July, 1872, at the 
price of 12«. per square yard. By the month of December, 
it had suffered severely from the wear of the traffic, by 
which it was pulverised ; and, after having been repaired, 
ji ineffectually, it was taken up in the same month and re- 
placed by the Yal de Travers Asphalte. 



I 



246 ASFHALTE FAVEMEinS. 

Montrotier Compressed Asphalte Pavement. — This is a 
natural asphalte £rom the mines of Montrotier, in the 
department of Haute Savoie, France. It was laid aa 
heated powder, in Princes Street, at the north side, and 
compressed with rammers in the same manner as the Yal 
de Trayers asphalte. The work was completed in August^ 
1872. Price, 15». per square yard. 

The compressed asphalte of the SooiiU Frangaise ie% 
Asphalte is brought from the mines of Garde Bois in 
Seyssel. It was laid 2f inches in thickness, in Prmces 
Street, in July, 1872, on 9 inches of concrete. The pzioS' 
was 149. 9^. per square yard. 

Maestu Compound Asphalte, — ^This asphalte is brouglil| 
from mines at Maestu, in Spain. The pavement is formed? 
of blocks of asphalte compressed into the shape of bricks 
about 6^ inches wide, 2j^ inches thick, and 13 inches loiig» 
laid on a bed of concrete, and the joints grouted with 
bitumen. This pavement was laid in Threadneedle Street^ . 
in December, 1871, at the price of 129. per square yard*^ 
It failed at places, owing to defective concrete ; and, aftoq 
having been repaired, it was taken up in JanuAzy, 187%j| 
li month after it was laid. ? 

Stomas Slipless Asphalte, — ^A foundation, 9 inches thieikl^ 
is composed of a peculiar cement, compressed while in 
fluid state by machinery, under a pressure of 1121bs. 
square inch. A layer of asphalte, 2^- inches thick, in 
heated state, was laid on this foundation; it was 
posed of tar, cement, sand, and lead-ore, subjected to 
pression as the concrete was. A specimen of the 
ment was laid in King WilLiam Street, neap Ni( 
Lane, in July, 1873 ; but it failed to sustain the 
and was taken up in September, after having been 
only 5 or 6 weeks. 

Bennetts Foothold Metallic Asphalte. — ^This pavement 
sisted of blocks about 2 feet square and 4 inohee 



A8PHALTB FAVBMENTS. 247 

The lower portion-^ inches thick— of the blooKS is com-' 
posed of British manufactured asphalte and burnt ballast. 
The superstratum of the blocks, 1 inch thick, is composed 
of foreign asphalte, bone-dust, sulphate of lime, and cer- 
tsdn metallic substances, including lead. The strata were 
fused together. Portions of the superstratum, 6 inches in 
diameter, at 8^-inch centres, were raised above the general 
level of the surface, and made hard by some process, with 
the object of increasing the wearing powers of the pave- 
ment, and to preserve its convexity. A specimen of the 
pavement was laid in King William Street, near Nicholas 
Lane, in October, 1873 ; but, failing to sustain the traffic, 
it was taken up in January, 1874, after having been down 
three months. 

Zillie^a Composite Pa/oement. — ^This pavement was com* 
posed of asphalte, wood, and broken granite. A specimen 
for trial was laid in Lombard Street. 

MeDonnelPa Adamaniean Conerete PavmnmU. — ^This material 
was composed of blocks made of broken stone, chalk, lime, 
and clay, mixed with vegetable or mineral pitch or tar. 
A portion of the carriage-way of Garter I^me was, in 
April, 1869, paved with this material The blocks were 
18 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 6 inches deep; th^ 
were laid with }-inch joints, upon a solid foundation, 
and run up with an asphaltic composition. The price 
was 209. per square yard. The pavemeiit showed a 
serious degree of wear at the end of the first year after 
it had been laid ; and at the end of 18 months it had to 
be extensively repaired by the contractor, according to the 
terms of his contract. In 1872, it was in such a bad con- 
dition, that, not having been repaired by the oontractor, 
it was taken up in September of the same year, after 
having been down 3 years and 5 months. The traffic of 
the Lane did not exceed 700 vehicles in 24 hours. 

Granite Pavements with AsphatU JomU. — ^Trials weire mads 



248 ASPUALTE PAViCMENTS. 

of asplialte jointing for granite sets, as in the pavements of 
Manchester and other northern towns. A portion of Duke 
Street; Smithfield, was payed with Carnarvon granite sets, 
3 inches wide, 6 inches deep, and 6 inches long. They 
were laid with 1-inch joints, which were filled with small 
clean pebbles, and run up with a composition of pitch and 
oil boiled together. The work was completed in May, 
1868. 

A piece of Aberdeen granite pavement was laid for 
comparison at the same time, contiguously, in the same 
street. The sets were 8 inches wide, and 7 inches deep, 
and were jointed with lime-grout, in the usual manner. 

In 1871, the two pavements were in nearly the same 
condition ; but the lime-grouted pavement showed, if 
anything, the greater amount of wear: — ^the difference 
having been ascribed by Colonel Haywood, — ^no doubt 
correctly, — to the comparative softmess of the Aberdeen 
sets. Both pavements were removed in May, 1873, after 
a five-years' trial, and replaced by wood. 

Another piece of this kind of paving, formed with 
Aberdeen granite sets, 3 inches wide and 9 inches deep, 
was laid in St. Paul's Churchyard, at the east end, in 
April, 1870, and removed in December, 1875, after having 
been down 5 years and 8 months. During this time, no 
repairs were done to the pavement. For the first three 
years, the surface continued in very good condition ; after- 
wards, it gradually fell into disrepair, and, in the last year, 
it was in a very bad state. SmaU repairs were not done to 
it, in the way customary with lime-grouted sets, by reason 
of the difficulty and expense of taking up and relaying 
small detached portions : — which required a boiler and 
special apparatus to be brought to the groxmd. 

Colonel Haywood reported that all the asphalte-jointed 
granite pavements were noisier and less pleasant to travel 
over than the pavements grouted with lime. 



ASFHALTE PAVEMENTS. 



249 



The following table, No. 36, gives the length and area 
of carriage-ways paved with asphalte, at December, 1873. 
Since this date, several additional pavements in asphalte 
have been laid : — 

Tablb No. 36. — Crrr of London : — ^Extbnt of Asphaltb Oabbiaoi- 
WAT Paysmbntb, at Dbobmbbr 31, 1873. 



(GOLONBL HaTWOOD.) 




» 


PaTement. 


Knmber 
of stzeets. 
fto., payed. 


ZeogOu 


Area. 


Yal de Trayers, compressed . 
Yal de Trayers, mastic . • 

Bamett's, mastic . • '. • 
Soci^t6 Fran^aise, compressed ) 
(Seyssel) . . . . / 
Montrotier, compressed 


20 
1 
8 
6 

1 

1 


Yaxda. 
4,186 
69 
1,446 
1,706 

39 

40 


Sqnaieydi. 

34,876 

232 

8,477 

16,644 

327 
846 


Total number of payements • 


37 


7,484 


60,802 

< 



KoTB TO Table. — ^The Yal de Trayers compreesed payementiB and 
the limmer-mAstic payements for caniage-ways, comprised in thk 
table, were, with three exceptions, made with 2 inches, of w^haltB; 
they were laid on concrete of from 6 to 9 inches in thickness. The 
exceptional thicknesses were 2} inches for Cheapdde and the Poultry, 
as before noted ; and 2} inches for Graoeohiuch Street and Qne^ 
Street. 

The payements of Bametf s Iron Asphalte were laid on 9 xoclies oi 
concrete, and were 2^ inches thick. The payement of the Sod^t^ 
Fran^aise was 2} inches thick, on 9 inches of concrete; and that <iff 
Montrotier was 2 inches thick. 

From the experimental results jnst recorded, it is ei^ 
parent that no preparation of asphalte oamponnds can. 
compete successfiilly with simple asphalte as a material fbr 
roadways. Experience has amply oonfinned Oolonel Hay- 
wood's belief, expressed in hiis report of July, 1971 ;— 
'^It has biv^n seen," he says, referring to flie Yfi if 

m3 



250 ASPHALTS PAVEMENTS. 

Travers compressed asphalte and liquid asphalte, the 
Limmer mastic, and Bamett's iron-asphalte mastic, ** that 
the modes of compounding and forming the asphalte pave- 
ments differ materially, the one being a mineral unmixed 
and laid in a state of dry heated powder, the other three 
being composed of asphalte largely mixed with grit, sand, 
and other ingredients, and laid in a heated liquid state. 
There is consequently a marked difference between their 
structures, and I incline to the belief that the asphaltes 
which will form the most durable pavements for carriage- 
ways are those capable of being laid and compressed in 
the shape of heated powder." 

In a report by Colonel na3rwoody dated April 18, 1873, 
he described the condition of the pavements laid in the City 
of London, at the 1st March of that year, £rom which the 
following table. No. 37, has been compiled. Portions of 
some of the pavements were cut out under his direction, 
in order to ascertain whether they had lost materially in 
thickness. "There is no doubt," he says, "that the 
asphaltiBB have somewhat diminished in thickness under 
the wear of the traffic, but owing to inequalities when they 
were first laid, and to the compression which takes place 
in all those laid in the shape of heated powder, it would 
be difficult to ascertain the exact wear without making a 
very large number of openings." 

By "holes" or "short holes," in the table, it was not 
meant that the asphaltes were worn down to the concrete 
foundation. The larger holes upon compressed asphalte 
are in most cases depressions caused by the traffic, and do 
not necessarily indicate surface wear. In the mastic as- 
phaltes, on the contrary, they are for the most part the 
result of disintegration and wear of the surface. 

Minute holes are noticeable in compressed asphaltes 
shortly after they are laid, which seem, after a time, to dose 
up or disappear, whilst others open. The cause of this 



A8PHALTE FAVIBMSNTS. 26] 

" flow of solids," which Oolonel na3rwood thinks may b< 
due to the presence of foreign substances, or of moistan 
from the foundation, has not yet been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. 

The lengths of time during which these asphaltes ba€ 
been down, at the date of the inspection, were 3 yean 
and 9 months for one, 2 years and 2 months for two, 
less than 2 years for eighteen, less than 1 year for four, 
and less than 6 months for fiTe» 



252 



ASPHALTB PAVEBOamL 



Tablb No. 37. — Gitt of London : — DrmiTioir 

Yal db Tbatxbs 



LOOALITT. 



Poultry : next kerb, general surface 

Gheapside: next kerb, general 
surface. 



Old Broad Street . 
New Broad Street . 
Throgmorton Street 
Milk Street . 



Russia Row 
Queen Street . 
Old Bailey 
Gracechurch Street 



Finsbury Pavement and Moorgate 

Street. 
Moorgate Street .... 
WoodStreet 

London Wall . . . . 

Tfareadneedle Street, near Finch 
Lane. 

Ditto, east end .... 
Ditto, central .... 

Mansell Street .... 

Mansion House Street . 
Princes Street 
Ditto 







Feet 
22 

80 



24 
24 
14 
14i 

7 

15 
22 
21 



42 

32 
14i 

24 
26 

14 



46 
24 



Yehidee in 12 
hoars in 1878-78. 



TotaL 



Per foot 
of width 



Vehi- 
cles. 
7,997 

8,949 



2,473 

1,515 

661 

516 

97 
2,292 
2,903 
4,730 



5,361 

6,000 
980 

2,500 
3,696 



498 

13,767 
5,628 



Yehi- 

dles. 

363 

298 



103 
63 
47 
36 

14 
153 
132 
225 



128 

188 
68 

104 
142 

264 
264 



300 
234 
234 



Time 
down at 
liarehl, 

1878. 



Yis. Mos. 
2 ^ 

2 ^ 



1 llj 



1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 



11 

"J 
111 

10 
10 

7i 



1 6J 

m 

1 4 



I George Yard 



I - 



581 — 




ASPHALTS FAV^MEirra. ^93 



ASD Befair op Asphalts Patjocints, 1873. 

ASPHALTl (GoMPRBSSBD). 



BepaJM and Oonaitiop onlCaich 1, IgTSL 



Continnally repaired at night. Many holes in the entire BinCaoe. 

Channels much worn. Eztensive repairs required this year. 
Continually repaired at night. Many small holes in the snrlBoe; 

mostly appeared within the last 6 months. Very extenaiYe repairs 

required this yea];» 
No repairs done. A few small holes ; otherwise in good condition. 

No repairs done. Channels somewhat worn* 

One or two repairs done. One or two hides, fihannftl somewhat 

worn. Otherwise in good condition. 
One or two repairs made. In p^ood condition. 
Trifling repairs. In fair condition. 
No repairs. In good condition. 
Frequent repairs at south end, where there are many small holes. 

Many depressions towards north end. Gteerally m good oon- 

dition; hut not so good as others of this Company. 
Trifling repairs. SidaII holes over the sor&ce. Generally in good 

condition. 
A few small holes. In very good condition. 
Trifling repairs. Channels worn ; a few small holes. Ofhennse in 

good condition. 
S%ht repairs. Some short holes. Generally in good condition. 
The first pavement laid in the City. Nine very small repairs made. 

A few holes. Generally in good conditioii. 

(Narrow way frequently repaired. Channels deeply worn. Well- 
marked depression at middle by wheels. Many short holeft' at 
east end. Much wear. 
One slight repair. A few small holes. Otherwise in good oon^ 

tion. 
Slight repairs. Surface worn ; otherwise in good condition. 

No repairs ; in good condition. 

t 

Trayers (Mastic). 

! No repairs. Small depressions on sozlBce, but genenify in good 
condition. 



254 



ASFHALTE FAYEMEKT8. 



Tablb No. 37. — Cmr of Ijovdov : — ^Dubation ahd 




Lombard Street "• • • • 
Moorgate Street . . • • 

Gomhill 

Moorgate Street • . • . 

Carter Lane 

Lothbiuy . . . 

Bishopsgate St. Within • 



Feet 
17 

32 



23 



Vehicles fn IS 
houn in 1872-78. 



Total. 



Vehi- 
cles. 
2,499 

6,000 



3,507 



Ferfoot 
of width 



Vehi- 
oLes. 
147 

188 



*riiiie 
down at 
March 1, 

187S. 



Yn. Mos. 
1 9i 

1 6i 



11| 



Babkbtt's 



32 


6,000 


188 


1 4J 


8 
43 


317 
1,612 


40 
38 


S3 


28 


6,048 


216 


2^ 



I Princes Street 



Princes Street 



MONTBOTIBB 

I 24 II 6,628 1 235 || 6^ 

Soci£t£ Frakoaxsb dbb 
21 ll 5,628 1 268 I 7} I 



ASPHALTE PAVEMENTS. ^65 

&BPAIB OF AsPHALTB Paybmbnts, WZ-^^wtinued, 
Asphalts (Mastic). 



Bepain and Oondition on Mareh 1, tSTSi 



Extensively repaired in last 8 months. C9iaimels worn. Many 

i^ort holes at middle of way. 
Extensively repaired in last 3 months. Considerable indications of 

sur&ce wear in the middle ; a few had holes and depressions. 

Otherwise good. 
Trifling repairs. Channels slightly worn. Middle of way c<m- 

siderably worn; surface rough. 

Asphalts (Mastic). 

Extensively repaired. Many small holes, especially at south end, 

which was hud in very bad weather. 
Surface in good condition. 
Large i>ortion badly laid, re-laid. Surface ▼ariable» some parts 

smooth, others worn and rough. 
No repairs. Numerous holes; and indications of loose structure 

or of wear. Eastern part rough, indicating inferior material or 

bad laying. Weather very bad when it was Iaid« 

Asphalts (Cokpbsssbd). 

I No repairs. In good conditioa. | 

Asphaltbs (Compbbsssd). 

I No repairs. Unusually wavy. Generally In good cooditiofiL i 



256 



A8PHALTB PAVEMENTflL 



In compiling this table, an attempt has been made to 
gauge the intensity of the traffic by a calculation of the 
daily number of vehicles by which each street was tra- 
versed, per foot of the width of carriage-way. These 
traffics are placed in the following table, No. 38, for 
comparison with the loss of thickness, taken at per year, 
in the last colxmm : — 



Tablb No. 38. — Citt of London: — Wbab. of Asphalts Patb- 

MBNT8, 1873. 

Val db Tbaybbs Asphai^tb (Compbbssbd). 



LOCALTTT. 



Poultry : next kerb 
Do. general surface . 

Cheapside : next kerb . 
Do. general surface . 

Old and New Broad ) 
Streets . . . ) 

Queen Street 

Moorgate Street . 

Threadneedle Street, 
east end and centre . 

Average for general i 
surface . . . / 



Vehidet 
in 19 hoars 
per foot of 
width. 



Vehicles. 
863 
363 
298 
298 

103 

163 
188 

142 
208 



Time 
down at 
Harohl, 

1878. 



Yrs. Mob. 
2 2} 




Lofls of nominal thiekneiii 



TotaL 



Inch. 
•44 to -94 
•376 to -76 
•81 to -94 

f 

•31 

* 

•118 

1*00 (next 

kerb) 

iV (general 

surface 



Per Tear. 



Ihoh. 
•20 to -42 
•17 to -34 

•sato 42 

•17 

•16 

•41 
•08 

•87 

•06 
•19 



Lombard Street 



LlHMBA ASPHALTB (MaBTIO). 

. II 147 II 1 9J II i 

Barnett's Asphaltb (Mastio). 
Moorgate Street . . || 188 || 1 4^ g 



I -07 



iV 



•06 



MONTROTIBB AsPHALTB (GoMPBBSSED). 



Princes Street 



236 



6^ U }tof [•36 to 1-40 



The data contained in this table, No. 38, are too scantj 
for the purpose of making a useful comparison of the. 



ASPHALTE PAVEMENTS. 267 

wears of the' different asphaltes ; but a general relation 
may be observed between the traffics per foot of width 
and the vertical wears per year of the pavements in 
Yal de Travers Compressed Asphalte ; and the averages 
are as follows : — 

Vdl de Travers Compressed Asphalte Pavement for Carriage-ways, 

Vehicles in 12 hours per foot of width . • • . 208 vehicles. 
Loss of thickness per year (say \ inch) • • • • *19 inch. 

It has been argued that the reduction of thickness is the 
result of simple compression under the traffic, and not 
sensibly of wear : — an argument which is countenanced by 
Colonel Haywood, who found that asphalte is not so noise- 
less after it has been down for two or three months, as it is 
when first laid, and ascribed the difference to compression 
and solidification under traffic. Be that as it may, de« 
terioration of the surface is augmented by the action of 
the traffic; and, ultimately, the abrasion, and the conse- 
quent loss of thickness, must proceed in an increasing 
ratio, for it can scarcely be questioned that the material 
next the upper surface is originally more durable than 
what is under it. 

With the experience of nearly a year later than the date 
of his report from which the foregoing diata are derived, 
but without sufficient experience to determine the actual 
durability of asphalte in the City, Colonel Haywood, after 
full consideration of all the circumstances, thought " that, 
without much repair, none of the asphaltee would last more ' 
than from four to six years ; and that, in the course of 
from six to ten years, the entire surface of all will have 
been renewed." In explanation, it is to be said that the 
repair, however slight, of an asphalte carriage-way pave- 
ment, requires that entirely new material should be ap- 
plied in replacement of that which is in a state of dis- 
^repair. That is to say, there is no snoih operati 



258 



ASPUALTE PAVEMENTS. 



the relaying of an asphalte pavement. But, the asphalte 
that is removed, is utilised by being converted into a 
liquid asphalte for the formation of footpaths. 

In the Appendix, a table, extracted from a recent 
report of Colonel Haywood, gives the condition of the 
asphalte carriage-way pavements in the City of London, 
on the 1st of February, 1877. It may be noted that the 
works of two of the Asphalte Companies, — the Montro- 
tier, and Bamett's, — ^no longer exist. 

The asphalte pavements in the City of London ore all 
maintained for periods of 16 or 17 years, by oontract with 
the respective companies by whom they were laid. 



Val de Trayers Asphalte, 
(Compressed.) 
Cheapside . . • 
Poultry . . « • 
Old Broad Street . 
Gracechurch Street 
Finsbury Pavement 
Moorgate Street (N. end) 
Queen Street . • • 

LiMMER Asphalte (Mastic). 

Moorgate Street (central) 
Lombard Street 
Comhill • 
MinciTig Lane . • 

Barnett's Asphalte (Mastic). 
Moorgate Street (d. end) 

Val db Trayers (Mastic). 
George Yard . 



Concrete. Aaphalte. 
inches. inches. 



9 
9 
6 
9 
6 
6 
9 



9 
9 
9 
6 



9 



6 



2i 

H 
2 

2* 
2 

2 
2* 



2 
2 
2 
2 



2i 



4 



Completed. 
Dec. 1870 
Dec. 1870 
March, 1871 
July, 1871 
Aug. 1871 
Aug. 1871 
-April, 1871 



Sept. 1871 
May, 1871 
March, 1872 
Aug. 1873 



Oct 1871 



April, 1871 



The terms of the contracts for these streets are giyen 
in Table No. 39, which follows : — 



ASFHALTE FATEUSMIB, 2o9 

M Ko> S9.— Cttt of Lomwn : — Cost op Akphalis PiTBitmna. 
Laid and Maintained by Cootmct. 





^ *Firrt«»tpw8qn»™ 




Total 


^ 






"S 


yaid. 






yaiT 










Ctmtoiot «at few 








UTT. 


'£" 


Ab- 


■.^ 


moiiileDiuue per ngusn 


^ 


Per 






















rMVBM 
















-? 


sased). 


r™. 




». a. 


3. i. 


».a. 


a. d. 


a. 0, 


\ 


la. . 


IT 








9Tn.fi«- 










17 


1 Q 


le s 


13 


15 „ aC1«.Cd.^nfl 


40 I 


13 


\ 


»ast. : 


17 


t 9 


U 3 


la 


a 7TB. fi». 


« S 


1 Tt 




ircbSt. 


n 


1 4 


U B 


IT 


IS II iitii. Biiso 


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I- EzonatloD i* not Inohided. 1. Tht paramBiU to be shto at 



AflPHALTE FaTZUENT DT MaITOEXBXBK. 

. specimen of Yal de Traven afiphalte, 1,000 sqoare 
Is, -was laid in a etreet in Mancheeter, and was down 
yearB. During 17 days in December, 187S, and , 
oaiy, 1674, 61 horaeB fell, or 3*6 horees per day: — 
prisinfi: 12 carriage horeeB and cab liorsee, 39 Inny 



260 ASPHALTE FAVElfENTS. 

horses, and 10 cart horses. The surface was very slip« 
pery, and considered to be extremely dangerous except 
in exceptionally dry weather, or wet weather, and not 
suitable for the humid atmosphere of the Manchester 
district. The pavement was replaced with granite. 



OHAPTEE xvrcr. 

OTHER PAVEMENTS. 

Metropolitan Compound Metallic Pa/oing. — ^This pavement 
is formed of blocks of a hard cement, having an iron 
frame bedded on the top enclosing a certain portion of 
wood. A specimen was laid in Threadneedle Street, in 
1853 ; it did not prove satisfactory, and was replaced by 
the proprietors by a new and better specimen, in January, 
1854. By the end of the year, it became very unsatis- 
factory, and was extensively repaired. In June, 1855, it 
became dangerous, and was finally removed. 

Cast Iron Fa/oing, — General Krapp's cast-iron pavement, 
an American invention, consists of cast-iron frames divided 
into sections, the divisions being sufficiently close together 
to prevent the admission of horses' hoofis. The runs and 
divisions are about 1 inch in width on the top, closely 
grooved to about an inch in depth. The frames are so 
designed that, to some extent, there would be a connection 
and mutual support throughout a paving laid with them. 
They are laid upon the usual substratum, in the same 
manner as granite paving, the interstices being filled with 
gravel, stones, or concrete. The weight of the pavement 
is 250 pounds per square yard ; it costs, when complete, 
about 18«. per yard. A specimen was laid in Leadenhall 
Street, early in 1855. By the middle of the year, it got 
very much out of repair, and it was relaid on conoretei 
the interstices being filled with concrete ; but its condition 
was not very satisfactory. In February, 1857, it was in 



262 OTHEB PAVEMENTS. 

an extremely bad state of repair; and in April, it was 
finally removed, after having been down for a little over* 
2 years. 

The Cellular Iron Pavement, — This pavement consists of 
cast-iron blocks, 14 inches square, having a flat sole with 
a downward stiffening rib at each edge, and honeycomb 
reticulations on the upper side, which are open through 
the casting. The six-side cells so formed, are oblong, 
there being six cells side by side, one way, and four the 
other way of the block. The cells overhang the edges a 
little, and are the means of interlocking the blocks verti* 
cally when the blocks are plcu;ed in position. Thus, it 
was designed, the paving would rest solidly and immovably 
on a common substratum ; and any substance like sand or 
gravel thrown on the pavement, was to be driven through 
the cells by the weight of the traffic, and would in feet 
constitute a continuous packing. This pavement was tried 
in the Poultry in 1863. 

Poletti and BirwpjVe Artificial Granite Pavement. — ^This 
pavement is made into blocks, 3^- inches wide, 6 inches 
deep, 8 inches long, composed of ordinary clay, highly 
compressed and then burnt. Each block weighs about 
12 pounds. The bed for the pavement is levelled and 
made up with ordinary ballast, and the joints between the 
blocks, ^-inch wide, are filled up with the same material. 

Compound Wbod-and- Stone Pavement, — Mr. Newlands, in 
1855, tried a system of paving granite sets and wood 
blocks in alternate courses, for the purpose of lessening 
the noise of granite pavement. A portion of Ghreat Howard 
Street, Liverpool, was paved in this manner, and, for a 
short time, it appeared to answer the purpose. But the 
wood speedily becanio depressed below the surface of the 
granite, either by compression cr by wear, and the gaps 
thus made between the stonos liad the effect of increasing 
instead of diminishing the noiso. 



OONCRBTB PAVEMENT. 263 

Concrete Pavement — This pavement, designed by Mr. 

^Joseph Mitchell, is laid on a bed of Portland-cement 
concrete, 3 inches deep. The bed may be made with 
broken stones or with gravel. It is allowed to remain 
10 days for consolidation. Paving sets, 2^ or 3 inches 
wide, and 5 inches deep, are huilt on the bed, with cement 
mortar, and the joints are filled up with cement groiit. 

-The best cement only is used, and the pavement becomes, 
in fact, a work of masoniy 8 inches deep. A piece of this 
pavement was laid on George TST. Bridge, Edinburgh, in 
1866, where the traffic was heavy and continuous ; and, 
after 3^ years of work, it was in excellent cnrder, water 
running freely off the surface, whilst the wear was scarcely 
perceptible, and the surface was said to be much freer 
from mud and dust than ordinary pavement. The cost 
was said not to exceed that of ordinary pavement made 

tVFith sets 9 inches deep. 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

COMPARISON OP CARRIAGE-WAY PAVEMENTS. 

Comparative Costs, — ^The experience of wood-pavements 
of the best construction, and also that of asphalte, for car- 
riage-ways, in England, is of recent origin, and the terms of 
a comparative statement of their costs must be approxima- 
tive. The results of various estimates already given, are 
here grouped together for easy reference, not as matured 
estimates, nor even as data for direct comparison :— - 

Granite Pavement, in the City of London, exclttding Foundatum, 

Duration. Total cost per year. 

Gracechnrch Street (page 185) 25 years 7'92d. per squaxe yaard 

London Bridge (page 184) . 9 „ Is. lOfd. ,, ^ 

Five Thoroughfares (page 188) 16^ „ Is. 7d. ,, ^ 

Wood Pavements, in the City of London, including Ballast Foundatums, 

Carey's — six thoroughfcures . 10 J years 2s. 6d. per square yard 
Improved Wood — ^four do. . 16 „ (cont.) 28. 4d. „ „ 

Asphalte Pavements, in the City of London, including Foundations of 

Concrete, 

(CompreMedO . | ^^ y"' (^^^*') ^^' ^^^ to 2s. 4id. per square yaid 
Limmer (Mastic) . 17 „ „ Is. 4id. to Is. 7Jd. „ „ 

Bamett's ( „ ) . 18 „ „ . Is. lOjd. „ „ 

An allowance, at the rate of 1«. 9<?. per square yard for the 
first cost of a concrete foundation, may be made, in esti- 
mating the addition to be made to the above-noted costs of 
granite pavements, to bring them into direct comparison 

with the other pavements. But, the costs as given for wood 

i 



COSTS. 265 

and asphalte are only nominal. There is reason for believ- 
^ ing that the total cost for construction and maintenance of 
wood-pavement of the best recent construction will be 
found to be much less than the costs above given for it ; 
and tiiat tiie cost for asphalte pavement will be much 
' greater than the costs above given for it. 

The cost of Yorkshire paving, 3 inches thick, laid in the 
City of London, amounted, in 1850, to from 68. to 6«. 6d, 
per square yard ; and the average cost for repair 
amounted to about one penny per square yard per year. 
After remauiing down for about 18 years in principal 
thoroughfares, the paving was removed and relaid in 
courts or in streets of inferior traffic, where it was esti- 
mated it would last from 15 to 20 years longer. The total 
life was taken at 36 years, which was about the same 
length of time as the life of granite carriage-way pave- 
m ment at the same epoch. 

But it has recently, in 1875, been estimated that the 

Yorkshire stone foot-pavements of London, now last only 

- 7 years in the busiest localities, or 12 years in localities 

of small traffic* There appears to be an error in the 

estimate. 

The cost of supplying and laying d-inch Yorkshire 
flag-stones in Liverpool, before the introduction of Caith- 
ness flags, was from Ss. 6d. to d«. 9d. per square yard. 

The following table is given by Mr. G. J. Czosbie 
Dawson, for the average costs of foot pavements : — 

Per sqnare yazd 
Si 6t 
Yorkshire Flags • • • • .99 

Asphalte, Yal de Travers • • • .60 

Blue Brick Paving . . • • .46 

Gravel Paths . . . • • .23 

Comparative Slipper%nes9, — Colonel Haywood, in 1878, 
• The BuUdery July 81, 1876, page" 679 



266 COMPABISON OF CARBIAGE-WAT PAVEMENTS. 

made exhaustive observations on tiie accidents to horses 
on carriage-way pavements in tiie City of London: — 
granite, wood, and asphalte. The wood pavements con- 
sisted of the *' Improved Wood," and the " Ligno-Mineral " 
pavements. The asphalte pavement was the Yal de 
Travers (compressed). 

The average of 50 days' observations showed that 
granite was found to be the most slippery, asphalte next, 
and wood the least. That, — 

Granite was most sUppery when dry ; safest when wet. 
Asphalte „ ^ damp; „ „ dry. 

Wood ^ ^ damp; „ „ dry. 

The numerical data upon which these conclusions are 
founded, are summarised in the Table No. 40. 



Table No. 40. — City op London : — Gompabatitb Slippbbinbss 

OP Carbiaoe-way Pavements. 



Favbmbkt. 


Distanoe travelled l)efore a hone teSL 


Dry. 


Damp.; 


Wet. 


Avenge 

of 
fiOdajs. 


Granite .... 
Asphalte .... 
Wood (two kinds) 


MilM. 

78 
223 
646 


Miles. 
168 
126 
193 


Miles. 
537 
192 
432 


Mflea. 
132 
191 
830 


Improved Wood . 
Ligno-Mineral . 








446 
68 



Here it is to be observed, that the worst condition of 
pavement was dry granite, and the best condition was dry 
wood. The Ligno-mineral wood pavement is obviously 
far inferior, in point of safety, to tiie Improved Wood. 
Improved Wood may be taken as representative of other 



CONVENIENCE. 267 

1^ wood-pavements recently laid, in respect of safety to 
norses. 

Comparative Convenience, — ^Wood pavements make the 
least noise; and asphalte pavements make less than 
granite. Of the wood pavements, the quietest are those 
which are laid on concrete ; and the closer the joints, the 
quieter and steadier is the motion over the pavement. 
For, in all wood pavements, the fibre is turned over at the 
edges into tiie interspaces ; and a series of hollows is 
established between the blocks, which, in the more widely 
set pavements, give rise to unpleasant vibration in vehides 
passing over them, — ^like that produced by a stiff spring 
insufficiently loaded. Henson's pavement is the only one 
in which such vibration is prevented ; and it is no doubt 
the dryest, ^e smoo^est, and the most silent of wood 

i \ pavements, whilst it is likely to be amongst the most 

■^durable. 

Wood absorbs moisture, and is frequently damp when 
asphalte is dry ; but if it be reasonably dean, ^e damp- 
ness does not affect the safety or tiie comfort of the traffic. 
Colonel Haywood says tiiat, although some streets in tiie 
City have been paved with wood for thirty years, no com- 
plaints of offensive smell, or of unhealthiness, have been 
made to the Commission. 

The Committee of the Society of Arts, on Traction on 
JRoads, express, in their report,* very strong sanitary 
objections to wood as a material for pavements. Since that 
report was written the practice of wood paving has been 
much improved. As Colonel Haywood puts it, ** in con- 
fined places, and under some conditions, wood might be 
objectionable. I have seen it decaying in confined places 
without traffic." 

* Printed in the Journal of the Society of Arte^ June 25, 1875, 



v2 



CHAPTEEXX. 



CLEANSING OF PAYEMBNTa. 



The duBt and mud of the streets of great towns 
Bist generally of four things : — comminuted stone, li 
dung, shoe-iron, and shoe-leather. House-refose i 
an unknown element ; it counts for something in the 
of articles that is collected in and removed from the si 
and roads. Dr. Le^eby, in 1867, analysed dry mud 
the streets of the Oity of London, — dried by ezp 
for many hours to a temperature of from 266° to 
Fahr. At the same time, he analysed, fbr oompas 
well-dried fresh horse-dung, and common fann-yard < 
The results of the analyses, for the mud of stone-; 
ments, are given in table No. 41. 



Table No. 41. — Composition of Mud from Stokb-pavbp Sn 

HOBSB-DUNG, OB FaBMTABD DuNO. 

Dried at 300'' Fahr. 



GOHSTITUXHTS. 


Fresh 
horse- 
dung. 


Team- 
yard 
wmg. 


Mud from Btone-pafed rtrM 




orga^Cwet 
withflr). 




organio (d 7 
weather). 


An 


1 

Organio • 
Mineral 


Per cent. 
82-7 
17-3 


Percent. 
69-9 
30-1 


Percent. 
58*2 
41-8 


Pttroeni. 
20-6 
79-6 


i 
1 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100*0 


I( 



CLEANSING OF PAVEMENTS. 269 

The higher proportion of mineral matter in wet 

<'.*ou::.or proves that in such weather the abrasion of 

stone and iron is greatest. Dr. Letheby estimated that 

the average proportions of stone, iron, and dung in the 

muds were : — 

Hone-dong • • • • • 57 per cent. 
Abraded stone • • • • 30 ,, 
Abraded iron 13 ,, 

100 „ 

The mud was so finely comminuted that it floated 
freely away in a stream of water. 

In the mud of wood pavements, the proportion of 
organic matter in the dried mud was larger than in the 
mud of stone pavements. It amounted to about 60 per 
oent. 
^^^The amount of moisture in the street mud varied ac- 
ooruiiig to the state of the weather : — 

Srova PATnoNT. Mdtatnn. 

In the driest weather • • rarely leas than 35 per cent. 

In ordinary weather • • m 48^ f, 

In wet weather • • • m 70 to 90 n 

By far the greatest proportion of the detritus of mac- 
adamised roads consists of the worn material of the 
road; and the important principle was early revealed 
by experience, ^* that the ofkener tiiat streets are cleansed, 
the less is the mud which is created and removed, whilst 
the attendant expenses are by no means increased, and 
the roads are kept in a better state of preservation.'' 
This principle is, besides, logically dedudble from the 
fact that the worn particles, if left on the Bur&oe, act 
as a grinding powder under the wheels and the horses' 
feet, to reduce to similar powder the surface of the road ; 
and that the mud which is formed with the detritus, 
•in rain falls upon and ii mixed with it> operates 



f^ 



270 CLEANSING CF PAVEMENTS. 

like a sponge in retaining the moisture upon the sur- 
face. The upper crust as well as the suhstratum, under 
these circumstances, become saturated with moisture, 
softened, and '' rotten ;" — just as a gravel footpath, hard 
and solid in ordinary weather, becomes sodden and pulpy 
when it is lapped for a time by a covering of half- 
melted snow. The macadamised carriage-way, thus re- 
duced, is exposed to rapid deterioration by the traffic, 
which increases in a highly accelerated ratio with the 
period during which the road is left undeansed. The 
statistics of cleansing imanimously support these condu- 
sions. Shortly after Sir Joseph Whitworth introduced 
his street-scraping machine in Manchester, it was ascer- 
tained from calculations made by the municipal authorities 
on the relative advantages of machinery and manual 
labour, that, by cleansing the macadamised streets with 
the Whitworth machine, three times a week, the quantity 
of mud produced on the surface was only one-fiftJi of 
what was produced when they were swept by hand 
twice in three weeks, and only one-thirteenth of what 
was produced when they were swept once a week. The 
following are the statistics referred to : — 

Manchesteb : — ^Area of district, 5,500,000 square yards. 

Ayerage area 
swept to 
Loads pirodnoe a 
removed. load. 



Square yards. 
Swept by maclime three times a week . 1,285 4,388 

Swept by Tna,Tnial labour twice in three 

weeks. Township, 1841-42 . . 6,400 859 

Swept by manual labour once a week. 

Township, 1838-39 .... 17,000 343 

There is a want of harmony in this statement, ivom 
which it appears that by hand-scraping once a week 
more mud was collected than by scraping once in 10 daysi 



CLEANSING OF PAVEMENTS. 271 

There was probably a difference of circumstances, as 
there was an interval of three years between the two 
series of observations. Be that as it may, it is obvious 
that the more frequent cleansing performed by the ma- 
chine, was instrumental, not only in keeping the streets 
in better condition, but in reducing the tear and wear 
of the streets, as represented by the decreased quantity 
of detritus which was generated and removed.* 

When a road is very soft, it should not be touched; 
or, at the most, only the loose liquid mud should be 
removed, by light sweeping, with, at the same time, a 
copious use of water. When a road is in a soft con- 
dition, and is covered with a thick tenacious mud which 
adheres to the stones, it is a oommon opinion that the 
use of water injures the road by softening the surface, 
and causing a removal of the material. But the truth 
is exactly the reverse. A road in this condition can- 
not be effectually cleansed without water : — ^by the free 
use of water, the mud is softened, is liquefied, and is 
easily removed without impairing the integrity of the 
surface, or removing the useful grit. 

The difficulty and cost of cleansing streets effectually 
by hand-labour, are materially diminished by the sub- 
stitution of the sweeping machine. The Whitworth 
machine has been much employed for cleansing streets. 
The apparatus consists of a series of broad brooms, 
usually about 30 inches wide, attached to a pair of 
endless chains which turn upon an upper and a lower 
set of pulleys suspended in a light wrought-iron frame, 
behind a cart, the body of which is near the ground. 
As the cart-wheels revolve, they communicate, by gear- 
ing, a rotary motion to the pulleys carrying the endless 

* See a paper " On the Present State of the Streets of the Metro- 
polis/' Proeeedinga of th$ Institution of Civil £ngin0er$, 1843 ; voL ii. 
page 202. 



272 CLBAIJSING OP PAVEMENTS. 

chains and tlie brooms attached to them; the brooms 
being sufficiently lowered so as to bear upon the 
surface of the street, they successively sweep the sur- 
face, and carry up the soil on an inclined carrier-plate, 
over the top of which it is dropped into the receptacle. 
The oblong arrangement of brooms, effected by the em- 
ployment of the endless chains, contrasts favourably with 
a simply circular or revolving broom; for the ends of 
the brooms move most rapidly in the act of revolving 
on the lower pulley, whilst they are in contact with 
the groimd, and they move towards the upper end at 
a less speed, whilst conveying the soil up the incline. 
In turning over the upper pulley, the velocity of the 
ends of the brooms is again raised to the maximum, 
and the mud is at this place stripped from them by 
a bar called a ** doctor." If, for instance, the horse 
travels at the rate of 3 miles per hour, the speed of 
the brooms, whilst sweeping the ground, is 9 miles per 
hour ; whilst passing under the doctor, 6 miles per hour ; 
whilst they convey the mud up the incline at 3 miles per 
hour. The brooms are raised and lowered by hand, 
by means of a coiled spring and chain. The spring 
relieves the pressure of the brooms upon the ground, 
according to the inequalities. A strong horse is required 
to work and to draw the machine. 

The area of surface swept daily in Manchester, in 1847, 
by one of Whitworth's machines, with one man and 
one horse, varied from 14,000 to 20,000 square yards. 
The quantity removed amoimted to from one to three loads 
per acre, according as the surface was dry or wet.* The 
cost of working each machine was from 10«. to 15«. per day, 
exclusive of all the expenses attending the disposal of 
the sweepings, &c. Sweeping continuously, each machine 

* ** Mechanical Street Cleansing," Froe$eding8 of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers^ 1847 ; vol. vi. p. 431. 



CLEANSING OP PAVEMENTS. 273 

would cleanse, in a day, a strip of roadway 30 inches wide, 
and 20 miles long, making an area of 29,334 square yards. 
As a fact, more than 30,000 square yards have been swept 
in a day. But, a third, at least, of the whole time that 
the machine is at work, is consumed in conve3ring it to 
and from the place of deposit, and unloading. During the 
second half of the year 1843, each machine swept an 
average of 18,189 square yards per day, in Manchester. 
Against this performance it appears, from official returns, 
that in the years 1840 — 42, each able-bodied man em- 
ployed swept, on an average, 1,190 square yards per day, 
and each pauper swept about 600 square yards. Erom 
these data, it appears that the effective work of one 
machine equalled the work of 17 able-bodied sweepers. 
The comparative costs may be placed as follows :-^- 

Sweeping by hand : — 

^ Seventeen sweepers at 2s. per day . 348. 

Cart, horse, and driver . . • Ss. 428. per day. 

Sweeping by machine, say • • • — 13s. „ 

Difiference, saving by machine • • 298. „ 

showing that the cost by machine was less than one-third 
the cost of manual labour. 

In Salford, the results of comparative trials of sweeping 
by hand and by machine, showed that the cost of deansing 
was — 

Square yards Per aqnaze 

per day. yara. 

By hand . . £674 8s. Sd. sweeping 15,904 • lO'lSd. 
By one machine . £195 9s. 5d. „ 14,165 • 3*31 

In Birmingham, according to Mr. Figott Smith, the 
extent of surface of urban carriage-way, swept by eight 
machines, was 254,000 square yards. The whole of this 
area was macadamised, and was kept well deansed by the 
eight machines. The area of surface averaged about 32,000 
'm» ^^^^ yards for one machine, which would have been 

IT 3 



274 CLEANSIKO OP PAVEMENTS. 

traversed three times a week, allowing a traverse of 
16,000 square yards per day. '^ I keep the brooms/' says 
Mr. Smith, '' suitable for the weather : if very wet, I use 
new brooms ; if dry and sticky, I use those that have been 
worn down ; if very sticky, I send out water-carts before 
the machines, and the effect is excellent. I endeavour to 
do all the sweeping between the hours of two and eight in 
the morning." In 1846, 8,339,760 loads of water were 
laid on the streets, at a cost of £1,788 : — ^partly to prevent 
dust, partly to facilitate the cleansing. When the sweep- 
ing-machines were charged, they were drawn to the gully- 
grates, into which the fluid portion of the material swept 
up was allowed to drain off, whilst the grit remaining at 
the bottom was used as bindiag. 

Mr. Pigott Smith, referring to his experience of the 
roads in Birmingham, communicates some important data 
on the reduction of waste, and the saving of material for 
the repair of roads which are efficiently cleansed.* " Long 
experience has demonstrated that by the use of the sweeping 
machines, with the proper employment of water, a saving 
of fall one-third of the material required for the repair of 
the roads has been effected in one particular district in 
the Borough of Birmingham. The following," he con- 
tinues, ''is the result of an experiment to ascertain 
whether useful grit was or was not removed by water 
with machine-sweeping. On the 22nd of March, 1849, the 
Quadrant, Eegent Street, London, was covered with a 
thick layer of adhesive mud, which was causing great 
annoyance, as well as considerable injury to the road, but 
could not be taken up by scraping, without removing also 
much of the new stone to which it adhered. It was deter- 
mined to sweep one half of it whilst dry, and the other 
half after proper watering. This was done, and the 

* *< Macadamised Hoads/' in the Froeeedinga of ih$ Itutitutitm of 
Civil Engineers, lSd3-64 ; voL ziii. page 226. 



CLEANSING OP PAVEMENTS. 275 

sweepings were washed, to separate the refuse £rom the 
strong matter mixed with it. It was found that one-third 
of that which was taken up dry, consisted of coarse grit, 
which would have been useful on the road ; whilst one- 
twelfth part only of that which was removed in the form 
of Hquid mud was stony matter, and it was so completely 
pulverised, as to be of scarcely any use. After the two 
portions of the road had been cleansed, the difference 
between them was very striking : that which was swept 
whilst dry was still covered with adhesive mud, which, 
together with the stones to which it adhered, was lifted by 
the wheels, the whole road being rough and imeven, 
whilst the portion which had been swept after watering 
was smooth and even. On the 24th, both portions were 
again swept, but only one quarter as much dirt was taken 
from that which had been water-swept as from that which, 

^ being in a sticky condition, had been swept without the 
addition of water. On the 26th, rain fell, and three times 
as much slop was taken off the part of the road which 
had not been swept on the 22nd. The preservative effect 
of water-sweeping by mechanical means, was demonstrated 
by the decidedly better condition of that portion of the 
road so cleansed." 

The detritus of the material of a granite pavement con- 
stitutes but a very small proportion of the total quantity 
of mud-forming dust. Colonel Haywood exemplified this 
proportion in an interesting manner, taking the instance of 
the granite pavement of London Bridge, — 3-inch Aberdeen 
granite sets, — which was removed in 1851, after having 
been down nine years. The average loss of granite over an 
area of 3,950 square yards, he estimated, was equal to 
2 inches of vertical wear. The total volume of granite 
worn away was, therefore, about 219^ cubic yards, assum- 
ing that the surface was a continuous mass of granite, 

^ though there was of course a considerable superficial area 



37S CLEANSINQ OF FATEHEMTS. 

ot joints. Aeaamiiig that the granite vora o 
duoed to the st&te of fine powder, it was incresa 
probabi; one hal^ and its Toliune had been (210 
329i cnibio yards. Adding S per oent. for the 
Btonee remorod and replaced from time to tinu 
quantity worn off and reduced to powder, u 
airay, mixed with the dust of the Etreet, and a 
only have amounted to 345 7 cubic yards fori 
equivalent to a wear of '105 cubic yard — abo 
of a cubic yard — per day. Whereas, the qoanti 
remoTed, daily, in dry, calm weather, waa fro 
cubic yards.^-OTcr thirty times as much as t] 
detritus. So much for horse-droppings and ahi 
which must have conatitated 29-30ths of the i 
mulation, — independent of the oontiibutions < 
refiue, in the inhabited streets. 

Seeing that, according to the results of thea 
tione, the granitic element of the refose oonstit 
more than 3 per cent, of the whole, tlie evidt 
exceedingly greater wear of a macadam suiflu 
ingly exhibited in the contrast of the oompan 
for cleansing the two kinds of surface. Mr. B< 
that, in the spring of 1870, there were laid i 
Street, Manchester, 10,000 square yards of gra 
ment, and an area of equal extent of macad 
condition of each surface was maintained uniforn 
out the period of trial, by sweeping, for which t 
tive costs were 91rf. per 1,000 square yards, on 
per 1,000 square yards, — in the ratio of 1 t( 
average costs throughout the year, ranged in tl 
1 to J. The great bulk of the excess for maca 
pared with pavement, must have been due to 
angmented wear of granite, even under equf 
since the dust and mnd from other sources must 
the same — as a constant quantily — for both. 



CLEANSINO OF PAVEHBKTS. 277 

1^ In Heading,* wliich has about 23 miles of macadam 
^ roads, 17 miles are watered twice a day ; for which pur- 
pose 11 watering-carts and barrels, and 4 hand-watering 
machines, have been employed. One cart waters a l^igth 
of 5,962 lineal yards, having an area of 23,849 square 
yards, twice a day, at a cost of 8«. for horse, cart, and 
man, and 1«. 6d. for maintenance of cart, and harness, 
and shoeing ; total, 9«. 5d. per day. With one hand- 
machine, 23,740 square yards are watered twice daily 
at a cost of 2«. lOd. each for two men, and Id. for main- 
tenance ; making a total daily cost of 6«. Sd. 

Ana watered Cost Water delivaed 

twice daily. per day. per aqpuae yd. 

One water-cart . 23,849 square yards . 98. 6d. 0*51 gallonui 
One hand^machine 2^740 «| 6b. 3d. 1*30 „ 

^. Watering the Streets of the (Hty of London with Jet and 
SoM. — ^In 1867, and 1872, experiments were made in 
washing the carriage-ways of Oheapside and the Poultiy 
when laid with granite pavement, and afterwards with . 
asphalte pavement. The asphalts pavement of Old and 
New Broad Streets was likewise washed experimentally. 
Hydrants were erected in Gheapside, at distances of 
33 feet apart, and in Broad Streets at 140 feet apart. 
Six men were employed at each washing of Gheapside 
in the first trial, and 10 men in the second trial; isxt 
which two jets of water were used during the time of 
the first trial. The work of the 10 men in the second 
trial was thus distributed : — four in playing the jetSi ' 
two in moving the hose from place to plaoe^ and fScmr 
with brooms in sweeping the surface of the asphalts^ 
and keeping the channels free from straw and larger 
refuse. These men also used '' squeegees" (india-rubber 
• aweeps) to diy the surfoce of the asphalte. Of the six 

1^ , • Mr. EDice-Caaxk't Seport^ pagsi SA» M. 



V 



278 



CLEANSING OP PAVEMENTS. 



men employed on the granite pavement, four played the 
jets, and two moved the hose, and plied the hrooms. 

Table No. 42. — ^Washing Cabbiage-wat Pavements with 

Jet and Hose. 

BeEults of Expenmenta m the City of London. 



Pabticulabb. 


1867. 

Oranite 
pavement. 

Cheapside, 


1872. 
Asphalte pavement. 


Cheapside, 


Broad 
Streets. 


Length .... feet 
Area of pavement washed 

square yards 
Time washing 
Area washed per hour 

square yards 

Water consumed . gallons 

Do. do. per square 

yard . . . gallons 
Cost for labour 
Cost for water, at 6d. per 1,000 

gallons .... 
Cost for labour and water, one 

day's washing 
Cost for labour and water, per 

square yard; . pence 
Cost for labour and water, per 

square yard, per year ; pence 
Add for supervision, preparing 

apparatus, wear and tear, 

&c., 20 per cent. . 
Total cost . 


2,000 

9,792 
2h. 19m. 

4,220 
19,500 

1-99 
9s. lOjd. 

98. 9d. 

198. 7id. 

•0241 

7-510 

1-500 
9-010 


2,000 

10,353 
2h. 4m. 

5,000 
19,726 

1-90 

98. 

98. lOid. 

18s. 10|d. 
•0218 
6*823 

1-377 
8-200 


1,436 

3,671 
Ih. 3m. 

3,500 
9,786 

2-66 
48. lOfd. 

48. 9d. 

98.7id. 

•0315 

9-859 

1-972 
11-831 



The granite pavement was more thoroughly cleansed 
by hose than in the ordinary way, by scavengers. The 
cost of washing asphalte was only 3 or 4 per cent, less 
than that for granite. 

Mr, T, Lovick^a JExperimenta in Washing the Streets of 
London, — ^In evidence before the General Board of Health, 
in 1850, Mr. Lovick stated that in surface-cleansing by 
a jet and hose, illustrated in Figs. 57 and 58, the quantity 



CLEANSING OF PATEHBNTB. 279 

of water consumed waa at the rate of rather leu than 
> 1 gallon per square yard of suifaoe of eaxriag&-wsy, 
working at "extremely low preasurea." He mentionB 
experiments made by Mr. Lee, at Sheffield, with "very 
high preasuroe," in whidi Mr. Lee effected the cleans- 
ing with a consumption of less than a third of a gallon 
per square yard. Mr. Loviok estimated that the foot- 
paths could be deansed with a consumption of half a 




gallon of water per square yard. He adds that fha 
daUy cleansing could be effected at a cost of Sd. per 
house per week, exolusire of the oort for water; fiv 
which he allowed 2S square yards of oarriage-way and ' 
16 square yards of fbotway, per houM. At this mte^ 
the first item of oost per square yard of sur&oe wooU 
amount to Sid. pw square yard per year. For irater, 
the cout at 6d. per 1,000 gallon*, -woaiA be Hi. pec 



OLEANSUfO OF FATEHBNTS. 



square yard per year. The total cost would be Sd, per 
square yard per year. 

iix, Lovick, at tlie eame time, eBtimated that the coat 
of cleansing by ordinary ecavengfiiig was nearly doable 







I Coartfl uid A11BT& 



the cost by jet and hoee, whilst the jet had been shown 
to be much more efficacious in removing evaporating 
matter and filth * 



MOUNTAIN-ROADS. 



283 



the extreme points, is the least." At elevations exceed- 
ing 8,000 feet, attention is to be given to the action of 
snow in winter; for want of such consideration, roads, 
otherwise well laid out, are rendered impassable, for 
many weeks, by avalanches. In the Himalayas, the 
northern slopes are thickly wooded, where the southern 
slopes are bare. The wooded side should be selected; 
for the trees break the force of the rain as it falls, and 
the road is better protected than it would be on the 
bare hillside. Where the road-trace crosses a deep 
chasm formed by a river, the approaches should be laid 
down stream, to have the benefit of the slope of the 




Fig. 69.— Boad-Traoe approoohmg a deep CbaBm. 



river bed. Major Browne illustrates this proposition, — 
by drawing the horizontal line, b h. Fig. 59, through 
the point e, where the road is to cross the sloping bed 
of the river, a b, parallel to the bank, o d, of the vertical 
height E M. Draw e f and s o through e, making equal 
angles with the horizontal line. The down-stream trace 
clears the bank in the distance b f, which is shorter than 
the up-stream trace e o. The distinction, though obvious, 
is frequently overlooked. 

Heavy expenses and difficult drainage are often avoided 
by the use of zig-zags in the route. In marking out the 
formation-level, cuttings which would exceed 10 or 16 
feet in depth should be avoided, if possible. In the stony 



CHAPTER XXL 

MOUNTAIN-ROADS. 

The first thing to be observed by the engineer in 1 
ing out a mountain-road, is that he should person 
examine every possible route before deciding upon 
line to be followed. An old-established line of tr 
should not be hastily abandoned for one that pres 
greater engineering facilities, and apparently equal < 
mercial advantages. Major James Browne* mention 
instance where, in one district of the Punjab, a 
road was made £rom the hills to the plains, which, it 
thought, would at once draw away all traffic from 
old, circuitous, and greatly more difficult line. Nc 
theless, the old road is used, and the new one is 
used, for the simple reason that, whereas both linef 
thickly wooded, the trees on the new line are acacias 
thorn bushes, whilst those on the old line provide exca 
forage for the beasts of burden, for five days* mc 
Major Browne adds, that the natives of India 1 
generally had good economical and local reasons foi 
selection of their old lines of traffic. 

The broad principle most generally applicable in 
selection of mountain-roads, is, according to Mijor Broi 
— '* The best line for a mountain-road is that on w! 
the total sum of the ascents and of the desoents bet^ 

* "On the Tracing and Construction of KoadB in Moimtai 
Tropical Countries." — Proceedings of the Intiitution of Civil JBufu 
1873-4 ; vol. zxxviii. page 67. 



MOUNTAIK-ROADS. 283 

e extreme points, is the least.'* At elevations exceed- 
g 8,000 feet, attention is to be given to the action <^ 
LOW in winter ; for want of such consideration, roads, 
iherwise well laid out, are rendered impassable, for 
lany weeks, by avalanches. In the Himalayas, the 
orthem slopes are thickly wooded, where the southern 
iopes are bare. The wooded side should be selected; 
IT the trees break the force of the rain as it falls, and 
Id road is better protected than it would be on the 
ire hillside. Where the road-trace crosses a deep 
lasm formed by a river, the approaches should be laid 
tWR stream, to have the benefit of the slope of the 




Fig. 69.— Boad-Traoe approoohmg a deep ChaBm. 

rer bed. Major Browne illustrates this proposition,— 
f drawing the horizontal line, b h, Fig. 59, through 
te point E, where the road is to cross the sloping bed 
fthe river, a b, parallel to the bank, o d, of the verti< 
sight B M. Draw e f and s o through b, making equal 
igles with the horizontal line. The down-stream traoe 
oars the bank in the distance e f, which is shorter than 
B up-stream trace e o. The distinction, though obvious^ 
fi«quently overlooked. 

Heavy expenses and difficult drainage are often avoided 
' the use of zig-zags in the route. In marking out the 
exnation-level, cuttings which would exceed 10 or 15 
3t in depth should be avoided, if ^ssible. In the stony 



284 HOI719TAIN-ROADS. 

soil of a hilly countiy, no trufitworthy information is to be 
had by boring, for rock of the toughest and hardest de- H 
scription may crop up where least expected. In tracing 
a Himalayan cart-road, length is the main thing sought 
for, to surmount the immense heights met with. Erezy 
possible foot of rise should be gained, and never lost. 

The steepest admissible gradient for an unmetaUed 
mountain cart-road in India, is usually considered to be 
1 in 18, or 5*55 in 100. Where the trace rises steadily, 
the gradient is broken at every 500 or 600 yards by 
100 feet or so, of slight counter-slope, not merely to ease 
the cattle, but also to break the drainage. 

Mr. Dobson, writing from his experience of road-making 
in New Zealand,* says that, whilst, in level districts, it is 
sometimes worth while to incur considerable cost for the 
sake of avoiding inclines steeper than 1 in 30, in hilly 
country, a gradient of 1 in 10 may offcen be considered 4 
a fair working gradient ; that a gradient of 1 in 9 is a 
limit which should not be exceeded for a cart-road, and 
that it is seldom worth while to increase constructive costs 
for the sake of attaining gradients flatter than 1 in 22. 

In India, the usual width of a mountain cart-road varies 
from 18 feet in open groimd, to 12 feet along diffo or in 
very difficult places ; the maximum gradients vary from 
1 in 18 to 1 in 25. The metalled road-surface in cutting 
along a mountain-side, is usually sloped inwards from the 
outside, at the rate of 1 in 18. The metalling consists of 
a 9-inch layer of broken granite, kunkur rock (a concre- 
tion of carbonate of lime), or coarse slate shingle. 

The cost of the construction of a road in India, ex- 
clusive of metalling, according to Major Browne, may 
vary from £1,500, where the bridging is light and labour 
is abimdant, to £2,700 per mile, where the excavation ia 
heavy and the labour is scarce. An addition of £300 per 

* ** Pioneer Engineering," page 61. « 






HOQUTAIH-BaAIM. 386 

mile ia to be made for metsUing, Thich vonld be at fiie 
rate of about Id. pes aqnare yard. A. portioii of fba 
HinduBtan and Thibet road, — an tuunetalled mnle-road,- 

7 feet in width, with gradienta of.&oni 
1 in 6 to 1 in 4, Goet about £500 pei mile. { | _ 

The Grand Trunk road, in India, 637 
miles in length, constructed to connect 
distant parts of the Bengal Presidency, 
has been in use for upward of 29 years. It 
is raised at erery part, about 18 inches 
above the greatest known height of in- 
undations. The standard width of the 
surface was, in the first instance, 30 feet ; 
this was afterwards increased to 40 feet, 
with aide slopes of 4 to 1. The central 
portion, 16 feet wide, ia metalled with 
broken granite, or knnkur, which is laid 

8 inches thick, and is rolled or beaten down .''f 
to 6 inches, by which means a smooth road 
is formed. When reduced by weax to a 
thickness of 4 inches, which is general^ 
done in three years, the surface is picked 
over to the depth of half an inch, and a 
thickness of 4 or fi inchee of new metal is 
laid upon it; and it is again ndled or 
rammed, and at the same time well watered, 
to bind and consolidate the new materiaL 
It is calculated Ukat the whole deptlL of 
metalling is renewed merj six yeaia. The 
cost of the road is about £S00 per mila, 
exclusive of large bridges. The ooat of 
laying the metalling is stated as £162 3t. per mil^ W 
6-22d. per square yard; the cost fbr repair and mii»> 
tenance of metalling ia £98 13t. fm aiflfl^ tm I'SM pw 
square yard per year. 



\ 



I 



HOrm-AUI-ROADB. 



The Tiuaal aection ibr a first-dass road in Indiai Uk» 
yAai ixe& just been described, is shown in enbankinent, 




Fig. «.— Koadi In India :—Pinl.sl«> Boad In 

in Fig. 60 ; and in heavy cutting in Fig. 61. Hill roads 
are shown in section in Figs. 62, 63, and 64. 




fig. BS.— B«da m India :- HIU 



The vertical lines of cli£& present the most formidable 
obstadee to the formation of a road along their faces. In 



HOUNTAIN-BOASS. 287 

!5, if A B be the section of the cliff, and the rook be 
leutlf luird aad B,tiS, a half-tuoael like d ■ r ma; be 

- L 





edout; bnt if itbetooBoftandrPtteato 



288 



MOUNtAIK-ROADS. 



being done, the best plan, if the cliff be of any great heigU 
B F, above the formation level, Ib to blow oat the whole pieo 
o E F by a large mine at e. Mining should not, as a ruk 
be employed where there is a chance of the strata bein| 
blown out downwards, according to the dip ; for- a pieo 
may be blown out, like the shaded portion, Fig. 66, whei 



^ 



A 




1 



^ 



k 



/ 
/ 

A 








K 



M: 



U 






f 



tt\\'\ 



t 



€X> 



Of 



w 



«.• % r.1 




,to:o' — 

Fig. e7,— Mo ''• of formation of a Boad in the fiaoe of a Cliif. 



much time and expense are entailed in rectifying th 
leveL 

The general mode of attacking a vertical cliff, and o 
forming a half-tunnel, is shown in Fig. 67. The larg 
blasts, Uf a, a, a^ driven 8 feet in depth, at an angle of 45'' 
are 7 feet 3 inches apart horizontally, and 5 feet vertically 
The small holes hy h, &c., 3 feet apart and 3 feet deex) 
which are not fired, serve to determine and facilitate 
rupture at the proper level. These blasts, when fired 



L*f~ 



UOUNTAIM-R0AD8. 



289 



it 



Liage 



erallj blow out or loosen a piece like a b o d. The 
space, B E F, is blown out in the same manner.* 
It sometimes happens/' says Mr. Dobson, ''that ad* 
can be taken of the natural stratification to econo- 
work in a long side-cutting. This was done by the 
in the case of a road over Evan's Pass, at Port 
ton, New Zealand. The descent of the Pass was ou 
of a long volcanic spur, formed by a succession of 
streams, dipping at an angle of 1 in 12, the lower 
each lava stream being hard volcanic rock, whilst 
^vppeor portion was soft and easily worked. 
<*The line was originally set out with a gradient of 1 in 
-yidufih would have entailed a series of cuttings through 
hard rock, and retaining-waUs in £ront of the softer 
ons. By altering the gradient, however, to that of 
lava-streams, a solid floor was obtained throughout, 
e retaining-waUs were dispensed with, and the excava- 
was made chiefly in soft material. The alteration 
considerable saving in time and first cost, as well 
In the cost of maintenance." f 

These particulaTS are derived from Major Browne's paper, already 
to. 

< 

e Mr. Dobson's work on IHoneer Engineering for valuable inform 
on the tracing of roads in moontainouB districts. 






CHAPTEEXXrL 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS. 



In investigations into the resistance to wheels on oom- 
mon roads, it is usual to construct a diagram showing- a 
wheel on a horizontal plane in contact with a stone, over 
which it is to be pailled ; and the force required to pull it ova 
the obstacle is calculated. But this is not the kind of i»- 
sistance worth investigating, and it certainly has no relation i 
to the kind of resistance which is usually opposed to the 
wheels of vehicles on inferior roads. The resistance ifi^ 
that of a medium distributed over the submerged poTfj 

tion of the circiim* 
ference of the 
wheel, in advance 
of the perpendio- 
ular line drawn 
from the centre of 
the wheel to the 
plane of the road. 
Let a oh he such a 
wheel drawn over 

Fig. 68.— Boiling Eesifitanoe to Traction. the horizontal SUT- 

face c d e of the road, in the direction of; and let the 
road be of such a consistency that the wheel penetrates 
to the depth d h below the surfaoe, leaving a track 
b g behind it. The arc * (? is the submerged portion of 
the circumference, and it may be assumed to be identical 
with the chord of the arc, h €, Now. the resistance is dis^ 




ROLLING RESISTANCE. 291 

^ tributed over tlie surface h <?, and it may be taken as acting 
V on this surface perpendicularly to the plane of the road, or 
f- vertically and directly opposed to the gross weight con- 
sisting of the weight of the wheel and the load upon it. 
To simplify the investigation, let it be supposed that the 
upper portion of the road is homogeneoTis, as clay or sand ; 
then, the resistance to penetration is nothing at the surface, 
and it increases as the depth ; and the upward resistance 
along the line of submersion h c, is a maximum at h and 
. it vanishes at c, and the varying intensity of the graduated 
pressure may be represented by an isosceles triangle, of 
^ which the centre of gravity A, situated at one-third of its 
: length, h h, from the base h, is also the centre of resistance, 
and therefore also the centre of pressure under the load ; 
and the radial line o A is the resultant of the pressure of 
< the load, measured in force and direction by the vertical o », 
^^ and the traction force, measured by the horizontal line h «, 
* or k. But the vertical o t may be taken as equal to the 
radius o 3, and the horizontal h t may be taken as one- 
third of the semichord of submersion e d; whence the 
simple proportion, — 

Load : tractive force : : ob: ed 

: : radius of wheel : } semichord ; 

and the resistance to traction is equal to the product of 
the load by the third of the semichord, divided by the 
radius of the wheel. 

But the length of the semichord e d may be more easily 
determined by calculation from the measured depth of 
submersion d h. It is equal to the square root of the pro- 
duct of the segments into which the diameter a ^ is divided 

by the plane of the road c d e, or to ^a d X dh; and the 
^hole of the calculation is embraced by the equation, — 

^ Tractive force o * = J X ^'^'^ f ^i^ (1.) 

^^ 

^ o2 



292 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION. 




The equation is, no doubt, applicable, with a suffi 
degree of accuracy, for any real needs, for calculating 
resistance of gravel, loose stones, soft earth, or clay. 

The work done in compressing the material of the 
is easily indicated diagrammatically, by supposing 

wheel to adv 
through a s 
equal to the e 
chord c d, or 
length of sub: 
sion. Thus. 
Fig. 69, the w 
a h 18 suppo8< 
roll forward 
to occupy the 
sition a h\ 
work done in « 
pressing the road is proportioned to the four-sided 
h c d l>\ comprised between the circumferential segm 

h c and h' d ; 
this area is, 
the propertie 
the circle, e 
to the orig 
rectangular 
h d ch\ 

Now, sup 
a wheel j 
Fig. 70, of la 
diameter with 
samegroBSwei 
to travel over 
same surface. 



Fig. 69.--Rollmg Resistance to Traction. 




Kg. 70.— Rolling Resistance to Traction. 



is obvious that, if it could sink to thft iifime depth, d 
that for the smaller i lel, -JQUDEiereion, 



?i. 



ROLLING RESISTANCE. 293 

^would be increased, and the rectangle dhxdOf representing 
work, would be greater than that performed by the smaller 
wheel in the first example. Such a supposition cannot be 
admitted : the depth of immersion d b, for the larger 
wheel, must be less than that, d h, for the smaller wheel, 
though the length of immersion d o, must be greater them 
that, d e, for the smaller wheel ; but not so much greater 
as if the wheel were sunk to the first depth d h. 

In fine, larger wheels sink less, but spread more, into 
the surface, than smaller wheels, in such proportion that 
the area of the rectangle representing work of submersion 
is constant for all sizes of wheels. In this instance, accord- 
ingly, the rectangle dh x d o =^ the rectangle dB X dc. 

It might be thought that, on this principle of the con- . 
Btancy of the work of submersion, in a soft road, the re- 
sistance to traction must be the same for all diameters of - 
wheels. But, as the rectangle of work is spread over a 
longer space, d o, for the larger wheel, than the space, d o, 
for the smaller wheel, it follows, on the contrary, that the 
resistance or force of traction varies in some proportion 
inversely as the diameter, being less as the diameter is 
greater. This conclusion accords with experience; but, 
^ough the actual law of variation may not be striotlj 
deducible in the line of reasoning here traced, it is never- 
theless useful to carry the reasoning to its logical oondu- 
sion. Let a and a be the diameters respectively of the 
smaller and the larger wheels ; h and b the depths of im- 
mersion ; and c and o the lengths of immersion, or d e and 
d respectively. As already stated, the areas of immer* 
sion are equal to each other ; or, 

beznBO. (2.) 

Also, the values of e and o are, by the p go p ertiee of the 
expressible by the products V»i and VTb, Ibi - 




294 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION. 

all cases that need occur in practice ; and, by substitut 
in the equation (2), 

*x/fl* = B\/AB; (3.) 

and, squaring both sides, 

a *» = A B». (4.) 

Finally, extracting the cube root of each side of i 
equation (4), the equation (5) is obtained, 

i^= B ^ (6.) 

which may be developed into the proportion,— 

b : Bi: ^A : v'a"; (6.) 

showing that the depth of immersion varies as the cv 
root of the diameter. But, as ^ c = b o, and ^: b : : o 
than^ 

: c : : Va" : \/a7 (7.) 

showing that the length of immersion is as the cube r 
of the diameter. It has already been seen that the fo 
of traction is as the length of immersion; therefi 
finally, — 

The circumferential or rolling resistance of wheeh to tra&i 
on a level road, is inversely proportional to the cube root of 
diameter. 

On this principle of resistance, it follows that, to redi 
the rolling resistance of a wheel to one-half, for instan 
the diameter must be enlarged to eight times the primi 
diameter. 

The deduction of M. Morin, mentioned at page 51, tl 
the resistance varies simply in the inverse ratio of t 
diameter of the wheel, — so that, for example, a wheel 
twice the diameter would only incur half the resistance, 
has been generally ao But this deduction is i 

supported h^ ~ y£ foroeSy aaul {here 

good I na 




M. DEBArVE^S DATA. 295 

lents of M. Dupuit. He placed model wheels or rollers 
(f Tarious diameters at the summit of an indined plane, 
muooeeded by a horizontal plane, on which they rolled down 
^ the force of gravity and arrived at a state of rest after 
iving expended the energy acquired in falling through 
height of the plane. From these and other experi« 
its he drew the following deductions : — 
[^On macadamised roads in good condition, and on uni- 
surfaces generally, — 
1. The resistance to traction is directly proportional to 
pressure. 

3. It is independent of the width of the tyre. 
[ I. It is inversely as the square root of the diameter. 

4. It is independent of the speed. 

IL Dupuit admits that on paved roads, which give rise 
constant concussion, the resistance increases with the 

ipeedy whilst it is diminished by an enlargement of the 
IrvB up to a certain limit. 

^ M. Debauve* Bubmits the foUowing data for remstanoe 
■ vehicles on common roads, in which it may be remarked 
Ikat the resistances decrease in chronological order, ^<— 
jinng, no doubt, as he says, to the progressive improve- 
tents in vehicles and in roads. The data are here given 
f English measures : — 

^ laL—On Metalled Boade : 

Per cent* Psr ton* 

Btunford . . .7*7 or 1-1 3th of the ^. ; or 172*5 Ihk 

. 6*2 or l-16th „ „ m 189 Ihi. 

and Perdonnet . . 2*9 or 1 -35th n n n 65 lbs. 

. . . 2*2 or l-46th „ „ „ 49*3 lbs. 

2iid. — On Paved Roads : 

ford . . . .5-5 or l-18th of the wt. ; or 123*2 IIml* 

(walking pace) . . 4*0 or l-25th „ „ „ 89*6 lbs. 

[1)0. (at a trot) . . 7*1 or l-14th „ „ ,,159*011)8. 

and Perdonnet . . 3*3 or l-30th „ „ „ 73*9 lbs. 

f Manuel de VIngenieur dee Fonte et Chauseees, 9n« Fascicule ; page 81^ 



L 



296 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION. 



Table No. 43. — Heeistancb to Traction on Common Roaim. 

(M. Debauve.) 



1 

r 


i 




Braft, in pounds per ton 
oi the weight. 




1 
j 

Diameter 


Width 






Yehides. 


1 o1 the 


oithe 


Uniform 


PftTedrad. 




1 wheels. 

1 


tires. 


metaJroad, 
at a walk. 


•1 












ox at 


at a walk. 


atataot . 








a trot. 




' 




feet, inches. 


inchei. 


potmds. 


pounds. 


poiinQi» 


Cart 


6 


2 


72 


47 


63 


( 


6 1 


3 


69 


46 


— 


Tiimbril . j 


6 2} 
; 6 3 


4-4 
6-6 


67 
67 


89 
87 


— 


Waggon 


6 6 


6 


65 


40 


— 1 


Cabriolet 


4 10^ 


2 


81 


54 


76 . 


Jaimting-oaT i 


4 11 
2 10 


2 
2 


81 
81 


67 
67 


83 
88 


Stage-coach { 


4 11 
3 1} 


6.2 
6-2 


65 
66 


86 
36 


45 
45 



M. Debauve makes the general deductions from tihii 
table, that the advantage of the pavement over the metalled 
road is considerable for waggons, is less for Btage-coacheB, 
and is nearly nothing for voitures de litxe, or the cabriolef 
and the jaunting-car. The effect of the tabulated valuei 
is, in summary, as follows : — 



Vehiclks. 
"Waggon 
Stage-coach 
Cabriolet 



Rbsistavcs to TBAonoir 
Od metalled roads. On payements. 

67 lb. per ton 38 lb. per ton. 

. 671b. „ 451b. 

811b. .« 76 to 83 lb. 



9> 



» 



M 



M. Tresca tested the resistance of an omnibus on Loubof I 
system, adapted with wheels for running on a oommoi 
road. The experiments were made on an indined street 
In Paris, in good condition, having ascending gradients o 
1 in 55, one part of which was paved, and another par 
was macadamised. The frictional resistance, after thi 
gravitation on the incline was eliminated, was as tbliows :— 



EXPERIMENTS AT BEnFOBD. 



297 



BUBVAOS. 

Macadam 
Pavement 



Gross weight. Speed. 

Tons. Miles x>er hour. 

. 6-67 10-7 

. 6-67 10-1 



Frictlonal 

resistance. 

Lbs. per Ion. 

83 
66 



The resistance to traction, of agricultural carts and 
nggons, was tested at Bedford in July, 1874, by means 
f a new horse-dynamometer designed by Messrs. Eastons 
ad Anderson.* The first course was a piece of heurd road 
bmg 1 in 430 ; it was dry and in fair condition, largely 
uide of gravel. The surface was, in many places, some- 
rliat loose. The second course was along an arable field, 
lowing oats, on a rising gradient of 1 in 1,000 ; it was 
Biy dry, and was harder than in average condition. The 
xre wheels of the waggons averaged 3 feet 3 inehes, and 
le hind wheels 4 feet 9 inches in diameter ; the width 
le tyres was &om 2^ to 4 inches. The wei ^ 
reraged about a ton, and it was nearly equally 
stween the fore and hind wheels. The cart whe< 
y, 4 feet 6 inches high, with tyres Bi and 4 inc B 
le weight of the empty carts averaged 10 cwt. The ] 
are from 2 to 4 tons in a waggon, and 1 ton in a 
16 following results are deduced from the given di ^ 
e speeds averaging 2 J miles per hour : f — 





Draft on road. 


Draft on field. 


VsmoLs. 




Reduced 




BedoMd 


TotaL 


to a level. 


Total. 


toaleroi. 






Per ton. 




Perton, ' 






gross. 




groM. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


?dr-hoTse waggon without 










springs .... 


159 


43-5 


700 


210 


I pair-horse waggons with- 










out springs 


251 


44.5 


997 


194 


hir-horse waggon with 










springs .... 


133 


34-7 


710 


210 


Uhorse cart, without springs 


49-4 


28 


212 


140 



• See a report of the trials in Engineering f July 10, 1874, page 23. 
t See Manual of Rules, Tables, and Data for Mechanical Engineei's^ 
177, page 962. 

03 



298 



RESISTANCE TO TBACTION. 



The results of Sir John Macneil's experiments on tk»^ 
tractive force required to draw a waggon on yarions kinds 
of road has already been given, page 52. He made 
otlier experiments on the traction of a stagpe-ooach on i 
section of the Holyhead Eoad. The weight of the ooackj 
empty was 18 cwt. ; and the weight of seven passengeit 
in addition, allowing li cwt. for each passenger, iru 
10^ cwt. ; total weight, 2Si cwt. The first part of th^ 
following table has been arranged for various gradieirii 
and various speeds, from the statement oalcolated by tht 
experimenter. The second part of the table is added to 
show the net frictional resistance after the elimination d 
the resistance of gravity :^ 



Table No. 44. — Tkactiyb Fobci BsauntBD to D&aw ▲ Stagi* 
COACH : — Gbo88 wbioht 1*42 Tons. 





Total tractive force required. 


KetfdetkmaliMlitaoM 
per ton. 


fln A T>TW*r. 




- 




Speed in miles per hour. 


8peediiiinflMp«rlMiK | 




6 


8 


10 


6 


8 


10 • 




Ibe. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


Ibe. 


TtM. 


On. 


lin 20 . 


268 


296 


318 


76 


96 


118 


lin 26 . 


213 


219 


225 


63 


68 


7a 


lin 30 . 


166 


196 


200 


41 


63 


66 


lin 40 . 


160 


166 


172 


56 


61 


6ft 


1 in 600 . 


111 


120 


123 


72 


78 


81 


Averages . 




— 




62 


73 


79 



The net j&ictional resistances at equal speeds, vaiy vei; 
much for different gradients, by some unexplained caxMj 
They are a maximum for the steepest gradient, and I 
ynim'TmiTTi for gradients of 1 in 30 and 1 in 40 ; for theM 
they are less than for 1 in 600, which is nearly a leveE 
The mode of action of the horses upon the carriage ma] 
have been an influential element. The averages show :-• 



FORMOLA FOR RESISTANCE. 



299 



A. Stage Ooach: — 

b 6 miles per hoar, 62 lbs. per ton frictional resistance. 

73 lbs. 



b 8 
blO 



n 



» 



*» 



t» 



79 lbs. 



t> 



»f 



M 



»> 



tihese may be associated, for the purpose of deducing 
lula, the resistance of a waggon on a good road, 
at page 52, at, say, 2^ miles per hour, 44 lbs. per 
fictional resistance. Plotting the resistances per 
r the above four speeds, the following formula is 
)d:— 

JFHetional Rmsianee to Traction of a StM^e-ooaeh, 
R = 30 + 4o + \/l05: 

= the Mctional resistance to traction per- ton. 
= the speed in miles per hour* ^ - 

!. — ^The formula is applicable for waggons at lofwip 
k is simpler than the formulas deduced by Sir i 
> and it is equally approximate and compreihfiiiMf& 

Ghari6-Marsaines made observationB of 
±eT on the performance of Flemish h i 
upon the paved and the macadamised roads 
of France, where the country is flat, and i 
^nsiderable. The results of his observati< 
by M. Debauve, are here given in English i 
)le No. 45. 

I No. 45. — Pekfori^ancb of Horsbs on Roads nr IWhcb. . 

(M. Charie-Marsaines.) 



1 of 



er 



ler 



( 



Description 
of road. 



Pavement 
Macadam 
Pavement 
Macadam 



Weight 
per horse. 



Tons. 
1-306 
•861 
1-395 
1-141 



Speed in 

miles per 

hour. 



Miles. 
2-05 
1-91 
2-15 
2-16 



Work 

done per 

hour, in 

tons 

drawn ana 

mile. 



Tt 



Batioofpavtd 
roadto 



Ton-mHeB. 



2-677 
1-625 
3-027 
2*464 



rood. 



1*644 to 1 



I 1*229 to 1 I 



300 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION. 

The table shows that there is a clear inferiority of per- 
formance in summer ; and that the pavement is superior, 
even in winter, to the macadam in summer — 

Ratio. 

Favement, summer . . 3*027 tons drawn one mile, 1-86 

„ winter . • 2*677 ,, „ 1'66 

Macadam, summer . . 2*464 „ „ 1*52 

„ winter . . . 1*625 „ „ 1*00 

The average daily work of a Flemish horse in the north 
of France is, on the same authority, equivalent to 21 '82 
tons drawn one mile, in winter ; and to 27*28 tons drawn 
one mile, in summer ; giving a mean for the year, of, say, 
25 tons drawn one mile. The horses are powerful, and 
the roads are easy. 

M. Chari6-Marsaines observed that the harness lasted 
six years, over pavement ; and only five years over ma- 
cadam. Also, that the waggons lasted 7 years on the 
pavement, and 9 years or the macadam : whilst the horses 
lasted much less time on the macadam than on the pave- 
ment. The greater mortality on the macadam is ascribed 
to the inhaling of the ^e silicious dust which rises 
from it. 

It is stated by Mr. D. K. Clark,* that a good horse can 
draw a load of 1 ton at 2^^ miles per hour, for from 10 to 12 
hours a day; equivalent to (1 X 2 J- X 10 =) 25 ton-miles 
per day. This is the same performance as is above given 
by M. Charie-Marsaines. 

* Manual of JRiUes, Tables, and Data for Meohanieal Engin€$ra^ 1877, 
page 720. 




APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX I. 
ON ROLLING NEW-MADE EOADS. 

Bt General Sir John F. Burootnb, Bart. 

[This paper, written in 1843, is yalnable now, and is here reproduoed from tha 

fbnrth Edition of the present work.] 

The importance of rolling roads, either newly constmcted or when 
sabjected to extensive repairs, seems never to have been duly appre- 
ciated. 

Lines of any length of new-laid broken stone may be deemed nearly 
impracticable to ordinary traffic ; the worst and most hilly old roads 
are always taken in preference to the new roads while in that state, 
although the latter may be much shorter, and with very improved 
levels. 

At length the old road is shut up, carriages are forced to take the 
new, occasioning the greatest inconvenience and drawback to the in- 
tercourse for perhaps a year or more, a great wear and waste of the 
material, and a considerable expenditure in watching and maintenance, 
until the material, or what remains of it, shall be finally consolidated, 
and even then in a very imperfect form, unless great pains are taken 
with it. 

The rolling is, in fact, effected, but in the most distressing and 
.^ipeniive manner, and by carriages and horses very ill adapted to it. 
Iheie evils may be entirely prevented, the road put at once into 
irorking condition, and, certainly, a considerable expense even- 
IKFedy by thorough systematic rolling ; nor ought any road to 
as made until that operation shall be completely effected, 
have probably operated to prevent this principle 
umowledgcd and acted upon. 




302 APPENDICES. 

1. Because the traffic on the road will, sooner or later, do the 
work, thereby apparently reducing, in a small degree, the oost of . 
the original construction or repair. ^ 

2. Because a roller is not usually at hand, and, from its weight 
and unmanageable character, it is most inconvenient and expen- 
sive to be removed from one place to another, so that in most 
cases one would have to be constructed for the pnipose, and then 
be useless. 

3. Much uncertainty, as yet, as to the best manner of opeirating^ 
its efficacy, and the expense. 

The first reason is founded completely on error ; it is manifest that 
this manner of completing the road by the traffic is most inoonvenient, 
and occasions enormous sacrifices by the parties using the road, and 
consequently a great loss to the public in general ; nor can there be a 
doubt but that the actual expenditure on the subsequerU early maintmanee 
of the road itself is greater than would be incurred by at onee operating 
thoroughly with the roller. 

With regard to the second reason, there are many ways in which 
the objection can be greatly alleviated. 

Although there is some justice in the third, and that the most per- 
fect mode of proceeding is not yet perhaps understood, there is bo 
much useful effect to be produced by any, that it is surprising that it 
has not been reduced to just principles by experiment, and generally 
adopted. 

The practice of rolling has been rare, and almost entirely confined 
to gentlemen's demesnes, and occasionally to the macadamised road- 
ways in some cities ; but in the latter, it is believed, without the appli- 
cation of sufficient means for the purpose. 

There are certain considerations which may serve as g^des to aniTe 
at just conclusions with regard to this proceeding. 

1. A roller should not be too heavy in proportion to its bearing 
surface, or, instead of binding the material in the position and 
form laid down and desired, it will press it more or less into the 
substratum ; much of the material will thus become useless, and 
it will be very troublesome to obtain the necessary resistance for 
the consolidation. 

2. It must not be too light, or the effect will be too small ever 
to gain the object fully ; or at any rate without an extent of 
operation that would be very costly or inconvenient. 

It is believed that the ordinary rollers are too light, which may 
have thrown the practice into disrepute. 

For the Dublin streets they have a roller of two contiguous 
cylinders, each of 4 feet diameter, and 1 foot 6 inches in width. 



APPENDICES. 303 

makmg in all a bearing of 3 feet ; it weighs 2 tons 8 ewt ; only 
two horses are attached to it, bat the work is exceedingly heavy. 
It is applied to successiye layers of material, in new f onnatians, 
and about an inch of gravel is worked into the upper layer or 
surface. It is said to consolidate the roadway very effectually, 
but might probably be improved by adding to its weight.* 

From other recorded trials, however, there is reason to believe^ 
that a road roller should not be lighter than 28 cwt. for every 
12 inches lineal of bearing on the road; that is, if 4 feet wide, 
that it should weigh 5 tons 12 cwt. ; if 3 feet, 4 tons 4 cwt., ftc ; 
and that it should only be applied to the upper surface of alL 

A roller somewhat heavier than 28 cwt. per foot would be more 
effective, but it is better after that limit to gain the object rather 
by adding to the number of times passing over the surface than 
incur the inconveniences of the heavier machinery* 

This is one very interesting point to prove^ namely, the relative 
effects of light and heavy rollers, taking into account the number 
of turns required by each. 

3. For effect, the wider a roller can be, the better, because the 
operation will be more quickly peif onned, and because^ in piro- 
portion as it is narrow, will there be a tendency to farce the 
broken stone laterally from under its aotioa ; but^ as the weight 
must be in proportion to its bearing snzlBoe, the width must be 
Umited to a degree that will prevent that wei^ being too viu 
wieldy ; a very narrow roller might also have a tendenqr to over- 
turn. On the other hand, one that is very wide may tdke up too 
much room, if the road is open to traffic during the thne of its use. 

4. Horses should not be obliged to use veiy great eurtioiis Is 
drawing a roller, or the action of their feet will disoonqpoee the 
loose stones very inconveniently; tfaerefoKe^ at the dnafjbA ig 
very heavy at first, and never very light up to the laet of tlie 
operation, they should not have more than from ten to twelve' 
cwt. each to draw at first, nor so much as a ton each tt laat 

5. It would be desirable not to put more than lour haam to 
such a machine, because, as the number of honas is mult^lied, 
it becomes more difficult to obtain a perfectly united eflbit from 
them ; but on the above data a roller of four tons mazinnimipelj^ 
might be too small for the best service, and as aiz honas may per* 
haps be applied without mueh inconvenienoe^ it ta propoeed to give 
that number as a limit, and to allow 6 tons 12owt.astiieiiiaximiiBi 
weight for the roller ; this, at 28 owl per loot of beeiing, would 
give it a width of four feet. 



ABhort Btreet (Herbert Street), mads In ISB&aadikStt wall relMttahiBrw 
required repair or new material nnee, up to IMSs It Is a fOOAstalll^ iMkaol 
toaraly bailt on, nor a great thoxou^ituei 



304 APPENDICES. 

From the Oontinent we have records of several trials that have been 
made of late years of the effect of rolling new-laid material on roads ; 
although there are discrepancies in some of the particulars, there are 
many in which all agree ; and in all the practice has been strongly 
recommended. 

The one that seems to be the most practical is a roller described as 
first used in the Prussian provinces on the Bhine, and from thenco 
introduced with some modification into a neighbouring distiict in 
France. 

It consists of a cylinder of cast iron of about 4 feet 3} inches wide 
and 4 feet 3^ inches diameter.* On the axle by means of iron 
stanchions is fixed a large wooden case of 6 feet 4} inches long, 5 feet 
8^ inches wide, and 1 foot 8 inches high, open at top. 

This roller has a pole before and behind, in order to be able to draw 
it in either direction without turning ; the hind pole is sometimes used 
to assist in guiding it. It has also a drag, by the pressure of a board 
on its face, in the manner used for French waggons. 

The cylinder and other iron work weighs nearly 2 tons ; the case 
and woodwork about 19 cwt., making the whole 2 tons 19 cwt. 

The case will contain a weight of stone of 2 tons 19 cwt. when com- 
pletely loaded; therefore the entire weight can be brought up to 
6 tons 18 cwt. 

Six strong horses worked it welL 

li is passed over the entire surface of the road once or twice without 
any loading, weighing consequently nearly three tons, to obtain a first 
settlement of the loose material ; then one or two turns with about 1} 
tons loading, making 4^ tons ; and then the last turns, msHn-n^ ten in 
all, with the full loading, when it becomes 5 tons 18 cwt. 

Traversing 12 miles, it will thus completely roll about 3,000 square 
yards t in one day, or about a quarter of a mile of a road of 21 feet 
width. 

All accounts agree as to the absolute necessity, and the best manner 
of applying some gravel, or other sharp, gritty, very fine stuff on the 
surface, during the operation, without which it will not be thoroughly 
bound. 

The consolidation commences with the lower part, which is the first 
to get fixed and arranged ; and when, after about six turns over the 
whole, the upper layers have become tolerably firm and well bedded, 
some sand or stone-dust, or, what is best of all, sharp gravel, is very 
lightly sprinkled over it by degrees at every successive rolling, solely 

* These and other dimensions are necessarily in odd numbers, owing to reduoingr 
them from French measures and weights. 

i Some of the calculations are not strictly in accordance with the data, beoanse 
the data themselves are not g-lven in minute fractional pturts, and oonseonently 
the reduction of the results will show a difference ; but it is very small ana of no 
oons^neuce in a general consideration of the matteri 



APPENDICES. 305 

pmrpoie of fitting up the inUrstiees of the broken stone, and not 
'it; about 3 cubic yards in the whole per 100 square yards 
to about an inch in thickness if spread over the whole snr&ce) 
xeqidred. It is essential that this small stuff be not applied 
, or it will get to the lower strata, and not only be wasted but 
as ; the object is that it should penetrate for two or three inches 
9 help to bdnd the aurfaee, 

ided the upper interstices are filled, the less gravel used the 
therefore it is applied by little and little after each of the three 
' last successive passages of the roller, and then only over the 
where there are open joints. 

r the work, if well done, is completed, it is stated that such is 
act, that the upper crust may be raised in cakes of six or seven 
feet at a time, which could never be vdthout the graveL 
eftect may be improved also by having the upper inch or two 

finer than the rest, say to pass a ring of 1^ inch or 1^ inch. 

1 work should be done in wet weather, or the material wUl 
) to be proiusely watered artificially. 

iH be better that it should not absolutely rain, unless verp lightly^ 
he gravel ie applied (although the stoning should be wet), as it 
aae it to adhere to the roller, and even at times to bring up the 
. stone with it. In frost it is of no use attempting to rolL The 
t the material, as regards its being wet or dry, will have g^reat 
.ce in the success of the operation. 

form of the road wiU be best preserved by rolling from the two 
>wards the middle, and not commencing along the latter, 
calculated expense of the work In JB*rance was — 

For six horses and two drivers per day .£140 

Far SIX labourers attending on the road, 
assisting at the roller, levelling inequali- 
ties, spreading gravel, &o. . . .070 

Total for 8,000 square yards . . £1 11 

• 

kg about one penny for eight square yards, or one penny per> 
ig yard of road, twenty-four feet wide, and will amount to about 
per mile. 
Ireland, these prices would have to be increased, thus — 

For six horses, with drivers, per day . .£170 
For six labourers, at Is. 4d. . . . 8 

£1 15 



! considered that a modification would be desirable in this foreign 
by making it only four feet wide ; its weight might then be, 
ts box for the additional loading, &c^ about 2} tons, which with 



306 APPENDICES. 

an extra loading of 2 tons 2 cwt. would bring it to 5 tons 12 c^ 
its extreme weight, at 28 cwt. per foot. 

Such a roller passing ten times over every part, and working * 
miles per day, would require five days, and the operation costs 
£8 16*. per mile of road, of twenty-four feet wide completed. 

The gravel ought to be considered as material, but in this cai 
an addition to what would otherwise be applied; the cost th( 
must be added. 

Suppose it to amount to one shilling per cube yard, the expe 
thirty-six square yards per cube yard of gravel will be about d 
per mile of road of twenty-four feet wide. 

This would bring the whole to an amount of £28 per mile. 

However perfect the rolling may be, there will be at the end a 
elasticity and yielding of the surface, which will only become 
firm and hard after some days' traffic, say from six to ten whe: 
rably frequented, during which its form and smoothness must b< 
fully attended to ; add, therefore, £2 per mile for that extra woi 
the cost will be £30 per mile. 

The expense of the operation of the roller (independent < 
gravel) is so small, that if the weight is under-estimated, so tl 
width of the roller should require to be reduced to three fee 
adding one-fourth to that part of the outlay, or that it would i 
to be passed a greater number of times more than calculatec 
increase would not be of essential importance on the gross amou 

If artificial watering should be necessary, that expense also n 
added, but it would be small. 

The subsequent wear of material, imder proper care, will b< 
trifling ; one lYench engineer states, that where the rolling i 
manner has been successfully performed, there has never 1 
necessity for applying above one cubic yard of broken stone { 
square yards of road in the next year ; that in one instance on 
cubic yard per 1,600 square yards was used, although on a road i 
to the passage of 400 horses in draft per day ; and on another r 
fresh stone was laid for three years. 

To make a more direct comparison, however, of expense, it i 
assimied that a much greater diminution of thickness will take p 
the consolidation by the traffic than if effected at once by the i 
because the narrow wheels of ordinary carriages penetrate in 
loose matter, and force the lower part of it partially into the fi 
The displacement and grinding and crushing is also very 
whereas, in rolling, the entire is preserved and in its proper pL 
may therefore not be too much to estimate, that if it require ten 
of loose material to bind into six inches by the ordinary proces 
probably would, eight inches well rolled would give the same 
the saving at once would be very great ; thus, suppose the cove: 



APPENDICES. 307 

one inch of stone to cost as much as two inches of gravel, that is, if the 
^ gravel is vedued as above, at U. per cubic yard, that the stone be 
valued at 2«., then we have four times the cost of the gravel, which 
was stated to be £20 per mile, or £80, to set against the £30, estimated 
expense of rolling. 

If the rolling effected a saving of only one inch of the broken stone, 
still the cost of that one inch would exceed that of the rolling, including 
the gravel. 

This last calculation is given only as a proof of the saving, and not 
as recommending the reduction of the mass of material laid down to a 
minimum ; on the contrary, as the rolling of the surface is a final 
measure, and requires no renewal until the road is worn to a minimum 
thickness, the most economical plan probably would be to apply a con- 
siderable degree of substance at once, enough to last some years, so as 
to reduce the nxmiber of periods when rolling would be necessary. 

A roller, on what is here assumed to be the best construction, 
namely, of 4 feet bearing in one cylinder, and weighing 2^ tons, would 
not be very convenient to move from place to place for any consider- 
able distances ; an idea was therefore suggested of constructing one as 
a cart, on two wheels, the tires of which might be of 9, or 12, or 18 
inches in width. Such a machine would weigh from one to two tons. 
The axle might be bent, and under the body, or might be straight, 
and pass through it, so that the loading of two or three tons might lie 
very low. The distance between the wheels should be a certain number 
of times the width of the tires ; namely, if the latter are 9 inches, the 
distance asunder might be 3 feet, or 3 feet 9 inches ; if 12 inches, they 
might be 3 or 4 feet ; and if 18 inches, 3 feet. 

Such a roller might be very convenient in many respects, but would 
be subject to two objections : 

1st, The tendency to force the material laterally from under its 
pressure, by the little width of each roller. 

2nd, The impossibility by successive passage of giving every 
part of the road precisely the same amount of rolling; some 
parts must have more turns than others. 

In some few situations the very formation of the road may be made 
subservient to its rolling. 

In the construction of a new road over the Carey mountain, in the 
County of Antrim, material for stoning the road was quarried in several 
parts of the mountain up to its summit. 

Some carts were made with wheels of four-inch tires, and the 

laying of the broken stone being commenced dose to the quarry, the 

work was carried on from each quarry down hill, the loaded carts 

plMuig taken over the new-laid material, working systematically over 



308 APPENDICES. 

the cntiro width of the road, and discharged below, retuming up tha 
hill light. By the time the work was completed the road had aoq^ 
in this way a considerable degree of consolidation without extra labour. 
A roller of the weight of five or six tons may be worked up indinM 



of one in twenty by increasing the number of horses, but not steeper; 
if at all exceeding one in thirty it would probably be better to apply' 
the roUer in its lightest state, and increase the number of passages. 

It is very desirable to complete rapidly what is once begun, but its, 
attended with the disadvantage of taking up short lengths at a tinM^ 
which leads to the occasion for turning the roller Tecy frequentiy, S 
manoouvro that is particularly inconvenient. 

Although certain dimensions and weights are suggested to be liks^ 
to prove the most efficient, any other kinds that happen to be in po^ 
session might be tried and adapted to the above principles, which wiH 
usually require weight to be added with the successiYe zoUings; ihil 
may be done in various ways according to circumstanoea and si" 
tions ; the most simple, but most cumbrous and troublesome of ai 



cation, will be a large case on the roller for loading with stone. .^ 

In or near towns, iron weights might be used instead of rtone^ poitily^L 
on or suspended to the axle, within the cylinder, or in a case outside^ 
which might be then much smaller, and the weight be more oompsofe 
and more easily shifted ; or for use m a town, when the most 
dimensions and weights wore ascertained, rollers might be prepazed 
two or throe qualities, that is, all of the same extent of beaiing, bat 
cylinders of different weights, irom. the lightest to the 
brought in sucocsBion on to the work. 



APPISMDICES. 

APPENDIX n. 

aauaa pbom "Ekpobt on the Ecxhtoky of Eoad- 

Uaihtxrakos Aim HoiiaE-DaAFT thbotigei StejUi j 
' Btui>-BoixraQ, WITH Special Befebbnoe to tus | 

UsiBOFOLia." 
; (PllDtadbr Order of Oh Kempotllm Bond c<Wixka.) 

Bi Fbxdbbick a. P^orr, O.E. ISTO. 



Till II H a pcHnt madi in fftvonr of an extended dm of road-railing « 
tlmdm mnd Engluid genenlly; making it jnbable Lhnt there' l 
pa otl^ oonntry in tilO world from which aoch guod eSceta nr» J 
iW aipeoled from Eteom rood-roUiiiK. The "'""■** cf England, from M 
l|fcju.i.|iL]i--jTiil Uie beet jadgeB, Macadam tmongat otheiB, conEider * 

■ imaaee of moiatnre aa extremely ^TODiabla to ro&d-maldng — 

■ Hi freedom from either long fioita or long dnxqjitd, >■ peculiarly 
jfeHlUfl to the employment ot rolling. In ¥nao» and FroBBLak the 
kianiued bypreferenceinrainy weather, in order to Mvawater- 
L M wet ia eaeential (or conaolidating the metaL Prom waiil of 
Mliiiili II in road-rollmg some English aurreyon object to tJie B.ppli- 
Hon of sand, which it ii necessary to ose—of conne in not too lai^ 
Hriitiea — with rolling, in order to prevent the cnuhing of the metal. 
In tlie Holyhead roads, consolidated in the ordinary way, Telford 
k^rs applied clean gravel to the new metal ; and this is now done in 
pace, Fmaaia, and on oU roads where road-roUing ii imderatood and 
Htjaed. The binding of rolled roads in Fmama tj- means of the 
ri; is so afcnHig that united blocks IS inchea wide can often be 
poured. 

Aeeording to the official Hanoverian "special mstmctions" 
Bog, whan mlling the covering of the road, the binding o: 
^ to be applied by the time that aboot two-thirds a! the operation 
oomjdeted. The amount of sand must be only about one-sixth of 
It of the metalling. The watering should be very carefully q 
I, ao that the bottoming be softened as little as pooo ble. 



IE APPLICATION OF THE STEAM HOLLER TO THE 
POKMATION OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF HEW ROADS. 
Hwim. — Except with very heavy traffic, or with a very soft 
atmn <d the rood, the Inginieurt d*> Fonti »* Chauss^ti do noi 






310 APPENDICES. 

paved, and very seldom concrete, foundations or bottoming. They 
compress the bottom by rolling ; and then roll down upon it saooeaBm 
layers of road material about four inches thick. 

Germany. — ^When rolling road bottomings, the Geiman engineen 
do not take the roller over the sides, but rather lightly compret9B fhc 
crown of the road foundation. According to the official Hanoveriaa 
'* special instructions " about rolling the bottomings of roads, this mml 
be done with a light roller, and must not be carried out till the bottom 
is quite hard. No water must be used, and the operation ahonld bi 
carried out in dry weather, especially with a clayey soiL 

Liverpool. — The thirty-ton steam road-roller, by Messrs. Avelinj 
and Porter, was set to work in Liverpool in October, 1867. Ab m 
have already remarked, Mr. James Newlands, the borough engineer d 
Liverpool, has not yet been able, in so short a time for such a pur- 
pose, to determine the actual saving in maintenance effected by it 
He writes us, however, that ''besides its advantage in TnaTrf-ng a 
newly-coated macadam road perfectly smooth in a single night, it Is 
of no less utility in forming the foundations of new roads. Formally 
the traffic had to be turned on these foundations to consolidate and 
render them fit to receive the protective coatings of paving or macadam 
respectively — a work which took from three to six months, accordixig 
to the locality. Now, when the foundation is laid, it can be rendered 
fit for paving and macadam in a day or two." There are upwardB of 
forty miles of macadamised roads in the borough of Liverpool* 

SUBSIDLiEY APPLICATIONS OF THE STEAM BOAD- 

ROLLER. 

Oravel Roads. — As regards the application of the steam-roller to 
gravel roads, of which areas still greater than those of granite and 
fiint roads are in existence, but little has yet been done except in 
parks in this direction, and certainly nothing has yet been published 
as to the economical results. Macadam wrote, some fifty years ago^ 
'' In the neighbourhood of London, the roads are formed of gravel*'* 
" the component parts " of which " are round, and want the angular 
points of contact, by which broken stone imites, and forms a solid 
body;" and large areas are still laid down on the outskirts of tbs 
metropolis. The only surveyor who has spoken from experience as to 
the economical value of rolling gravel roads is Mr. Howell, of St. 
James's. But, as has been well observed to us by Messrs. Amies and 
Barford, "If a garden-roller is useful in a degree, surely a mnoh 
heavier one must be still more efficient for light vehicle traffic." 

Faved Streets, — In Paris, successful, but partial, experiments have 
been made with the steam road-roller as a substitute for the pavionr^s 
rammen 



APPENDICES. 311 

Heavy rollers are very extensively applied in Hanover to pave- 
ments; and the official Hanoverian instructions for keeping up the 
roads contain several directions as to the time and way in which the 
roller is to he applied. Experience has shown that the rollers should 
be as heavy as possihle ; that they should be applied to any uneven- 
ncss of considerahle area; that pavements are best rolled aft^ the 
breaking up of frost ; and that the surfaces should first be swept, and 
then the rolling be continued untU the stones no more give way. Herr 
von Kaven, in his " Lectures on the Engineering Sciences," gives elaho- 
rate figures, based on some experiments conducted in Hanover in 1863, 
showing the economy of this method of laying down and keeping 
pavement in repair. 

It is clear that rolling must also be peculiarly applicable to the 
construction of foundations for paving setts. 

Ficking up Roads by Steam, — The steam road-roller, though stlQ a 
comparatively new implement, has thus already made itself useful in 
a variety of ways, and has adapted itself to several important functions 
in road-maJdng and repairing, besides that of rolling only. With 
respect to picking up, or <* lifting " the macadam of old roads, before 
laying down a fresh coating of metal, there can be no doubt that a 
great economy of manual lahour can he e£fected in this direction. Mr. 
Avehng's apparatus for "lifting" roads simply consists of a series of 
spikes bolted on plates let into holes in the periphery of the roller. A 
machine on this principle, the invention of Mr. Browse, the general 
surveyor of the Metropolis Eoads Office, has long heen used by Messrs. 
Mowlem, Burt, and Freeman, for picking up roads in the metropolis. 
It simply consists of a heavily-laden cart, having its wheels aimed 
with spikes. At Manchester, one of Aveling and Porter^s engines 
picked up an area of 2,048 square yards in three hours forty minutes ; 
and the cross-picking was afterwards done by hand labour, only equal 
to that of one man working sixty hours. 

This application of steam will no douht lead to very great economies 
on many country and other roads that have been long wastefully 
managed. What Macadam wrote still applies in many cases. " Gene- 
rally the roads of the kingdom contain a supply of material sufficient 
for their use for several years, if they were properly lifted and applied" 
— with the difference in favour of the present time that much of this 
metal has heen previously broken. On any soft, ill-drained founda- 
tion, successive supplies are often driven in by the superincnmhent 
traffic, the intermediate mud working its way up. Some road sor- 
Yoyors consider that many old roads, on which there is often as much 
as two feet of metal, might he mended by the steam-roller without 
using any new metalling. They could he picked up and then steam- 
rolled, with an excellent new surface as a result. 
r< Breaking and Conveying Metalling, — It is obvioiui that the steam 



312 APPENDIC5ES. 

road -roller conld "be easily applied, not merely to driving stone* 
breaking machines, but also conyeying the metalling to the spotf 
where required. - 

SUBSIDIARY ADVANTAGES OF THE STEAM ROAD- 

EOLLER. 

Saving in Stoe^ing and Scavengering, — ^In all these instances, it h 
quite clear that any saving in road metal must be accompanied^ as ia, 
the case of the substitution of pavement for macadam, though, d 
course, to a slighter extent, by a proportionate saving in the expenses 
of scavengering and removed of detritus. 

Diminution in Faved Areas. — ^It is also clear that its well-considered 
and properly carried-out adoption in our large towns must tend, as in 
Paris, to narrow the encroachments of the uncomfortable, if cheap^ 
paving stones. The main advantage, in certain situations, of pave- 
ments is in the diminution of cost of maintenance. At speeds higher 
than at a walk. General Morin's experiments prove that the resistance 
to draught on pavements increases, which is not the case with a well- 
metalled road in a dry state. 

RfisUMfi OF THE MAIN ADVANTAGES OF STEAM 

ROAD-ROLLING. 

Briefly, the three principal advantages obtained by steam road- 
rolling over horse-roUing are, as observed in the French Official Report 
on the Exhibits at the late Paris Exhibition, when alluding to the 
Ballaison steam-roller, worked in Paris by Gellerat and Co., " saving 
of expense, saving in time from rapidity of execution, and a better 
quality of work." All that has been said with respect to the great' 
dioiinution in draught by horse -rolling applies with much greater 
force to rolling by steam. But even if steam-roUed roads cost mare 
instead of at least fifty per cent, less in maintenance than traffic-rolled, 
roads, there would be good reasons for adopting steam-roUing, as ths 
public is well served under the first circumstance, and very badly^ 
served under the second; so that, even if the expenses were greateii 
there would be a balance of advantage and expense. As a corre^' 
spondent, " H. R.," in 1868, observed in a letter to the Timea : " Wherf 
one considers the injury done to carriages and horses, and the delay! 
caused by the practice of leaving the stones to be groimd in by th^ 
carriage- wheels, one feels that even if rolling in the stones would bj 
more costly to the parishes, the pecimiary gain to the public would be 
very considerable." In the words of Mr. Robert Mallet, the well-knowa 
engineer and author, writing in 1866, " there is still room for very great 
improvement in the laying and repairs of the macadamised streets andU 




APPBKBICBS. S13 

|Hi of ihis matropofi^ fllthoogli the poraotiloe lias of late yean in aome 
^ijBBto impvoyed. The admirable practioe of Paris, where, with fur 
Ina material tiiaa ia at onr oommand, the xeaultB obtained are ao 

better^ ahoold be in part our sohool and example. 

^WehaTe tazdilj adopted from thenoe the ateam road-roller ; let iti 

be eKtended, and let ns also adopt the admirable methods of 

waterings and repairing of the French." Hie question if» 

.To mlg!iiB ,tfae sur T e yorof the roads in the district of St Georg«^a 

Sqnaze^ yetj neatly defines it, whether the xoads shall be 

^ 1^ the traiBo or for the tcaffio." 

feoKOmOAL BESULT8 OF THE OENERAL USB OF 
t. firCBAH BOAB-BOLUNG IN THE METBOFOUa 

rifo on tke TaNe. — The annexed table* is almost snfBoiently 
of itsell It has been made as oomplete as has been 
and when we state that, without coimting the Parliamentaiy 
not fewer than forty-four different authoritiea have been 
to for returns, and that probably each difiiBrGnt authority keeps 
ilMMkB on a different plan, some notion of the labour undecgone in 
iqpiling the table will have been formed. It will be seen that the 
My-cig^ Metropolitan Vestries and District Boards of Works appear 
Ae same order as usual in such returns; theYestries being separaM 
the Districts. If ^it had been possible, we should haye p r ef erred 
arrangement, based on other considerations, ^e great 
of London, and their minor feeders, radiate from the City as a 
something like the threads of a completed spider^s web. As 
kve the centre, the main roads necessarily diverge farther apart, 
, lost in the surrounding country. If the metropolitan area were 
into small regular squares, or hexagons, of equal areas, it 
be possible, starting from the City as a centre, to pretty doeely 
portions of the divisions, now coming imder the headings ol 
and districts, into four principal zones. Within a drole at 
two miles radius from St. Paul's, enclosing an area of sctnie 
square miles, we should find that all the streets are payed. 
circle, or perhaps rather an ellipse, with the Thames from the 
to Somerset House as its major axis, would enclose the principal 
granite areas ; farther out we should find, still of oourse deal- 
^with the generality of minor roads, a zone mainly oomposedof flial 
until, at the farthest distances from the Gity, and of oouiw in 
of lesser traffic, we reached the outermost sone of gravel or 
xoads. It is of course at once seen that, as the traffic inordaasft^. 
the centre of the web, the roads have to be made straoger and 



* Ibe table here referred to is given In al»atnMt at page 181; «ali.--I>>KjO. 

P 



314 APPENDICES. 

stronger, until a centre ib reached entirely paved with the hardeii 
granite. * 

We mnBt note that tbe term ''macadamifled'' is by some Ixmdoni 
surveyors strictly confined to a road laid with granite ; by others it k- 
extended to flint roads, which again are, by some surveyors, put under 
the category of gravel roads. We have tried in the teble to sepazaii 
as much as possible the granite from the flint and gravel roads. 

It will be observed how the average width of the streets and roadi 
increases in the wealthier parishes, and gradually diminishes in tin 
poorer and older ones. In St. James's, Westminster, and Batteneii . 
the roads are, on the average, 50 feet wide ; in Paddington we haW 
an average width of 45 feet ; in St. George's, Hanover Square, 40 feet; 
and in St. George's in the East only 18 feet. 

ITie Fresent Extent of the Roads in the Metropolis. — ^Mr. George Vni- 
liamy, architect of the Metropolitan Board of Works, in his '< Memo- 
randum as to the Means of providing Fire-plugs in the Metropalifl^'' 
assumes the length of streets in London at from 2,000 to 2,500 milei. 
This rough estimate includes the paved roads. Our table, based on 
thirty-six different returns, from as many parish and district surveyon^ 
gives more than 1,100 miles of macadamised roads in the metropolitan 
limits, with an estimated total area of nearly twenty-three millionB of < 
square yards. These totals are really far below, rather than over, tbe' 
mark, as they do not take into account the areas of private roads, of i 
which there exist a great nxmiber, especially at the outskirts, such at { 
towards Battersea, Lewisham, Islington, Hackney, and other diBtrictiL i 
Besides, in the few cases, such as Marylebone and others, in whioh 
incomplete returns of lengths or areas could be obtained, the 
given have been estimated low. 

These totals also exclude the gravel footpaths, the areas of which 
very considerable in many parishes. 

The public and private parks are also not included. In the formetf 
Hyde and St* James's Parks alone contain eight miles of roadway 
under Government supervision. With Eegent's Park, Batteraeoi 
Victoria and the other Parks, at the very least thirty miles of roadi, 
could be added. 

It will bo observed on looking at any map, that the metropoIitUT' 
area of parishes has grown into the shape of a huge bunch of grapei: 
from the Thames as the stalk of the whole bunch. Between tbt' 
fringes of its irregular contour are great areas of inhabited countzyt^ 
often as much covered with roads as the adiacent metropolitan pariahflti 
proper. There are thus immense areas of roads on the outskirts. For | 
instance, Mr. Browse, surveyor of the Metropolis Eoads Ofl&ce, haij 
not less than seventy miles of macadamised turnpike roads, beyond thM 
metropolitan area, but still in Middlesex. These seventy miles havo^ 
an average width of 40 feet, without reckoning the footpaths. 4 



•» . 



APPENDICES. 815 

irfag the diBtricts of Plmnstead and Lewiaham, the fartheflErt 
mtre of London, as giving a measure, in the ratio of the 
or roade to acreage, of the proportion of roade on the ont- 
ihonld find that, within a radius of only twelve miles from 
irofls, there are at least forty millions of square mQeB of 
edroads. 

§r$ JExtmU of the Moods of the Metropolis,— As might naturally 
td, considerable areas of roads are being laid down every 
10 metropolis, and especially in the outlying metropolitan 
In many districts, such as, for instance, Wandsworth, at 
r three miles are laid down annually. 
1 population of 1861 was three times that of 1801, having 
3lf in sixty years. From the figfores giving the popalati0n 
at the end of every decade since 1801, it can be seen that, 
)eginning of the present century, the metropolitan p<^ula- 
oubled itself in about forty years. In &ct, the Begistnir- 
timates that the metropolitan population, which in 1866 wai 
3,000,000, will, at the preientrate of increase, in forty yean 
I, or will rise to 6,000,000. Should the population double 
jd next forty years, the mean annual rate of increase, calca« 
m 1866, during that period, will be about 75,000. After 
rery allowance for the 'tendency to build houses muoh 
n was formerly the custom," and without taking into account 
ing and corrective tendency to lay out wider streets than 
Mr. Haywood estimates that " at the expiration of tfairty- 
I hence, perhaps forty or fifty square miles of open coimtry 
rered, more or less closely, with houses, for the additional 
Ions of inhabitants which will then exist. But," he goes on 
here are other causes which have arisen of late years tending 
disperse and radiate that part of the existing population 
,bove the operative classes, the principal agency being the 
or transit ofiered by railways. The tendency of that olasi^ 
Uy, is to seek cheaper residences and a purer atmosphere, and 
tly to encroach still further upon the open area sum 
polis, so that probably sixty square miles of open couniry, u 
iderably larger area, will be covered and occupied by the 
population reaches six millions." This would give an area 
acre than at present. 

wmum Annual Saving to London Ratepayers deriwMe flitm ike 
im Moad-rolling. — After taking the most minute precantiomi ■. 
cTor, we feel some confidence that our figures of economy 
oad-roUing are much below the mark. We see by the table 
) are at least 1,126 miles of macadamised road in the thizty<' 
opolitan parishes and districts, and that their total area 10 at 
62,605 square yards. Of course, the tme i 3 of 

p2 



316 APPENDICES. 

work to be done would be a figure giying the exact cubic oontenti ol 
exactly the same kind of metalling consumed in a given period of tioM 
OTor the given area. It is impossible to obtain this, though we know 
that the surfaces of many London roads have to be renewed soYvnl 
times a year. We find, however, as can be seen in the tables fhit 
there were expended on the roads and streets in the London parWhw 
and districts during the year 1866-7 £714,662; and during 1867*4 
£781,003. From a number of returns forwarded to us by di ffo B P aii 
London surveyors, we estimate that the average annual cost of 
tenance, exclusive of cleansing and watering, of the London 
damised roads, is £280,750, or at the rate oL in round figures^ 
per mile. 

We have seen, from not less than seven estimates, that the aemag it 
maintenance through horse road-roUing can bo estimated at 40 pa 
cent., and that the French, after nearly ten years' experience in 
consider that they save 60 per cent, in maintenance over and 
horse-rolling. Therefore, even if we assume that only 50 per cent k 
saved by steam-rolling, we have a gain of more than £140,000 pa 
M-nTimn, without reckoning the diminution of scavengering and wate 
ing, and many other sources of economy. 

It will be observed that this sum is less than one-fifth of tlie gran< 
total of that spent in 1867-8 on all the charges for the London roads 
and that, capitalised at three per cent., it represents more than ixm 
and a half millions. 

The CUueee directly interetted in the Application of Steam Soad-roltttif 
— As every one uses roads, and is directly or indirectly a ratepajH^ 
every one may be said to be more or less interested. This of ooiiai 
applies more directly to every owner of a horse, for the reasons wt 
have already given at length, under the heading of saving in dranglitj 
but still to every user whatsoever of the road. As a London local papfl^ 
the " Parochial Critic," observes, " an uncovered part is seized xxpm 
by every humane driver, and quite a contest takes place for poflBenki 
of the smooth portion. When all is covered by loose sharp stones tibi 
drivers and horses yield themselves to their fate, and drag through tibl 
punishment as best they can. A return of the number and fthf^^mofci^ 
of accidents occasioned by the present system of road-maJdng fbr fbl 
last seven years would surprise the ratepayers." 

As usual in such cases, although the complaints of the wealthy aH 
heard more loudly, the poor probably suffer most. It is said that^ li 
some parishes, the habit is to lay down the loose stones in Octobo^ 
and to leave them to bo consolidated by the passing traffic before tibi 
rich inhabitants return to town in February. The work of rolHngii 
thus thrown on draught-carts, the vehicles of the poorer rlnBaoo, aw 
especially the omnibus — ^the poor man's own conveyance. The dixrf 



^ p 



APPENDICES. 817 

in thA work of traction produced by road-rolling certainly 
io direct the attention of the ommbns companies, now serving a 
lier traffic in which they have to compete with the metropolitan 
% and soon with the tramways— the proprietors of railway 
leh as those of Messrs. Hckf ord and Chaplin and Homey and 
railway ooal-carta— to this mode of saving wear and tear of 
A and Tehides. Any road whatever is neither more nor less 
& apparatus for saving draught ; and the only advantage of a 
1 ia that it has so mach less draught on its rails that it econo* 
Ike work of traction. The roads of a city are in fact the per* 
i way and fixed plant of its means of locomotion. 
imtmnt of Capital invested in JECorset and Vehiekt in th$ JUiropoiU. 
rder to obtain s(nne further measure of the extent of tibe filnmtn 
r interested in the application of steam road-roUing, we will 
1 estimate of what an engineer would term the roUing-stook of 
adim roads. According to recent fiscal arrangements, aHhoraoi 
ever are taxed, and aldo all yehides, with the sole exception of 
Bits for burthens, on which are painted the name and address 
patoprietor. This gives an easy means of getting at tibe nimiber 
88 and, approximately, the number of vehicles. The Honoor- 
onmissioners of Inland Revenue have obligingly fuxniahed us 
gores, giving the number of horses, and of taxed veihiclei^ 
a circle of a radius of 4} miles from Ghaiing Gross, and hence 
g the greater part of the metropolitan area. There are thua 
horses in all, and 24,095 taxed carriages, within this space, 
icoount of the untaxed trade carts, we may safely raise the 
r of vehicles to 80,000. In the absence of any exact data, tiiere 
obably be different opinions as to the relative numbers of the 
it kinds ; but the following rough estimate will not be very far 
Kactitude, especially as we have verified the numbers we have 
ed for the cabs and omnibuses by inquiry at Scotland Tard. 
t carts, vans, gigs, phaetons, 15,000, which, at the price of £30 
x>uld give a sum of £450,000 ; cabs, 7,000 at dSd5 each, give 
K) ; omnibuses, 2,000 at £60, £160,000 ; heavy carts and wag- 
,500 at £50 each, £175,000 ; carriages, broughams, &0., 2,500 
each, £300,000. This would afford a total of £1,290,000 
d in vehicles ; and harness may be estimated at 40,000 sets^ at 
9 of £4 each, or £160,000. The depreciation of this capital is 
»vy, as experts estimate that vehicles, the first prices of which 
) to £150, cost from £4 to £15 per annum in repairs; and the 
od tear of heumess is always very considerable. 
. of the 15,000 light cart, gig, phaeton, or van horses we will 
» xequire one horse, of the value of £20, or a total value of 
K). Each of the £7,000 harder worked cabs would require two 
as a horse must be in stable at least three days a week; bill 



318 APPENDICES. 

their average value can only be taken as £15, or a total of £225,( 
Ab few onmibua horses do more than one journey a day, and even t 
often rest one or two days a week, we probably have 30,000 hone 
the 2,000 omnibuses ; and being of a somewhat superior kind, t 
must be estimated at the rate of £30 each, or a total of £900^ 
Heavy cart or waggon horses, 7f000 at £60 each, and two per cart, 
give £420,000 ; and carriage and brougham horses, two per TehJ 
6,000 at £100 each, will employ the sum of £500,000. On aocoun 
their inconsiderable nmnber, especially in the centre of Londoii— 
we are only considering the area within a radius of ii miLeB £ 
Charing Cross — ^we have left out the riding-horses. The total oap 
thus invested in horse-flesh we may estimate at £2,345,000 ; i 
adding to this £1,290,000 for vehicles, and £160,000 for hameea, 
have a total of £3,785,000, or of nearly four millions of pounds stexli 
invested in the rolling-stock of the metropolitan highways. 

THE HISTORY OP HOESE ROAD-ROLLINa. 

The first recorded allusion to road-rolling seems to have been nt 
in the letters patent granted in 1619 to a certain John Shotbolte^ w 
without enrolling any specification, speaks of using ''land stean 
scowrers, trundlers, and other strong and massy engines," "in 
making and repairing of highways and roads." In Paitingtc 
** British Cydopssdia of the Arts and Sciences" (1835) we find it sta 
that it was soon after the year 1700 that a part of the chaxge 
repairing roads was taken off the parishes and levied on 
traveller by means of turnpike-gates. It was, nevertheless, a w 
plaint that the roads were little, if at all, improved by the expendit 
of the money so raised. This complaint is energetically advanoec 
«a dissertation concemiug the present state of the high-roadfl 
England, especially of that near London, wherein is proposed a i 
method of repairing and maintaining them," read before the Be 
Society in the winter of 1736-7 by Bobert Phillips, and printed i 
small separate volume. " The author's great object is to reoomm 
washing the roads by a constant stream, if possible ;" at any n 
washing the materials — ^in which he partly anticipates Macadam- 
which they are composed. Phillips strongly remonstrates against ** 
practice of laying down large heaps of unprepared gravel to 
gradually consolidated into a harder mass, at the expense of 
intolerable labour of the poor auimals that are obliged to grinc 
down." His complaint has been re-echoed in London for more tl 
one hundred and thirty years, but with little practical results. 

The first proposal of a road-roUer, on a sound and scientific ha 
was made by a French Boyal Engineer of Roads; and already, 
1787) M. de Cessart, then Inspeeteur Otneral des I\mtt et Chaua*. 



APPENDICES. 319 

imended a rast-iron roller for rolling down newly metalled roads, 
lose it 8 feet long, 3 feet in diameter, and of a weight of 7,000 old 
3h pounds. Very soundly he compared its action on broken stone 

to that of a pavior's hammer on paving stones, and altogether 
jscription is what might be expected from a scientific engineer. 
dssemblee des Fonts et Chausseea strongly advised a careful trial ; 
bie disturbed political state of France, then in the throes of her first 
lution, evidently had the effect of preventing the continuation of 
cperiment. De Cessart's description is republished in the volume 
$44 of the Jnnalea des Fonts et Chaussees. Philip Hutchinson Clay 
ted and specified in England, in 1817, " a large roller which, with 
irriage over it, empty or filled with gravel or other material, may 
ide to press upon the road any weight from 6 tons to 20 tons, and 
iing used frequently, will press the moisture to the surface, and 
b the sun and rain to act upon it, at the Bcune time pressing down 
x)8e material and making the road more even." That Clay under- 

the subject is evident from his using " a gravel cart," " fixed 

a roller, to carry gravel or other material used in the repairs of 
, and deposit it where necessary, the great advantage being that 
proves the roads it passes over, and will be particularly useful in 
lets where material is scarce, whereas the present mode of carrying 
carts with narrow wheels destroys the road it x>a88es over." This 
was afterwards carried out in Ireland by Sir John Burgoyne 

Biddle patented, in 1825, ''a combination of machinery for 
ng, repairing, and cleansing roads, consisting of sonipeirs com- 
I with rollers." The road-roUer thus seems to have been used by 
al English inventors ; and it is acknowledged by the French that 
ht of some at work in London revived the attention of Continental 
leers to their use. A road-roUer was tried as far back as 1826 on 
oad near Gottingen from Hanover to Cassel ; but the experiments 
lot succeed at the time, and it was only between 1837 and 1840 

Herr E. Bokelberg, now Wegbaurath (literally ** Road-making 
icillor"), practically introduced the process into Hanover. The 
roller adopted in actual practice in France appears to have been 
)y M. Polonceau, the celebrated builder of the Carrousel Bridge, 
i29. This roller is said to have been built up of wooden lagjging 
together with iron hoops, and weighted with stones, being, as to 
aruction, long behind that of De Cessart. Wooden rollers, filled 

stones, sand, or clay, were in use in France, about thirty years 
in the department of the Mame et Loire ; and one of this kind 
ostrated in a volume for 1840 of the Annates de* Fonts et Chaussees, 
3rs made of solid stone and granite were also used at the beg^inning. 
3 French writers state that the horse-roller was first re-introduced 
. England into France, in 1833, by M. Fortin. Dr. Riihlmazm, of 
over, unknown to ourselves, arrived some years ago at the same 



320 APPENDICES. 

oondosioii that road-roUen first began to appear in actual practioe 

1830, or thereabouts; and that they were introduced into Hanorer 

1837, or after their appearance in France. As we know, the Has 

yerian administration of the roads has the reputation of being the ve 

best in all Germany. The year 1830 is about the date g;iTen by H 

Yignoles as that of the general and official adoption by the Eiench 

Macadam's system of roads, of which they at once peroeiTed th 

rolling is the indispensable concomitant. They hold that an unrdlle 

macadamised road is only half finished ; and the oentraliaation of th 

French, Hanoyerian, and Prussian administrationB of the zoadi h 

facilitated the uniyersal combination of rolling with the syBtaai o 

macadamisation. In 1837, Mr. (now Sir John) Maoneil patented fti 

use of a kind of road consisting of pieces of cast or wronghl iM 

mixed with broken stone and grayeL It was to be ocnsolidated bg 

horse-rolling in preference to wheel traffic. That, howerrer, ntA 

rolling was not much known in England by 1888, appears from m 

examination of Sir Henry Famell's celebrated woik on roadsi tii 

second edition of which was published in that year. The Bi^ 

Honourable Sir Henry Pamell, Bart, was constituted the GoyenuBfl 

Commissioner of the Holyhead roads, laid out by Telford; and ft 

plans, specifications, and contracts drawn by Telford are printed in ih 

body of the work. No mention is made of road-roUing — as Uttie ai li; 

Macadam himself, in the sixth edition of his work, published in 182S 

It is well known that Sir John Loudon Macadam rather direoted hi 

attention to the construction of new roads and to restoring bod am 

than to the maintenance proper of good roads. Some of his priaiapli 

are no doubt applicable to maintenance as well as to ^*"^fa*if»g M 

repairing, but there is a good distance from that to a complete mettuod 

The first recommendation in the English language of hone road 

rolling, as a measure of economy, was published by Colonel (not 

Field-Marshal) Sir John F. Burgoyne, RE., in 1843, when Ghainni 

of the Board of Works in Ireland. He was one of the first iy"|p"y 

who used it in their own work, and certainly the first in "B^nglanil t 

scientifically recommend it, not as a refinement, but as a lUMjewHj 

Before 1840, as appears from the Verhandltmgen de9 Vtnms cur 3^ 

derung des GewerhfleUset m Freutsen, road-rolling was officially an 

uniyersally introduced upon the Prussian roads. There can he lil0 

doubt that sooner or later all the rest of Europe will imitate Yratd 

in this, the only logical and truly economical mode of road maiiitl 

nance, just as the Prussian authorities are being tardily oopifld i 

their first use of breechloaders, in their army administx«tion» oooi 

pulsory education, preliminary examination of patents for inyenticMj 

the stringent management of their ciyil seryices, and other mattan* . 

A great number of different constructions of horse-rollers are in sM 

designed with regard to facility in turning at the ends, facility Hi 



APPENDICES. 321 

increasing or diminiBhing the load on the roller, and ease of draught. 
S The most elegant of these contrivances is the roller ballasted with 
I water; obviouslj affording a very easy means for lightening or 
increasing the load. It is generally believed in England to be a home 
invention, though really first applied and described in 1853, by a 
Government Engineer, G. Nell, employed in Prussian Silesia. 

THE HISTORY OP STEAM ROAD-ROLLING. 

In the presence of the settled employment in France of horse-rollers, 
it was natural to expect that French inventive talent should first seek 
for the usual substitution, in an implement in much requisition, of 
steam for horses. The limitation of the areas paved with ** setts " in 
Paris and other large cities, said to be ordered by Napoleon IIP. as a 
timely precaution against street barricades, has also greatly favoured 
the employment of the steam-roller by raising the demand for a very 
high and durable class of macadam, especially for tho centres of 
Parisian traffic. The main impulse towards the use of the steam- 
roller in France was, however, the extraordinary economy in main- 
tenance found to be derived from horse, and d fortiori to be expected 
from steam, road-rolling. The saving to the public in wear and tear 
of horse-flesh, vehicles, and harness, however great, could scarcely have 
flo much stimulated the road authorities. The publication more than 
a quarter of a century ago of these economical results of horse-rolling 
has had little or no effect on our road management ; the yet greater 
advantages obtained in France from steam road-xoUing may, however, 
possibly do more. 

The first patent for a steam road-roUer was taken out in France, at 
the beginning of 1859, by M. Louis Lemoine, of Bordeaux. His roller 
was not patented in England, nor ever fully described in any publica- 
tion. At the meeting on the 13th of February, 1861, of the SoeiHi ^Bi^ 
couroffetMntf the well-known engineer, M. Combes, is recorded to have 
described — ^though his description is not given in the Bulletin of the 
Society — Lemoine' s roller, which he had seen at work on the Bordeaux 
roads. M. Lemoine was then an employ^ of the Bordeaux municipality. 
This steam-roller appears to have consisted of one main roller for 
doing the work ; the engine, weighing in all only about ten tons, being 
steered by a pair of side wheels, the axles of which, by means of gear- 
ing, could be set at varying angles to the main roller. In 1860 M. 
IiQmoine*s roller was tried on the road of the Bois de Boulogne, Ballai- 
•on's steam-roller, patented in France in August, 1860, and now in use 
by G^erat and Ck)., the Paris Steam Road-roUing CJompany, was also 
there tried in August of the following year. In 1862 experiments 
^« were carried out with both these steam-rollers by the French engineers 
^. * ol the State, M.M. Darcel and Labry, who gay« an account of them ia 

f3 



322 APPENDICES. 

an unpublished report of May of that year. They expressed st 
opinions in &yoiir of steam-rolling in general, giving the pref ei 
to the Ballaison roller. An extract from this report was prints 
BI . Homberg's Notice sur let votes empierrees et aephaltees de Paris (li 
They observe that the only possible apparent objection to steam-rc 
is their frightening the horses. We understand from M. Lemoine 
since these trials he has made several different forms of rollers, nc 
work in Bordeaux and its environs. By this time the system 
firmly established itself in Paris and elsewhere in France by a sa 
extending over more than seven years. 

The results obtained in Paris during the couple of years after 
attracted little or no attention in England. The main reason for 
is to bo found in the slight importance attached by most of our 
authorities to rolling. It is not regarded as a necessity but 
luxury. Quite independently of the French inventors, Mr. "W. C 
chief engineer to the municipality of Calcuttti, in 1863 conceiveo 
idea of a self-propelling steam road-rolling engine, with its we 
uniformly distributed over the whole width of the rollers 
different 'Rngliah traction engine-makers to whom Mr. Clark ap] 
were unwilling to make designs and patterns for a single implem 
and at last Mr. Clark having consulted Mr. W. F. Batho, of Birm 
ham, the engineering manager of Mr. Josiah Mason's vast un 
takings, and well known in the profession for his original construe 
talent, an engine on Mr. Bathe's designs was made by Mr. Worsde 
that town and sent out to Calcuttti, where it has done good ser 
This design, patented in 1863 by Messrs. Clark and Batho, was th 
fore that of the first steam road-roller ever tried or patented in G 
Britain. The chief features of Clark and Batho's patent are the uf 
three sets of rollers, two in front acting as drivers, while the thi] 
sot up in a turn-table, being adjustable so as to steer the engin 
the same time overlapping the space between the two outside drii 
At about this time Mr. Batho went to much trouble in trying to 
vail upon the road authorities of many of the larger towns to a( 
steam-rolling, but without the least success. In a history of the i 
ject he must, however, figure as the first Englishman who fuUy c 
prehended the national importance of steam road-rolling; and 
understand that, although, as we have stated, the first experiments i 
made in France, yet his steam road-roller was the first thorou^ 
successful implement of the kind. About a year afterwards, Ba 
son's steam-roller appeared on the English patent lists as a commui 
tion from Messrs. E. Gellerat and Co , of Paris ; and in May, 1 
that Company concluded a six years' contract with the Administra 
of Paris for rolling the roads of that capital. In the meantime 
roller made by Mr. Batho for Calcutta had been at work there s 
1B61, more than repaying its entire first cost. The Bombay au 



APPENDICES. 323 

es accordingly instructed their agent to order one of Clark and 
;ho's engines, through Captain Trever, R.E., who, however, pre- 
red to employ Messrs. Moreland and Son, of London. These 
itlemen accordingly made two engines which were sent out to 
nbay. In 1866, Messrs. Eastons, Amos, and Anderson undertook 
16 contracts for rolling roads. Mr. Anderson informs us that the 
a " happened to have one of Aveling and Porter's 12-horse traction- 
;ines, and it occurred to them to harness it to a 10-ton roller," 6 feet 
diameter and length. They ** commenced operations in 1866 by 
ing the new roads of the Belvedere Estate," Belvedere, near Erith. 
B firm ** subsequently made a contract with the First Commissioner 
Works to roll the roads in Hyde Park," and, ** during the autumn 
1866 and the early part of 1867 " the engine and roller were kept 
that park, though the Government officials were anything but 
Durable to its employment. It again illastrates the little atten- 
i paid in England to what is being done abroad, that, thoagh 
city of Paris had, nearly a year before, concluded a six years' 
tract with the Paris Steam Boad-rolling Company, yet this 
nent firm employed a certainly ingenious, but comparatively inefii- 
it, combination for the purpose. It was soon found that the wheels 
he traction-engine left deep ruts that were not made good by the 
.er, and that much time was lost in turning ; but that the dead load 
the boiler and engine — useless in the traction-engine — could be 
le to do good work in rolling. What with these observations, and 
reports probably more or less current about the success of the Paris 
L the Calcutta rollers, Messrs. Aveling and Porter determined to 
,pt their form of traction-engines to this purpose. The result is a 
ibination of their simple and efficient form of traction-engine with 
arrangement of rollers and turn-table patented in 1863 by Messrs. 
rk and Batho. Towards the end of September, 1867» Messrs. 
pling and Porter supplied a 30-ton steam road-roUer to the borough 
horities of Liverpool, where it has been ever since at woik to the 
Isfaction of the eng^eer. Subsequently to this^ Messrs. Moreland 
I Son hired to the Government the steam roller now [1870] in use in 
de Park. In 1867 steam road-roUers began to be introduced into 
nover. The manufacture of the rollers on the Ballaison construction, 
B taken up towards the end of 1868 by Messrs. Manning, Wardle, 
I Co., of Leeds ; and, at the beginning of last year, a paper giving a 
cription of the steam-roller used in Paris, was brought before the 
ititution of Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham, by M. GWerat^ ot 
ria, eliciting an interesting discussion on the whole subject 



324 






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INDEX. 



ASPHALTE for pavement, 17, 
130 ; artificial aspiiaite, 131 ; 
wheel-tracks, 134, 214, 242 

Asphalte, Bamett's liquid iron, 
pavement, 245, 249, 254, 256, 
258, 259 ; cost, 259 ; wear, 254, 
256 

Asphalte, Bennett's foothold me- 
tallic, pavement, 246 

Asphalte, Liliie's composite, pave- 
ment, 247 

Asphalte, Limmer mastic, pave- 
ment, laid in the City of Lon- 
don, 244, 249, 254, 256, 258, 
259 ; cost, 237, 256, 259 ; wear, 
254, 256 

Asphalte, Maestu compound, pave- 
ment, 246 

Asphalte, Montrotier com- 
pressed, pavement, 246, 249, 
254, 256 ; cost, 246 ; wear, 254, 
256 

Asphalte, patent British, pave- 
ment, 245 

Asphaltes, Soci^t6 Francaise dea, 
pavement, by, 246, 249, 254 

.Asphalte, Stone's slipless, pave- 
ment, 246 

Asphalte, Trinidad, pavement, 
245 

Asphalte, Val de Travers, pave- 
ment, laid in Paris, 242 ; in the 
City of London, 243, 249, 252, 
256, 258, 259 ; cost, 237, 242, 
244, 259 ; wear, 250, 252, 256 ; 
average wear, 257 

Asphalte joints, granite pave- 
ment with, in Manchester, 199 ; 
in the City of London, 247 



Asphalte pavement, wear oi 
252, 254, 256 

Asphalte pavements, 242 : — ^" 
Travers asphalte laid in 
242 ; asphalte pavemen 
the City of London, 243 
259 ; in Manchester, 259 

Asphalte-granite pavemei 
Manchester, 199, in the C 
London, 247 

Asphaltic wood pavement, 
235, 236, 237, 238 

BALFOUR, MR. D., o 
cost of maintenanc 

macadam roads at Sunde 

161 
Bamett's liquid iron as 

pavement, 245. (See As^ 

Barnetfs, &c.) 
Bennett's foothold metalli 

phalte pavement, 246 
Birminglmm : — ^Wear and c 

macadamised roads, by ] 

P. Smith, 155 ; compa 

cost of macadam and 

roads, by Mr. W. Taylor 

cleansing the streets of, 5 
Blackfriars Bridge, stone 

ment, 173, 187 
Bode, Baron de, on wood 

ment in Russia, 13 
Bokeberg, Herr E., on the 

spaces in broken metal, 1 
Boning rods, 134 
Boulder pavement, 11 ; i 

City of London, 173 ; in 

pool, 195; in Mancl 

198 



INDEX. 



339 



patent, asphalte pave- 
245 

Major James, on moun- 
)ads, 283 

le, Sir John, on road- 
5, 11 ; appendix, 301 

IT'S wood pavement, 17, 
, 234, 236, 237, 238, 

1 paving, 261 
iron pavement, 262 
3 a building material for 
90 

larsaines on performance 
mish horses, 299 
. K., on the performance 
ses, 300 

g of roads and streets, 
(See Roads and Streets, 
ing of) 

cial Koad, stone tram- 
n, 208 

) as a foundation for 
by Mr. Hughes, 81 ; and 
. Penfold, 81 
! pavement, McDonnell' s 
ntean, 247 ; Mitchell's, 

I roads, by Mr. Joseph 
3ll, 162 

tion of roads, 40, 79 ; 
rork, 40 ; working plan, 
lopes, 43, 46 ; drainage, 
; embankments, 47 ; 
water drains and cross 
, 48 ; roads on the side of 
48 ; side-cuttings, 49 ; 
lank, 60 ; maximum gra- 
, 63, 65 ; minimum gra- 
, 64 ; foundation and su- 
icture, 79 ; three kinds of 
ttion, 80 ; concrete founda- 
)y Mr. Hughes, 81 ; and 
. Penfold, 81 ; foundation 
ement, by Mr. Telford, 
roken stone first recom- 
d by Macadam, 86 ; Mr. 
)8 on broken stone cover- 
8; chalk as a binding 
al, 90 ; Mr. Walker on 
3rap8, as a binding ma- 
91 ; foundation for 



paved streets, 109 ; materials 
employed in the construction of 
roads and streets, 123 ; modern 
macadamised roads, 134 

Contour lines and maps, 24 

Cost of asphalte pavements, 269, 
264, 266 

Cost of macadamised roads, 151, 
166, 168, 161, 162, 163 

Cost of stone pavements : — First 
cost and repair of streets in the 
City of London, 171, 183, 184, 
188; Euston pavement, 176; 
experimental paving in Moor- 
gate Street, 177 ; London 
Bridge, 186; Blackfriars Bridge, 
187; Liverpool, 194, 196; com- 
parative costs, 265 

Cost of Yorkshire paving, 265 

Cost of Wood Pavements, 217, 236 

Crossings, 112 

Cunningham, Mr. J. H., on the 
cost of construction of macadam 
roads, near Edinburgh, Glas- 
gow, and Carlisle, 162 

Curbs, 110 

DEKBY, cost of macadamised 
streets in, by Mr. E. B. 
EUice-Clarke, 168, 161 

Debauve, resistance to traction on 
common roads, 295 

Dobson, Mr., on mountain roads, 
284 

Dockray, Mr., his opinion of the 
Euston pavement, 176 

Drainage, 46, 48, 74 

Dumas on French roads, 19 ; on 
gradients of roads, 63 ; on mo- 
dem macadamised roads in 
France, 165 

Dupuit, M., QXi. the gradients of 
roads, 64 ; on the width of sur- 
face of tyres in contact, 144 ; 
experiments on resistance to 
traction, 296 

"EARTHWORK, 40 

Eastons and Anderson on resist- 
ance of carts and waggons, 297 

Edgeworth, on the construction 
of roads, 9 



340 



INDEX. 



Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oar- 
lisle, cost of construction of 
macadam roads near, by Mr. 
J. H. Cunningham, 162 

Ellice-Olark, Mr. E. B., on the 
cost of macadamised streets in 
Derby, 158, 161 ; estimate cost 
for paving and maintaining 
streets in Derby, 160 

Embankments, 47 

Estimates, taking out quantities 
for, 114 

Exploration for roads, 21 ; laying 
out, 21, 36; contour-lines and 
maps, 24 ; working sections, 37 

FAREY, MR. JOHN, on the 
work of horses and the wear 

of roads, 140 
Fences, 104. (See Hedges and 

Fences) 
Footpaths, 77, 112; stones used 

for, 128 
Foster, P. Le Neve, Jun., on tram- 
ways in Milan, 208 
Foundations for pavements, 108, 

109 
Foundation of roads, 79. (See 

Construction of Roads) 
France, roads in, 18, 165. (See 

Roads in France) 

GABRIEL'S wood pavement, 
233, 235 
Gradients, maximum, 63, 65 ; 

minimum, 64 
Granite, 122 ; comparative wear, 

126 
Granite pavement, artificial, Po- 

letti and Dimpfl*s, 262 
Granite tramways, 208. (See 

Stone Tramways) 
Greywack6, 127 

HARRISON'S wood pavement, 
231 
Haywood, Colonel, Reports of, to 
the Commissioners of Sewers 
of the City of London, 170; 
earliest carriage - way pave- 
ments in the (Sty of London, 
171 ; pavements in 1848, length 
of carriage-way in 1851 and 



1866, three-inch gran 
made the best pavemei 
experimental paving ii 
gate Street, 177; traffi 
City of London in 1S5< 
1866, and 1871, 181 ; c 
of three-inch set pav 
182; cost, 184; on ti 
and cost of paving for 
Bridge, 185 ; estimate • 
bility and cost of paver 
principal streets of th 
187 ; typicid sections of 
feet street, 188 ; table, i 
the condition of wo« 
asphalte carriage - wa^ 
ments in the City of ] 
on 1st February, 1877, 

Hedges and fences, 104 
fences, 104 ; post a] 
fence, 105 ; quickset 
106 ; Professor Mai 
fences, 106 ; Sir John '. 
on the evil of close fenc< 
Mr. "Walker on the sam 

Henflon*s wood pavemer 
237 

Hope, D. T., his experim 
wear of wood in pav 
132 

Horse tracks, 1 

Hughes, Mr., on the fom 
bed of a roa'i, 73 ; on 
stone covering, 88 ; c 
foundation by, 81 

r PROVED wood pa^ 
223, 234, 236, 238 
India, road-making in, 2 
Grand Trunk Road, 28f 
India, stones in, 127 
Iron-scraps as a binding i 
for roads, 91 

KELSEY, MR., on cosi 
pair of early stone 
ments in the City of Lorn 
Kunker, 128 

T ATERITE, 127 

Lee, Mr., experiments in 
ing the stxeets of Sheffi< 



IKDSX. 



341 



»1 pavement, 228, 

238 

MStte payement, 247 

JBtio asphalte pave- 

14. (8ee Asphalte, 

;c.) 

i oe, his wood pave- 

tone payements of, 
) Stone Favements) 
older i>aYement, 11; 
rd's syBtem of pave- 
; Macadam's pave- 
constixLction, wear, 
f metropolitan roads, 
151 ; cleansing and 
he streets of, 277, 278 
y of, first Act for 
; paved with houlders, 
iamised streets, 13; 
ments, 169 ; wear of 
kvements, 202 ; wood 
, 217 ; asphalte pave- 
J. (See Stoyie Pave- 
4Favement8f Asphalte 
I 

Ige, construction, and 
me pavement, 185 
T., his experiments 
.g streets, 278 

)1 in Manchester, 

ames L., on the old 
m the principle of a 
, 7, 8 ; on the section 
69; use of broken 
on the width of tyres, 
the annual wear of 
mds, 147 

I roads, leading prin- 
; total length of, in 
) ; rolling, 10; adopt- 
nce, 19 ; not suited 
traffic, 108 ; stones 
127 ; modem mac- 
oads, 134. (See Con- 
' Roads) 

. roads, modern, con- 
of, 134; first-class 
m roads, 1 34 ; second- 
>politan roads, 135; 
tads, 135 ; construe^ 



tion proposed by a Committee 
of the Society of Arts, 1-87; 
wear, 138; disadvantage of 
elasticity, 138; relative wear 
due to the action of hone- 
shoes and of wheels^ 140, 144 ; 
rounded tyres injuiioufli» 141; 
width of surface in contact with 
tyres, 144 ; interspaces in broken 
stone, 145 ; analysis of cmst 
of macadamised road, by Mr. 
Mitchell,. 146; annual wear, 
147 ; rules for wear, 148 ; 
maintenance of roads in the 
metropolis, 151 ; suburban high- 
ways, 153; local roads, 155; 
Birmingham, 155 ; Derby,. 158 ; 
Sunderland, 161 ; distiicis near 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oar- 
lisle, 162; macadamised roads 
in France, 165 ; in Manchesteri 
201. (See JFear and CmQ 

MacneU, Sir John, experimenti 
by, on resistance to traction, 52, 
298 ; on indihation ci roads, 68 ; 
on close fences, 106; on elas- 
ticity of the road, 138; <m the 
weight of vehicles and width 
of tyres, 142; experiments on 
resistance of granite tram- 
ways, 208 

Maestu compound asphalte, 246 

Mahan, Professor, on side dopes, 
43 ; on the angle of repose, 61 ; 
on maximum gradients,. 63 ; on 
the form of cross section* 72 ; 
on the height of fences, 106 

Manchester, asphalte pavements 
in, 259 

Manchester, cleansing the streets 
of, 270, 276 

Marshy soils, bmshwood iidh 
structure in, 77 

Materials employed in the con- 
struction of roads and streets, 
122 :— atones, 122; gramte,.122 ; 
its crushing resistance, 124; ab- 
sorbent power of stones, 125;. 
trap rocks, 125 ; oom^atiTB 
wear of stones, 1 26 ; Mr. WaDEfir 
on wear of granites, 126 ; grev. 
wacke, 127; stones smtea 
macadam, 127; stimesinli 



4 2 



342 



INDEX. 



127 ; stones for footpaths, 128 ; 
for curbs, 130 ; asphalte, 130 ; 
artificial asphaJte, 131 ; wood, 

131 ; its cmsliinff resistance, 

132 ; Mr. D. T, Hope's experi- 
ments on wear, 132 

McDonnell's adamantean con- 
crete pavement, 247 

Metalled roads, (^e Macadamised 
Roads) 

Metallic paving, 261, 262 

Metropolitan compound metallic 
pavingr, 261 

Metropolitan Wood Pavement 
Company, their pavement, 16 

Milan, stone tramways in, 208 

Mitchell, Mr. Joseph, on the in- 
terspaces in broken stone, 145 ; 
analysis of the cost of a mac- 
adam road, 146 ; concrete road, 
162; concrete pavement, 263 

Montrotier compressed asphalte 
pavement, 246. (See Asphalte, 
Montrotier, &c.) 

Morin's experiments on resistance 
to traction, 51, 294 

Mountain roads, 283 

Mowlem's wood pavement, 232, 
235, 236, 237 

Mud, removal of, 96 ; composition 
of, 268, 276 

FWLANDS, MR., on the 
streets of Liverpool, 193 
Norton's wood pavement, 232, 235 

pACK HORSES, 1 

Paget, F. A., his data, 149, 151, 
309 

Paris, cleansing the streets of, 
281 

Pavements, carriage-way, com- 
parison of : — cost, 264 ; slipperi- 
ness, 259, 265 ; convenience, 
267 ; cleanliness, 281 

Pavement, boulder. (See Boulder 
Pavement) 

Pavement, cast-iron, 261 

Pavement, cellular iron, 262 

Pavement, compound wood and 
stone, 262 

Pavement, g^nite, estimate cost 



of, in Birmingham^ 

Derby, 160, 161 
Pavement, granite, artif 
Pavement, metallic, 261, 
Pavement, stone. (Sc 

Pavement) 
Pavement, wood. (8e 

Pavement) 
Paved roads and street 

foundations, 108 ; mod 

paring surface for pt 

109 ; construction of for 

109 ; stone sets, 109 ; ci 

pavement for inclined 

112; side walls and 

places, 112 
Penfold, Mr., on repairs 

95 ; concrete f oundati< 
Pinchbeck, Mr. George, 

of maintaining suburb 

ways, 153 
Poletti and Dimpfl's 

granite pavement, 262 
Polonceau on road rolling 
Provis, Mr., on elasticity ■ 

138 

QUANTITIES for ei 
taking out, 114 

READING, cleansing tl 
of, 277 

Redman, Mr., on the 
macadam in Commerci 
148 

Repairing and improving 
93 ; improvement of i 
face, 93 ; lifting the r( 
Mr. Penfold on repairs 
moval of mud, 96 ; 
implements formerly en 
83 ; scraping machine 
Whitworth's sweeping r 
103 

Resistance to traction on > 
roads, 51, 290 ; M. Mo: 
periments, 51 ; Sir Jol 
neil's experiments, 52 ; 
resistance, 55 ; influenc 
clines, 56 ; angle of rep 
Sir John MacneU on gi 
Professor Mahan on gi 
M. Dumas on gradiei 



INDEX. 



343 



^ M. Dupnit on gradients, 64; 
minimum longitudinal slopey64. 
I Boiling resistance, 290 ; conclu- 
sions and data of M. Dupuit, 
296; M. Debauve, 295; M. 
Tresca, 296; Messrs. Eastons 
and Anderson, 297; Sir John 
Macneil, 298; formula, 299; 
M. Charie - Marsaines' data, 
299 ; Mr. D. K. Clark's data, 
300 
-Besistance of granite tramways, 

208 
.Boad, modem coimtry, 136 

Boad-roUing, 10 ; in France, 20, 
167 

Boads and streets, cleansing of, 
268 ; composition of mud and 
detritus, 268, 275 ; cleansing 
I streets of Manchester, 270, 276 ; 
Whit worth's machine, 271 ; 
cleansing streets of Salford, 
273 ; of Birmingham, 273 ; of 
Reading, 277 ; watering the 
streets of London, 277 ; Mr. T. 
Lovick's experiments, 278 ; Mr. 
Lee's experiments at Sheffield, 
; 279; cleansing in Paris, 281 ; 
M. Tailfer's machine, 281 

Boads, construction of, 40, 79. 
(See Construction of Roada) 

Ectfuis, exploration for, 21. (See 
Exploration for Roads) 

Boads in France : — old roads, 18 ; 
Tresag^et's roads, 19 ; Mac- 
adam's system adopted, 19 ; 
horse-roller adopted, 20 ; mo- 
dem macadamised roads in 
I^nce, 165 ; M. Dimias on 
their construction, 166 ; rolling 
and watering, 167 

Boads, metalled or macadamised. 
(See Macadamised Roads) 

Boads, mountain, 283 

Boads, old counby, 3 ; Mr. Mac- 
adam's opinion of, 7 

Boads, paved, 108. (See Faved 
Roads and Streets) 

Boads, repairing and improving, 
93. (Sec Repairing and Inu 
proving Roads) 
' BoEuis, section of, 65. (See S^C' 
tion of Roads) 



SALFOKD, cleansing the streets 
of, 273 

Sandstone, strength and absorbent 
power of, 125 ; laterite in India, 
127 ; for footpaths, 128 ; com- 
position, weight and strength, 
129; comparative durability, 
129 

Scraping machines for macadam 
roads, 89 

Section of roads, 65; limits of 
gradients, 66 ; width and trans- 
verse section of roads, 68 ; Mr. 
Macadam on the section of 
roads, 69 ; Mr. Walker on the 
section of roads, 70; and on 
drainage, 70 ; best form of sec- 
tion, 71 ; section of the bed, 
72 ; Mr. Hughes on the form 
of the bed, 73 ; drainage of the 
road, 74 ; footpaths, 77 ; brush- 
wood substxuoture in marshy 
soils, 77, 91 ; imperfect sec- 
tions, 94 

Sections, working, for roads, 37 

Seyssel asphalte, 133, 131 

Sheffield, cleansing the streets at, 
279 

Side-cuttings, 49 

Side walks, 112 

Slopes, 43, 46 

Smith, Mr. J. P., on macadamised 
roads in Birmingham, 155 

Soci^t6 Fran<;ai8e des Asphaltes, 
246, 249, 254 

Society of Arts, Report of Com- 
mittee of, on Traction on Roads, 
208 

Spoil-bank, 50 

Stead's wood pavement, 15 

Stone pavement, 169; City of 
London, 169; early i>aviiLg, 
169; pavement of King Wil- 
liam Street, 170; table of early 
pavements, 171 ; table of cost 
for repairs of early pavement, 
172; introduction of three-inch 
sets ; extent of pavement in 
the City, 173, 174 ; the Euston 
pavement, 175 ; experimental 
paving in Moorgate Street, 177 ; 
granites that nave been tried, 
179 ; rotation of paving stonei 



344 



II«DEX. 



180; traflSc in the City, 181; 
duration of pavements, 183, 187 ; 
cost, 184, 187 ; London Bri<^, 
186 ; Blackfriars Bridge, 187 ; 
typical sections and pkns of a 
fifty-feet street, 188; South- 
wark Street, 191. Liverpool, 
193; extent of pavement in 
1851, 193 ; cost for construction 
of sot pavements, 194 ; of "boul- 
der pavements, 195 ; and of 
macadam, 196 ; cost of main- 
tenance of pavements, 197. 
Manchester, 198 ; boulder pave- 
ment, 198 ; construction of set 
pavement, with asphalte joint- 
ing, 199; cost of pavements, 
200 ; wear of granite pavements 
in the City of London, 202 

Stone tramways, 208 : — Commer- 
cial Road, by Mr. Walker, 208 ; 
resistance on, 208 ; in Northern 
Italy, described by Mr. P. Le 
Neve Foster, Jun., 208 ; prices 
in Milan, 212 ; wheel-tracks of 
asphalte, 214 

Stones used in the construction of 
roads, 122. (See Materials em^ 
ployed) 

Stone's slipless asphalte pave- 
ment, 246 

Stone's wood pavement, 233 

Streets, typical : — fifty-feet street 
for the City of London, 188 ; 
Southwark Street, 191 

Sunderland, cost of maintenance 
of macadam roads at, by Mr. 
D. Balfour, 161 

Sweeping machines, "Whitworth^s, 
103, 271 ; Tailfer's, 281 

TATLFER'S sweeping machine, 
281 

Taylor, Mr. W., on the Euston 
pavement, 175 ; comparative 
cost of macadam azkd paved 
roads in Birmingham, 158 

Telford, his early experience, 9 ; 
his system of road-making, 10, 
83 ; his system of pavement for 
London, 12; on the wear of 
roads, 141 

Tools or implements formerly 



employed in the repair of rotdi^^ 

83 
Traction, resistance to, 51, 290. 

(See Resietance to Traetiot^ 
Tramway, stone, 208. (See 8tm 

Tramways) 
Trap rocks, ] 25 
Tr^saguet's roads in France^ 19, 

19 
Tresca, M., on the resigtance of 

an omnibus, 296 
Trinidad asphalte pavenEkenty M- 

YAL DE TRAYEHS asphalie^ 
130, 131 
Val de Travers asphalte pftT8i 
ment, 242. (See Asphalte, Vd 
de Travers, Pavement) 
Vehicles on common roads ii 
1809, 7 

WALKER, MR., on the sec- 
tion of roads, 70 ; on drain- 
age, 70 ; on iron scraps as • 
binding material, 91 ; on doa 
fences, 107 ; on the wear d 
granites, 126; introduction of 
three-inch sets by, 173; stool 
tramways in Commercial Roa4 
208 

Watering streets. (See Soetds mi 
Streets, Cleansing of) 

Wear of macadamised roads, 188k 
140, 144, 147, 148, 155, 156^ 
158 

"Wear of pavements : — stone, 202; 
wood, 238 ; asphalte, 250, 253, 
254, 256 ; holes and short helei 
in asphalte, 250, 253 

"Wear of stones, comparative, 128 

"Whitworth's sweeping machina 
103, 271 

"Wilson's wood pavement, 233 

"Wood, 131 ; its crushing resists 
ance, 132 

"Wood and stone pavements, com* 
pound, 262 

"Wood pavements in the City ol 
London, 234 

"Wood pavement in Russia, 18 ; in 1 
the United States, 14 ; Stead's^ 
pavement, 15 ; De Lisle's pave- 



INDEX. 



345 



ment, 16 ; general conditions 
of wood pavement, 215; Carey's 

^ wood pavement, 17, 217, 234, 
236, 237, 238, 239; improved 
wood pavement, 223, 234, 237, 
238 ; Ligno-mineral pavement, 
228, 234, 237, 238; asphaltic 
wood pavement, 2^d, 235, 
236, 237, 238; Harrison's wood 
pavement, 231; Henson's wood 

; pavement, 231, 237; Norton's 



wood pavement, 232, 235; 
Mowlem's wood pavement, 
232, 235, 236, 237; Stone's 
wood pavement, 233 ; Gabriel's 
wood pavement, 233, 235 ; 
Wilson s wood pavement, 233 

TTORKSHUIE paving, 191, 266 

Young, Arthur, on the old roads, 
3 



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MONEER ENGINEERING. A Treatise on the Engineer- 
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ELECTRIC LIGHT : Its Production and Use ; embodying 
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C.E., Author of "Electroplating: a Practical Handbook," &c. 
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HYDRAULIC MANUAL. Consisting of Working Tablei 
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HYDRAULIC TABLES, CO-EFFICIENTS, AND FOB- 

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THE PRACTICAL MECHANIC'S WORKSHOP COM- 
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THE WORKS* MANAGER'S HANDBOOK OF MODERN 
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TABLES, MEMORANDA, AND CALCULATED RESULTS, 

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A NEW LIST OF 

WEALE'S SERIES 

MENTARY SCIENTIFIC,EDUCATIOMAL, 
AND CLASSICAL. 

't ioorfa M almaii rvtry 

veil at io that itttarmtttd 
fuliimi. CBJItta, SclueU, 



WEALE'S SEBIES includes Text-BoDlta on almost everf branch at 
ind Industry, comprising such subjecls as Agriculture, Architectoro 
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The prices at which they are sold ara as Ion as their eic«lletic« is 

igst the literature of technical education, Wealb's Series has ever 
I high reputation, and the additions being made by Messrs. Ckosby 
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r proved more p<q)ulaf 

^ - . — ers than the eicellen 

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Mcceilenee of WeaLe'S Series is now so well appreciated, that i< 

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\ THE PRIZE MEDAL 

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OUTLINE OF THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING A 
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1 Problems, Formulae, and Tables. By Lieut.-General FROkfB, R.E, 
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mple fact that a fourth edition has been called for is the best testimony to its merits. 
f praise from us can strengthen the position so well and so steadily maintained by this 
tain Warren has revised the entire work, and made such additions as were necessary to 
portion of the contents up to the present iiaXn."— Broad Arrow. 

le Bridges. 

^A CTICA LAND THEORETIC A L ESS A Y ON OBLIQ UE 
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tandard text-book for all en^neers re$^rdinj^ skew arches is Mr. Buck's treatise, and it 
(possible to consult a better.' — Engineer. 

uck's treatise is recognised as a standard text-book, and his treatment has divested the 
nany of the intricacies supposed to belong to it. As a guide to the engineer and archi* 
>nfes&edly difficult subject, Mr. Buck's work is unsurpassed."— ^Mi^t'n^ News. 

e Construction in Masonry, Timber and Iron. 

IMPLES OF BRIDGE AND VIADUCT CONSTRUC- 
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2 125. 6d. halt-morocco. 

•k of the present nature by a man of Mr. Haskoll's experience must prove inraluable. 
of estimates will considerably enhance its value."— i:"«^*««r»«^. 

work. 

\THWORK TABLES, Showing the Contents in Cubic 
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feet. By Joseph Broadbent, C.E., and Francis Campin, C.E. Crown 
s. cloth. 

tay in which accuracy is attained, by a simple division of each cross section into three 
TO in which are constant and one variable, is ingenious." — Athetueum^ 

w^s strength of Materials, enlarged. 

TREATISE ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS ; 
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es, Railways, &c. By Peter Barlow, F.R.S. A New Edition, revised 
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Inst. C.E. Den^y 8vo, 400 pp., with 19 large Plates and numerous 
.cuts, 1 8s. cloth. 

ble alike to the student, tyro, and the exp>erienced practitioner, It will always rank in 
has hiihertodone, as tlie standard treatise on that particular subject." — Engineer. 
is no greater authority than Barlow." — Buiiding News. 

;cientific work of the first class, it deserves a foremost place on the bookshelves of 
mgiueer and practical mechanic."— JS'm^/wA Mechanic. 

\s, Forinnlce and Diagrams for CalculaMon of, 

ANDY BOOK FOR THE CALCULATION OF STRAINS 
[RDERS AND SIMILARSTRUCTURES.AND THEIR STRENGTH. 
sting of Formulae and Corresponding Diagrams, With numerous details 
ractical Application, &c. By William Humber, A-M..Inst. C.E,, &c. 
:h Edition. Crown Svo, nearly 100 Wooclcuts and 3 Plates, 7s. 6d, cloth. 
itwulat are neatly expressed, and the diagrams good.*'^Athetutum. 
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•wc. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD &» CO.* S CATALOGUE. 



Survey Practice. 

AID TO SURVEY PRACTICE, for Reference in Surveying, Level- 
ling, Setting'Out and in Route Surveys of Travellers by Land and Sea. With 
Tables, Illustrations, and Records. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, A.M.I.C.E., 
Author of ' ' Hydraulic Manual/' " Modern Metrology," &c. Large crown Svo, 
I2S. 6d. cloth. 

" Mr. Jackson has produced a raluable vatU-ntecutn for the surveyor. We can recommend 
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matured instructions afTorded in its pages." — Colliery Guardian. 

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Surveying, Land and Marine. 

LA ND A ND MA RINE S UR VE YING , in Reference to the Pre- 
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Supplies: Docks and Harbours. With Description and Use of Surveying 
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*' This book must prove of great value to the student. We have no hesitation in recommend* 
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" A most useful and well arranged book for the aid of a student. We can strongly recommend 
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Levelling. 

A TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF 
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Engineering, in the Construction of Roads ; with Mr. Telford's Rules for the 
same. By Frederick W. Simms, F.G.S., M. Inst. C.E. Seventh Edition, with 
the addition of Law's Practical Examples for Setting-out Railway Curves, and 
Trautwine's Field Practice of Laying-out Circular Curves. With 7 Plates 
and numerous Woodcuts, Svo, 8s. 6d. cloth. %* Trautwine on Curves* 
separate, 5s. 

*' The text-book on levelling in most of our engineering schools and colleges." — Engineer. 

" The publishers have rendered a substantial service to the profession, especially to the younger 
members, by bringing out the present edition of Mr. Simms' useful work." — Engineering. 

Tunnelling. 

PRACTICAL TUNNELLING. Explaining in detail the Setting, j 
out of the works, Shaft-sinkingand Heading-driving, Ranging the Lines aM 
Levelling underground, Sub-Excavating, Timbering, and the Constructioa 
of the Brickwork of Tunnels, with the amount of Labour required for, and the 
Cost of, the various portions of the work. By Frederick W. Simms, F.G.S.* 
M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Revised and Extended by D. K,innear Clari, 
M. Inst. C.E. Imp. Svo, with 21 Folding Plates and numerous Wood Engrav* 
ings, 30s. cloth. 

"The estimation in which Mr. Simms' book on tunnelling has been held for over thirty yeM 
cannot be more truly expressed than in the words of the late Professor Rankine : — * The belt 
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— Architect. 

" It has been regarded from the first as a text-book of the subject Mr. Clark htt 

added immensely to the value of the book." — Engineer. 

" The additional chapters by Mr. Clark, containing as they do numerous examples ot : 
practice, bring the book well up to da.te."— Engineering. 

Statics^ Graphic and Analytic, 

GRAPHIC AND ANALYTIC STATICSJn Theory and ComPfai-, 
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Girders, Lattice, Bowstring and Suspension Bridges, Braced Iron Arches aaA 
Piers, and other Frameworks. To which is added a Chapter on Wind Pret* 
sures. B^ R. Hudson Graham, C.E. With numerous Examples, many tmlwB . 
from existing Structures. Svo, 16s. cloth. 

' * Mr. Graham's book will find a place wherever graphic and analytic statics are used or stadied.' ' 
Engineer. 

" This exhaustive treatise is admirably adapted for the architect and engineer, and vU tcad 
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the grap*---"*' ''-"""nstrations, the author compares them with the analytic formulae ^T«a Iqr MS* 
khie."— ^'wx. 

'eDent from a practical point of view, and has evidently b«ea prapmd trtft 
mu "ixcellent text- book for the practical draughtsman."— S«ifa w ir w ) w, 



weale's rudimentary series. 



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^■ARCHES, PIERS, BUTTRESSES, <Sr»<:.; Experimental Essays 
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r. ARCHITECTURAL MODELLING IN PAPER, the Art of. 

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VITRUVIUS POLLO. In Ten Books. Translated from the Latin by 

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Tables far Setting-out Curves. 

TABLES OF TANGENTIAL ANGLES AND MULTIl 
for Setting-out Curves from 5 to 200 Radius. By Alrxandbr Bba; 
M. Inst. C.B. Third Edition. Printed on 48 Caras, and sold in a clot 
waistcoat-pocket size, 35. 6d. 

" Each table is printed on a smaO card, which, befaiff placed on the tbeodo&te, leares th 
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" Very handy ; a man may know that all lus day's work must fiaU on two of tiiese card 
he puts into his own card-case, and leaves the rest behind." — Athenaufn, 

Engineering Fieldworh. 

THE PRACTICE OF ENGINEERING FIELDWORK, a 

to Land and Hydraulic, Hydrographic, and Submarine Surveying and Lei 
Second Edition, Revised, witn considerable Additions, and a Supplem 
Waterworks, Sewers, Sewage, and Irrigation. By W. Davis Kaskou 
Numerous Folding Plates. In One Volume, demy 8vo, £1 55. cloth. 

Large Tunnel Shafts. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE TUNNEL SHAFT. 
Practical and Theoretical Essay. By J. H. Watson Buck, M. Inst. 
Resident Engineer, London and North- Western Railway. Illustrate! 
Folding Plates, royal 8vo, 125. cloth. 

" Many of the methods fifiven are of extreme practical value to the mason ; and the obse 
on the form of arch, the rules for ordering the stone, and the construction of the template! 
found of considerable use. We commend the book to the engineering profession." — i 
JVews. 

" Will be regarded by civil en^neers as of the utmost value, and calculated to save mi 
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Field-Book for Engineers* 

THE ENGINEER'S, MINING SURVEYOR'S, AND 
TRACTOR'S FIELD-BOOK. Consisting of a Series of TaWes, with 
Explanations of Systems, and use of Theodolite for Traverse Surveyi 
Plotting the Work with minute accuracy by means of Straight Edge a 
Square only ; Levelling with the Theodolite, Casting-out and Re 
Levels to Datum, and Plotting Sections in the ordinary manner; sett 
Curves with the Theodolite by Tangential Angles and Multiples, witl 
and Left-hand Readings of the Instrument: Setting-out Curves \ 
Theodolite, on the System of Tangential Angles by sets of Tangents a 
sets : and Earthwork Tables to 80 feet deep, calculated for every 6 ini 
depth. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E. With numerous Woodcuts. 
Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 12s. cloth. 

"The book is very handy, and the author might have added that the separate tat^s 
and tangents to every minute will make it useful for many other purposes, the genuine 
tables existing all the same." — Athenaum. 

" Every person engaged in engineering field operations will estimate the importance < 
work and the amount of valuable tune which will be saved by reference to a set of relial 
prepared with the accuracy and fulness of those given in this volume."— ^aiZway News. 

Earthwork, Measureinent and Calculation of, 

A MANUAL ON EARTHWORK, By Alex. J. S. Gr 
C.E. With numerous Diagrams. i8mo, 2S. 6d. cloth. 

"A great amount of practical information, very admirably arranged, and available f 
estimates, as well as for the more exact calculations required in the engineer's and coi 
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Strains, 

THE STRAINS ON STRUCTURES OF IRONWORK. 
Practical Remarks on Iron Construct-on. By F. W. Sheilds, M. Ins 
Second Edition, with 5 Plates. Royal 8vo, 55. cloth. 
"The student cannot find a better little book on this subject."— £«^i«««r. 

Strength of Cast Iron, etc. 

A PRACTICAL ESSAY ON THE STRENGTH OF i 
IRON AND OTHER METALS. By Thomas Tredoold, C.E. 
Edition, including Hodgkinson's Bxperimentftl Researches. Svo, its 



weale's rudimentary series. 



^building, Navigation, Marine Engineering, etc., cont, 

THE SAILOR'S SEA BOOK: a Rudimentary Treatise on 
Navigation. By James Greenwood, B.A. With numerous Woodcuts and 
Coloured Plates. New and enlarged edition. By W. H, Rossbr. 2s. 6d.J 

. MARINE ENGINES AND STEAM VESSELS, By Robert 

Murray, C.E. Eighth Edition, thoroughly Revised, with Additions by the 
Author and by George Carlisle, C.K., Senior Surveyor to the Board of 
Trade, Liverpool. 4s. 6d. limp ; 5s. cloth boards. [^ust published . 

r. THE FORMS OF SHIPS AND BOATS. By W. Bland. 

Seventh Edition, Revised, with numerous Illustrations and Models, xs. 6d. 
. NAVIGATION AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY, in Theory 
and Practice. By Prof. J. R. Young. New Edition. 2S. 6d. 

». SHIPS* ANCHORS, a Treatise on. By G. CoTSELL, N.A. is. 6d. 

>. SAILS AND SAIL-MAKING. With Draughting, and the Centre 
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and Sails of Steam Vessels, 8cr. nth Edition. By R. Kipping. N.A,, 2s. 6d.t 

;. ENGINEER'S GUIDE TO THE ROYAL (5* MERCANTILE 
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; PRACTICAL NAVIGATION. Consisting of The Sailor's 
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M the requisite Mathematical and Nautical Tables for the Working of the 
^' Problems. By H. Law, C.E., and Prof. J. R. Young. 78. Half- bound. 



AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, ETC. 

\ A COMPLETE READY RECKONER FOR THE ADMBA^ 

SUREMENT OF LAND, &c. By A. Arman. Second Edition, revised 
and extended by C. Norris, Surveyor, Valuer, &c. as. 

. MILLER'S, CORN MERCHANTS, AND FARMER'S 
READY RECKONER. Second Edition, with a Price Lift of Modem 
Flour- Mill Machinery, by W. S. Hutton, C.E. 2s. - • 

. SOILS, MANURES, AND CROPS, (Vol. if OXJTLhiKS OF 

Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn. Woodcuts, as. 

. FARMING 6- FARMING ECONOMY, Notes, ffistorical and 

Practical, on. (Vol. 2. Outlines op Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Buiuff. 3i« 

. STOCK; CATTLE, SHEEP, AND HORSES. (VoL 3. 

Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn. Woodcute* tt« 6a« 

. DAIRY, PIGS, AND POULTRY, Management of the. By 
R. Scott Burn. (Vol. 4. Outlines of Modern FARaoNO.) as* 

w UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE, IRRIGATION, AND 
RECLAMATION OF WASTE LAND. (VoL <. Outunbs of HodU 
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Vos. 140-1-2-5-6, in One Vol., handsomely half-bound, eniiiUd "OoTLINitl 
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r. FRUIT TREES, The Scientific and Profitable Culture ofc I 
the French of Du Breuil. Revised by Geo. Glrnnt. 187 Woodcuts, ^g., 

I. SHEEP; THE HISTORY, STRUCTURE, ECONOJmr 4 J 
DISEASES OF. By W. C. Spooner, M.R.V.C, 8tc. Fonrfh 
enlarged, including Specimens of New and Improyea Braeds. 3*» ^ .^ 

:. KITCHEN GARDENING MADE EASY. By GEOBi&Jt M.) 

Glennv. Illustrated, is. 6d.t 

f. OUTLINES OF FARM MANAGEMENT, and the Orgaid 

zaiion of Farm Labour. ByR. ScoTT Burn. as. 6d.t 

J. OUTLINES OF LANDED ESTATES MANAGBj^j^f^ 

By R. ScoTT Burn. 2s. 6d.t 
Wos, 207 6- 208 t'n One Vol., handsomely half bound, entitled "OoTxji«nf 
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The X indicates thai these vols, may be had strongly bound ai^tL 
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8 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &> CO.' S CATALOGUE. 



Stone-working Machinery. 

STONE-WORKING MACHINERY, and the Rapid and Economi- J 

cal Conversion of Stone. With Hints on the Arrangement and Management 

of Stone Works. By M. Powis Balb, M.I.M.E., A.M.I.C.E. With numerous 

Illustrations. Large crown 8vo, 95. cloth. 

"The book should be in the hands of every mason or student of stone-woric"— CMMr»j> 
Cuardian. 

Engineer's Reference Book, 

THE WORKS* MANAGER'S HANDBOOK OF MODERN 
RULES, TABLES, AND DATA. For Engineers. MUlwrights, and Bailtf 
Makers; Tool Makers, Machinists, and Metal Workers; Iron and Bnit 
Founders, &c By W. S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical Engineer. Third 
Edition, carefully revised, witn Additions. In One handsome Volume, mediain 
8vo, price 15s. strongly bound. 

"The author treats every subject from the point of view of one who has collected woAshop 
notes for application in work&hnp practice, rather than from tlie theoretical or literary aspect. TIm 
volume contains a great deal of that kind of inronnaiiun which is gained only t^ practioid expu^ 
ence, and is seldom written in hooks."— 11 njg^itieer. 

"The volume is an excccdin;;Iy ust.Tul one, brimful with eneineers notes, memoranda, nl 
rules, and well worthy of Immii;; cm ev(^ry mechanical engineers bookshelf . . . Theveil 
valiiable iufonnatiou on every put^e." — Mechanical lyorld. 

"The information Ls precisely that likely to be required in practice. . . . Theworicfemi 
a desirable addition to the library, not only of the wurks' maua{;er, but of anyone connected vltk 
general engiiieerinaf." — Atiniug Journal. 

"A formidable mass of facts and figures, readily accessible through an elaborata iadct 
.... Such a vuluine will be found absolutely necessary as a l>ook of reference ia all MM 
of 'works' connected with the uictal trades. . . . Any ordinary foreman or workman can fiad 
all he wants in tlie crowded pages of this useful vrork."^/i^land's Iron Trades Circular 

Engineering Construction. 

PATTERN-MAKING : A Practical Treatise, embracing the Main 
Types of Engineering Construction, and including Gearing, both Hand and 
Machine made, Engine Work, Sheaves and Pulleys, Pipes and Cdnmnt, 
Screws, Machine Parts, Pumps and Cocks, the Moulding of Patterns in 
Loam and Grcensand, &c., together with the methods ot Estimating the 
weight of Castings; to which is added an Appendix of Tables for Workshop 
Reference. By a Foreman Pattern Maker. With upwards of Three 
Hundred and Seventy Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 75. 6i. cloth. 

" A well written technical guide, evidently written by a man who understands and hai pnc- 
tised what he has written al>out ; he savs what he has to say in a plain, straightforward manner. 
^Ve cordially reconmiend the treatise to engineering students, young' Joumej-men, and otlwi 
desirous of being initiated into the mysteries of pattern-making." — Builder. 

"We can confidently recommend this comprehensive treatise." — Building' News. 

" A valuable contribution to the literature of an important branch of engineering' constnictia^ 
which is likely to prove a welcome euide to many workmen, especially to draughtsmen who hati 
lacked a training in the sliops, pupils pursuing their practical studies m our factories, and to •■• 
pluyurs and managers in engineering works. —Hardware Trade youmal. 

"More than -{70 illustrations help to explain the text, which is, however, always clear and e» 
plicit, thus rcndciing the work an excellent vade mectim for the apprentice who desires 10 bcooow 
master of his trade." — linglish Mechanic. 

Smith's Tables for Mechanics, etc. 

TABLES, MEMORANDA, AND CALCULATED RESULTS, 
FOR MECHANICS, ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS, eU, 
Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith. Third Edition, Revised and En- 
larged, 250 pp., waistcoat- pocket size, 15. 6d. limp leather. 

" It would, perhaps, l>e as difficult to make a small pocket-book selection of notes and 
to suit ALL en^^neers as it would be to make a universal medicine ; but Mr. Smith's 
pocket collection may be looked upon as a successful Attempt."— £n£i»eer. 

" The best example we have ever seen of 350 pages of useful matter packed into the 
sions of a card-case." — Building Neivs. 

"A veritable pocket treasury of knowledge."— /ran. 

The High-Pressure Steam Engine. 

THE HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM-ENGINE : An Exposition 

0/ its Comparative Merits and an Essay towards an Improved System 0/ Consirnc- 

tion. }}y Dr. Ernst Alban. Translated from the German, with Noteik by 

Dr. Pole, M. Inst. C.E., &c. With 28 Plates. 8vo, ifis. 6d, cloth. 

"Goes thoroughly into the examination of the high-pressure ens^e, the boiler, and its aopwd* 
aires, and deserves a place Lu every scientific library. —S/cam Shifting Chronicle, -r-ir— - 



weale's rudimentary series. 



MATHEMATICS, ARITHMETIC, ETC. 

32. MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS, a Treatise on; in which 
their Construction and the Methods of Testing, Adjusting, and Using them 
are concisely Explained. By J. F. Heather, M.A., of the Royal Alilitary 
Academy, Woolwich. Original Edition, in i vol.. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
*<>* In ordering the above, be careful fo say, " Original Edition '* {No. 32), fo distin- 
guish it front the Enlarged Edition in 3 vols. {Nos. 168-9-70.) 

'^e. DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY, an Elementary Treatise on; 
with a Theory of Shadows and of Perspective, extracted from the French of 
G. MoNGE. To which is added, a description of the Principles and Practice 
of Isometrical Projection. By J. F. Heather, M.A. With 14 Plates. 2s. 

178. PRACTICAL PLANE GEOMETRY: giving the Simplest 
Modes of Constructing Figures contained in one Plane and Geometrical Con- 
struction of the Ground. By J. F. Heather, M.A. With 215 Woodcuts. 2s. 

83. COMMERCIAL BOOK-KEEPING. With Commercial Phrases 

and Forms in English, French, Italian, and German. By James Haddon, 
M.A., Arithmetical Master of King's College School, London, is. 6d. 

84. ARITHMETIC, a Rudimentary Treatise on : with full Explana- 

tions of its llieoretical Principles, and numerous Examples for Practice. By 
Professor J. R. Young. Tenth Edition, corrected, xs. 6d. 
&!*• A Key to the above, containing Solutions in full to the Exercises, together 
with Comments, Explanations, and Improved Processes, for the Use of 
Teachers and Unassisted Learners. By J. R. Young, is. 6d. 

85. EQUATIONAL ARITHMETIC, appHed to Questions of Interest, 

Annuities, Life Assurance, and General Commerce ; with various Tables by 
which all Calculations may be greatly facilitated. By W. Hipslbv. 2s. 

86. ALGEBRA, the Elements of. By James Haddon, M.A. 

With Appendix, containing miscellaneous Investigations, and a Collection 
of Problems in various parts of Algebra. 2s.. 
86*. A Key and Companion to the above Jiook, forming an extensive repository of 
Solved Examples and Problems in Illustration of the various Expedients 
necessary in Algebraical Operations. By J. R. Young, is. 6d. 

88. EUCLID, The Elements of ; with many additional Propositions 
So. and Explanatory Notes : to which is prefixed, an Introductory Essay on 
Log^c. By Henry Law, C.E. 2s. 6d.t 

*»* Sold also separately, viz. : — 

88. Eucud, The First Three Books. J^y Henry Law, C.E. is. 6d. 

89. Euclid, Books 4, 5, 6, 11, 12. By Henry Law, C.E. is. 6d. 

90. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY AND CONIC SECTIONS, 

By James Hann. A New Edition, by Professor J. R. Young. 2s.t 

91. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY, the Elements of. By James 

Hann, formerly Mathematical Master of King's College, London, xs. 6d. 

92. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETR Y, the Elements of. By James 

Hann. Revised by Charles H. Dowling, C.E. is. 
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93. MENSURATION AND MEASURING. With the Mensuration 

and Levelling of Land for the Purposes of Modem Engineering. By T. 

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loi. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS, Elements of the. By W. S. B. 

WooLHOUSK, F.R.A.S., &c. is. 6d. 
102. INTEGRAL CALCULUS, Rudimentary Treatise on the. By 

HoMBRSHAM Cox, B.A. Illustrated, xs. 

105. MNEMONICAL LESSONS. — Geometry, Algebra, and 

Trigonometry, in Easy Mnemonical Lessons. By the Rev. ThomA9 

P^NYMGTON KiRKMAN, M.A. IS. 6d. 

136. ARITHMETIC, Rudimentary, for the Use of Schools and Self- 

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137. A Kbv to Haddon's Rcdimbntakt Authmbtic. By A. Ajucan. is. 6d. 



Tk^ t indicaim that thttt volt, may bg had strongly b^tmdat 6d. sxtru. 

J, stationers' hall court, ludgaty hill, B.C. 



10 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &■ CO.'S CATALOGUE. 



THE POPULAR WORKS OF MICHAEL REYNOLDS 

{Known as " The Engine Driver's Friend "). ^^C© 

Locomotive-Engine Driving* 

LOCOMOTIVE-ENGINE DRIVING: A Practical Manual f^\ 

Enfiineers in charf^e of Locomotive Engines. By Michael Rbynoldb, MeBDB 
of the Society of Engineers, formerly Lrocomotive Inspector L. B.and S.CL 
Seventh Edition. Including a Key to the Locomotive Enoinb. With Utafr' 
trations and Portrait of Author. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. cloth. 
" Mr. K(;ynol(ls has supplied a want, and has supplied it welL We can confideotlj 

the tK>ok, not only to the (iractical driver, but to everyone who takes an intetest in the ] 

of locomotive cnyincs." — The /:fn;i»eer. 

" Were tliu cautions and rules fnvcn !n the book to become port of die erery-day 

our ciiKinu-drivers wc nii^ht have fewer dibtressin); accidents to aeplore.''~Se«te»MCM. 

The Engineer, Fireman, and Engine-Boy. 

THE MODEL LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEER, FIREMAN, 
ENGINE-IiOY. Comprising a Historical Notice of the Pioneer I-oce 
Engines and their Inventors, with a project for the establishment of 
rates of Qualiiication in the Running Service of Railways. By MiCB 
Kkvnolds, Author of *' Locomotive-Engine Driving." With ntuneroni II 
trations and a fmc Portrait of George Stephenson. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d, clQik| 

" I'Voni the technical knowledj^c of the author it will appeal to the rsulway man of t(Mlayai 
forcibly thnn nnythiuL' written by l)r. Smiles. . . . The volume contains information of SM 
nical kind, and facts tliat every drivtsr should Ih: familiar wltli."--/:>«'/£rA A/eehanie. 

"\Wc siiotiid lie itflad to s<>n this hook in the possession of everyone in the kingdom illw I 
ever laid, or is to lay, hands on a locomotive cntjine." — Iron. 

Stationary Engine Driving. 

STATIONARY ENGINE DRIVING: A Practical Manual faf^^ 

Engineers in chare;e of Stationary Engines. By Michael Reynolds. Tmrd 
iMlition, Enlarged. With Plates and Woodcuts. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. cloch. 



"Tiie author is thoroughly acquainted with his subjects, and his advice on the 
treated is clear and practical. . . . He has produced a manual which is an exceedingly 
one for t^^e class for whom it is specially intended." — Httj^neering. 

"Our author leaves no st(mc unturned. He is deterniined that his readers shall not only 
something; aljout the stationary eng^inc, but all about \t"—Enginur, 

Continuous Hail way Brakes. 

CONTINUOUS RAILWAY BRAKES: A Practical Treatiu oki 
the several Systems in Use in the United Kingdom ; their Construction nil 
Porfonnancu. With copious Illustrations and numerous Tables. By MiCHAB.) 
Reynolds. Large crown 8vo, 95. cloth. 

" A po])ular explanation of tlic different brakes. It will l>e of great assL<Aance In foimfalff plMtJ 
opinion, and will be studied with benefit by those who take an mtercst in the brake."— JTji^fliAl 
Mechanic. I 

"Written with sufficient technical detail to enable the principle and relative connection of dil | 
various parts of each particular brake to be readily jfraspcu." — Mechanical U'orld, 

Engine-Driving lAfe. 

ENGINE-DRIVING LIFE; or, Stirring Adventures and Ind' 

dents in the Lives of Locomotive-Engine Drivers, By Michael REVMOLlMk 

Nintli Thousand. Crown 8vo, 2S. cloth. 

"1'h(; book from first to last is perfectly fascinating''. WiDcie Collins' most thrilling conoeplloai^ 
are thrown into the shade by true incidents, endless in their variety, related in every pag«.'*--Mirti 
llritish Mail. 

" Anyone who wishes to fjet a real insif^ht into railway life cannot do better than read * . 

Driving Life ' for himself ; and if he once take it up he wiU find that the author's enthuslani 
real love of the entfine-drivin^ profession will carry hhn on till ho has read every pago.**— .^Stf/wnlV 

Heviejc: 

JPof.'Jtct Companion for Enginemen. 

THE ENGINEMAN*S POCKET COMPANION^ AND PRAC- 
TICAL EDUCATOR FOR ENGINEMEN, BOILER ATTENDANTS, 
AND MECHANICS. By Michakl Reynolds, Mem. S. £., Author of 
•* Locomotive Engine- Driving," " Stationary Engine-Driving,'* &c. With J 
Forty-five Illustrations and numerous Diagrams. Royal zSmo, 3s. 6d.^ ttroaglv ' 
bound in cloth for pocket wear. L^ms^ publiiheJ, 



ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, etc, ii 

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, etc. 

Vonstmction. 

THE SCIENCE OF BUILDING : An Elementary Treatise on 
the Principles of Construction. By E. Wyndham Tar**, M.A., Architect. 
Second Edition, Revised, with 58 Engravings. Crown 8vo, ys. 6d. cloth. 
'* A very valuable book, which we strongly recommend to all students." — Builder. 

" No ardiitectural student should be without this handbook of constructional knowledge."^ 
4rc/ii/ec/. 

yuia Architecture. 

A HANDY BOOK OF VILLA ARCHITECTURE : Being a 
Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With Outline 
Specifications and Estimates. By C. Wickes, Architect, Author of "The 
Spires and Towers of England," &c. 30 Plates, 4to, half-morocco, gilt edges, 

£1 IS. 

* ^* Also an Enlarged Edition of the above. 61 Plates, with Outline Speci- 
ications. Estimates, &c. £2 2s. half-morocco. 

" The whole of the designs bear evidence of their beine the work of an artistic architect, and 
hey will prove very valuable and suggestive." — Buildiiig^ News. 

Useful Text'Booh for Architects. 

THE ARCHITECTS GUIDE: Being a Texi-Boek of Useful 
Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, Contractors, Clerks of 
Works, &c. &c. By Frederick Rogers, Architect, Author of " Specifica- 
tions for Practical Architecture," &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo, 6s. cloth. 

" As a text-book of useful information for architects, engineers, surveyors, &c., it would b« 
lard to find a handier or more complete Uttle volume." — Standard. 

"A young architect could hardly have a better guide-book." — Timber Trades journal 

Taylor and Cresy^s Home. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES OF ROME. By 
the late G. L. Taylor, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., and Edward Cresy, Esq. New 
Edition, thoroughly revised by the Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. (son of 
the late G. L. Taylor, Esq.), Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, and Chap- 
lain of Gray's Inn. Large folio, with 130 Plates, hall-bound, £3 3s. 

N.B. — This is the only book which gives on a large scale, and with the pre- 
nsion of architectural measurement, the principal Monuments of Ancient Rome 
n plan, elevation, and detail. 

"Taylor and Cresy "s work has from its first publication been ranked among those professional 
x>oks which cannot be bettered. ... It would be difficult to find examples of drawings, even 
unong those of the most painstaking students of Gothic, more thoroughly worked out than are the 
me hundred and thirty platas in this volume." — Architect. 

t>rawinfj for Builders and Students in Architecture. 

PRACTICAL RULES ON DRAWING, for the Operative 
, Builder and Young Student in Architecture, By Gborge Pyne. With 14 
Plates, 4to, js. 6d. boards. 

Ci V il A rchitecture. 

THE DECORATIVE PART OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE. 
By Sir William Chambers, F.R.S. With Illustrations, Notes, and an 
Examination of Grecian Architecture, by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A. Edited by 
W. H. Leeds. 66 Plates, 4to, 21s. cloth. 

Tlie House-Owner^ s Estimator. 

THE HOUSE-OWNER'S ESTIMATOR ; or, What will it Cost 
to Build, Alter, or Repair? A Price Book adapted to the Use of Unpro- 
fessional People, as well as for the Architectural Surveyor and Builder. By 
the late James D. Simon, A.R.I. B.A. Edited and Revised by Francis T. W. 
Miller, A.R.I.B. A. With numerous Illustrations. Third Edition, Revised. 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

•• In two years it will repay its cost a hundred times over."— Field. 
*' A Tcry handy book." — English Mechanic. 



12 WEALE'S RTiniMRNTARV SERIES. 

INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 

23. BRICKS AND TILES, Rudimentary Treatise on the Manaikc- 

turc of. By E. Dobson, M.K.I.B.A. Illustrated, 3S4 

67. CLOCKS, WATCHES, AND BELLS, a Rudimentary Treatise ^ 

on. By Sir Edmund Beckett, LL.D., C^.C Seventh Edition, revised and eo- 

lar{rc(l. 4s. 6d. limp ; 5s. 6d. cloth hoards. 

S3««. CONSTRUCTION OF DOOR LOCKS. CompUed from Ae 
I'apcrs of A. C. Honns, and Edited by Charles Tomlinson, FJl.S. With 
Additions by Robert Mallet, M.I.C.E. IIlus. ss. 6d. 

162. THE BRASS FOUNDER'S MANUAL; Instructions fa 

Modelling, Pattern-Making, Moulding, Turning, Filing, Bnmishiiig, 
Bronzing, &c. AVith copious Receipts, &c. By Walter Graham, si.t 

205. THE ART OF LETTER PAINTING MADE EASY. By 
J. G. Badknocii. Illustrated with 12 full-page Engravings of Examples, u. 

215. THE GOLDSMITirS HANDBOOK, containing fuU Instruc- 
tions for tl)o. Alloying and Working of Gold. By GsoRGB E. GsB, x»,X 
225. 7 HE SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK, containing fuU In- 
structions for the Alloying and Working of Silver. By Gborgr E. Gbb. Ji4 
•^* 77/c two prec^diui^c M'orks, in One handsome Vol.^ Jialf-bouHd, enitiled "'tvE 
Goldsmith's & Silveksmitii's Complete Handbook," 7*. [yusi ^ubliik^ 

'.24. COACH BUILDING, A Practical Treatise, Historical and 

Descriptive. By J. W. Buroess. 2s. 6d.t 
:35. PRACTICAL ORGAN BUILDING, By W. E. DiCKSOV, 

!M.A., Prorontor of Elv Cathedral. Illustrated. 2s. 6d.t 

219. 7HE HALL-MARKING OF yE WELLE RY PRACTICALLY 
CONSIDERED. By George E. Gee. 35.* 



MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES. 

^6. A DICTIONARY OF TERMS used in ARCHITECTURE, 
BUILDING, ENGINEERING, MINING, METALL URGY, ARCHJB- 
OLOGY, the EINE ARTS, 6^c. By John Wealb. Fifth Edition. Revised 
by Robert Hunt, F.R.S. Illustrated. 5s. limp ; 6s. cloth boards. 

50. THE LAW OF CONTRACTS FOR WORKS AND SER- 
VICES. By David Gibbons. Third Edition, enlarged. 33.* 

112. MANUAL OF DOMESTIC MEDICINE. By R. GoODiNG, 
B.A., M.D. A Family Guide in all Cascg of Accident^and Emergency. ssJ 

II 2*. MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH. A Manual of Home and 

Personal Hygiene. By the Rev. James Baird, B.A. is. " 
150. LOGIC, Pure and Applied. By S. H. Emmens. is. 6d. 

153. SELECTIONS FROM LOCKE'S ESSAYS ON THE 

HUMAN UNDERSTANDING. With Notes by S. H. Emmbns. ss. 

154. GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS. Notices of the various 

Fields for Emigration, Hints on Outfits, Useful Recipes, &c. ss. 

157. THE EMIGRANTS GUIDE TO NATAL. By RoBMl 
James Mann, F.R.A.S., F.M.S. Second Edition. Map. ss. 

1.^3. HANDBOOK OF FIELD FORTIFICATION, intended for the 
(juidanco of Officers Preparing for Promotion. By Major W. W. 
Knollvs, F.K.G.S. With 163 Woodcuts. 3s.t. 

194. THE HOUSE MANAGER: Being a Guide to Housekeeping. 
Practical Cookery, Pickling and Preserving, Household Work, bair^ 
Management, the Table and Dessert, Cellarage of Wines, Home-orewing 
and Wine-making, tlie Boudoir and Dressing-room, Travelling, Stable 
Economy, Gardening Operations, &c. By An Old Housekebper. 3s, 6d.l 

i94» HOUSE BOOK {The). Comprising :— I. The House Manages. 

1 12 & By an Old IIouskkkeper. II. Domkstic Medicine. By R. Gooding, M.D. 

112*, HI. Management of Health. By J. Baird. In One Vol., half-bound, 6s. 



' ^^T The X indicates that these vols, may be had strongly bound at €d. gxira, 
LONDON ; CROSBY LOCKWOQD ANP Ca 



13 



DECORATIVE ARTS, etc. 

DECO RATIVE ART S, etc. 

Woods and Marbles (Imitation of), 

SCHOOL OF PAINTING FOR THE IMITATION OF WOODS 
AND MARBLES, as Taught and Practised by A. R. Van der Burg and P. 
Van der Burg, Directors of the Rotterdam Painting Institution. Second and 
Cheaper Edition. Royal folio, 18^ by 12^ in.. Illustrated with 24 full-size Co- 
loored Plates; also 12 plain Plates, comprising 154 Figures, price £1 lis. 6d, 

List of Contents 
Jntroductory Chapter — Tools required for Methods of Working'— Yellow Sienna Marble : 



Painting — Observations on the different 

of Wood: Walnuts-Observations on 

in general— Tools required for Marble 

J — St. Remi Marble : Preparation of the 

: Process of Working — Wood Crainine : 

ition of Stiff and Flat Brushes : Sketch* 

different Grains and Knots: Glazing of 

od— Ash : Painting of Ash — Breche (Brec- 

Marble : Breche Violette : Process of Work- 

-Maple : Process of Working — The different 

iesof White Marble : Methods of Working : 

ting White Marble with Lac -dye : Painting 

Marble with Poppy-j/aint — Mahogany : 

List of Plates. 

t Various Tools required for Wood Painting 
3. Walnut : Preliminary Stages of Graining 
Finished Specimen — 4. Tools ased for 
rtde Painting and Method of Manipulation — 
fi. St. Remi Marble: Earlier Operations and 
' ' !d Specimen — 7. Methods 01 Sketching 
rent Grains, Knots, Ac. — 8. 9. Ash: Pre- 
-- — ■fl«y Stages and Finished Specimen — 10. 
liethods of Sketching Marble Grains— 11, 13. 
%eche Marble : Preliminary Stages of Working 
^id Finished Specimen — 13. Maple : Methods 
•ffProducing the different Grains — 14. 15. Bird's- 
[^ Maple: Preliminary Stages and Finished 
a|iecfanen — 16. Methods of Sketching the dif* 
^ent Species of White Marble— 17, 18. White 
Kuble: Preliminary Stages of Process and 



Process of Working— Juniper : Characteristics 
of the Natural W<xKi : Metliod of Imitation — 
Vert de Mer Marble : Description of the Mar- 
ble : Process of Working — Oak : Description of 
the varieties of Oak : Manipulation of Oak- 
painting : Tools employed : Method of Work- 
ing — ^V aulsort Marble : Varieties of the Marble : 
Process of Working— The Painting of Iron witli 
Red Lead: How to make Putty: Out-door 
Work : Varnishing : Prinu'ng and Varnishing 
Woods and Marbles : Painting in General : Ceil- 
ings and Walls : Gilding : Transparencies, Flags; 
&c. 

late 

Finished Specimen — 10. Mahogany : Sfiecimens 
of various Grains and Methods of Manipulation 
— 20, ai. Mahogany: Earlier Stages and Finished 
Specimen — m, 33, 34. Sienna Marble : Varieties 
of Grain, Preliminary Stages and Finished 
Specimen — 3S aS, 27. Juniper Wood : Methods 
of producing Grain, &c. : Preliminary Stages 
and Finished Specimen — 38, 39^ 30. Vert de 
Mer Marble : Varieties of Grain and Methods 
of Working Unfinished and Finished Speci- 
mens — 31. 32. 3^. Oak: Varieties of Grain. Tools 
Employed, and Methods of Manipulation, Pre- 
liminary Stages and Finished Specimen — 34, ^ 
36. Waulsort Marble: Varieties of Grain, l)a- 
nnished and Finished Specimens, 
le: " ■ • 

"Those who desire to attain skill in the art of painting woods and marbles, will find advantage 
Ik consulting this book. . . . Some of the Working Men's Clubs should give tlieir young men 
Ike opportunity to study it." — Builder. 

" A comprehensive guide to the art. The explanations of the processes, the manipulation and 
Management of the colours, and the beautifully executed plates will not be the least valuable to the 
' nt who aims at making his work a faithful transcript of nature." — Building li'ews. 



lolour, 

A GRAMMAR OF COLOURING. Applied to Decorative 
Painting and the Arts. By George Field. New Edition, adapted to tho 
use of the Ornamental Painter and Designer. By Ellis A. Davidson. With 
New Coloured Diagrams and Engravings. i2mo, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 
"The book is a most useful resume of the properties of pigments." — Builder. 

Uoiise Decoration. 

ELEMENTARY DECORATION, A Guide to the Simpler 

Forms of Everyday Art, as applied to the Interior and Exterior Decoration of 

Dwelling Houses, &c. By James W. Facey. With 68 Cuts. 2s. cloth limp. 

"As a technical guide-book to the decorative painter it wiO be found reliable."— i^Mt^t/M^AVif^, 

*,* By the same Author, just published. 

PRACTICAL HOUSE DECORATION : A Guide to the Art of 
Ornamental Painting, the Arrangement of Colours in Apartments, and the 
principles of Decorative Design. With some Remarks upon the Nature and 

I Properties of Pigments. With numerous Illustrations, xamo, 2s. 6d. cl. limp 
"S.B.—The above Two Works together in One Vol,, strongly half-bound, 5s. 
^otise Painting, etc, 

HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING, AND SIGN 
WRITING, A Practical Manual of. By Ellis A. Davidson. Fourth Edition. 
With Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings, zamo, 6s. cloth boards. 
A mass of information, of use to the amateur and of value to the practical maa."— £M{fiKr* 
4f<rA/snw*. 



14 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S- CO/S CATALOGUE. 



DELAMOTTES' WORKS on ILLUMINAT ION & ALPHABETS. 

A PRIMER OF THE ART OF ILLUMINATION, for the Use of 
Beginners : with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Practical Directions for 
its exercise, and P2zamples taken from Illuminated MSS., printed in Gold and 
Colours. By F. Dklamotte. New and cheaper edition. Small 4to, 6s. (Mrna- 
mental boards. 

". . . . The examples of ancient MSS. recommended to the student; which. iHth much 
good sense, the author chooses from collections accessible to all, are selected with Judsnoaent and 
knowlcdgfc, as well as taste." — jitheneentn. 

ORNAMENTAL ALPHABETS, Ancient and Mediaval, from the 
Eighth Century, with Numerals; including Gothic, Church-Text, large and 
small, German, Italian, Arabesque, Initials for Illumination, Monograms 
Crosses, &c. &c., for the use of Architectural and Engineering Draughtsmen, 
Missal Painters, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, En^vera^ 
Carvers, &c. &c. Collected and Engraved by F. Delamottb, and printed in 
Colours. New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, as. 6d, ornamental 
boards. 

' I'or those who insert enamelled sentences round gilded chaUces, who blazon shop legends orer 
shop-doors, who letter church walls with pithy sentences from the Decalogue, this book wiU be use* . 
ful. — Athenaum. 

EXAMPLES OF MODERN ALPHABETS, Plain and Ornamental: 
including German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, Greek, Hebrew, 
Court Hand, En^ossing, Tuscan, Riband, Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesqtie; 
with several Original Designs, and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English 
Alphabets, large and small, and Numerals, tor the use of Draughtsmen, Sur- 
veyors, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, Carvers, &c. 
Collected and Enf^aved by F. Delamottb, and printed in Colours. New 
and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 2S. 6d. ornamental boards. 

" There is comprised in it every possible shape into which the letters of the alphabet and 
numerals can be formed, and the talent which has been expended in the conception oi the various 
plain and ornamental letters is wonderful." — Standard. 

MEDIAEVAL ALPHABETS AND INITIALS FOR ILLUMI- 

NA TORS. B^ F. G. Delamotte. Containing 2x Plates and Illuminated 

Title, printed in Gold and Colours. With an Introduction by J. Willis 

Brooks. Fourth and cheaper edition. Small 4to, 45. ornamental ooards. 

" A volume in which the letters of the alphabet come forthj^orified ingilding andall the cokHR : 
of the prism interwoven and intertwined and intermingled." — Sum. ; 

THE EMBROIDERER'S BOOK OF DESIGN, Containing j 
Initials, Emblems, Cyphers, Monograms, Ornamental Borders, Ecclesiastictl I 
Devices, Mediaeval and Modern Alphabets, and National Emblems. Cot* I 
lected by F. Delamotte, and printed in Colours. Oblong royal Svb, is. ttL, a 

ornamental wrapper. 

" The l)ook will be of great assistance to ladies and young chfldren who are endowed witk At 
art of plyinj; the needle in this must ornanieutal and useful pretty wotk,''-^ast AngUaM Tltms, 

Wood Cai*ving. \ 

INSTRUCTIONS IN WOOD-CARVING, for Amateurs; with 
Hints on Design. By A Lady. With Ten large Plates, as. 6d, in emblematic 

wrapper. 

" The handicraft of the wood-carver, so well as a book can impart H; may bo leamt ttom'A 
Lady's ' publication." — Atheitcritm. 

" The directions {^ven are plain and easily understood." — En£^lish Mechanic 

Glass Painting, , 

GLASS STAINING AND THE ART OF PAINTING ON 
GLA SS. From the German of Dr. Gessert and Emamubl Otto Fkohbbio. 
With an Appendix on The Art of Enamelling. i2mo, as. 64. cloth limp. 

Letter Painting. 

THE ART OF LETTER PAINTING MADE EASY. By 
Tames Greig Badenoch. With 12 full-page Engravings of Bsaaplcti ift.oluUi 
limp. 

"The system is a simple one, but quite original, and weH worth the canAd wUmeitam.tlt hMtr- 1 
painteni. It can be easily mistered and tcincmbered.''—BuUdift£- News, j 

\ 



CARPENTRY. TIMBER, etc. 15 



CARPENTRY, TIMBER, etc. 
Tredgold^s Carpentry, partly He-tvritten and JSn^ 

iarged by Tarn, 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CARPENTRY. 
A Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the Resist- 
ance of Timber, and the Construction of Floors, Arches, Bridges, Roofs, 
Uniting Iron and Stone with Timber, &c. To which is added an Essay 
on the Nature and Properties of Timber, &c., with Descriptions of the kinds 
of Wood used in Building ; also numerous Tables of the Scantlings of Tim- 
ber for different puri)oses, the Specific Gravities of Materials, &c. By Thomas 
Tredgold, C.E. With an Appendix of Specimens of Various Roofs of Iron 
and Stone, Illustrated. Seventh Edition, thoroughly revised and considerably 
enlarged by E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Author of "The Science of Build- 
ing,*' &c. With 61 Plates, Portrait of the Author, and several Woodcuts. In 
one large vol., 4to, price £1 5s. cloth. {.J**st published, 

"Oujfht to be in every architect's and every builder's librarj-." — Builder. 
" A work whose monumental excellence must commend it wherever skilful carpentry is con- 

l. The author's principles are rather ronfinncd than impaired by time. The additional 

are of great intrinsic vjuue." — BttUdin^^ News. 

oodworking Machinery. 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY : Its Rise, Progress, and Con- 
struction. With Hints on the Management of Saw Mills and the Economical 
Conversion of Timber. Illustrated with Examples of Recent Designs by 
leading English, French, and American Engineers. By M. PoWis Bale, 
A.M. Inst. C.E., M.I.M.E. Large crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"Mr. Bale is evidently an expert on the subject, and he has collected so much information that 
book is all-sufficient for builders and others engaged in the conversion of timber."— A rchitecf. 

"The most comprehensive compendium of wood-working machinery we have seen. The 
' or is a thorough master of his subject." — Biiilditig Neivs. 

' The appearance of this book at the present time will, we should think, give a considerable 
\us to the onward march of the machinist engaged in the designing and manufacture of 
•working machines. It should be in the office of every wood-working ^ciory. "—English 
ftchanic. 

iaw Mills. 

SAW MILLS: Their Arrangement and Management, and the 
Economical Conversion of Timber. (Being a Companion Volume to "Wood- 
working Machinery.") By M. Powis Bale, A.M.Inst. C.E., M.I.M.E. 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, los. 6d. cloth. 

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1 the course of the timber is traced from its reception to its delivery in its converted state, 
could not desire a more complete or practical treatise." — Builder. 

"We highly recommend Mr. Bale's work to the attention and perusal of all those who are en- 
~ in the art of wood conversion, or who are about buiiding or remodelling saw-mills on im- 
principles."— ^/<»/rf/«^ News. 

Carpentering. 

THE CARPENTER'S NEW GUIDE : or, Book of Lines for Car- 
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knowledge of Carpentry. Founded on the late Peter Nicholson's Standard 
Work. A New Edition, revised by Arthur Ashpitel, F.S.A. Together 
with Practical Rules on Drawing, by Georgb Pyhb. With 74 Plates, 
4to, £1 IS. cloth. 

landrailing, 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON HANDRAILING : Showing 
New and Simple Methods for Finding the Pitch of the Plank, Drawing the 
Moulds, Bevelling, Jointin2;-up, and Squaring the Wreath. By George 
CoLLiNGS. Illustrated with Plates and Diagrams. z2mo, I5. 6d. cloth limp. 

Hrcular Work. 

CIRCULAR WORK IN CARPENTRY AND JOINERY: A 
Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and Double Curvature. By 
George Collings, Author of " A Practical Treatise on HandraiHng." Illus- 
trated with numerous Diagrams. Z2mo, ». 6^. cloth limp. £JUst published. 



1 6 W£AL£'S liDtJCAtlONAL AKD CLASSICAL S&tU&S. 

GREEK. 

14. Greek Grammar, in accordance with the Principle and 
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15,17. Greek Lexicon. Containing all the "Words in General Us( 

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14,15. Greek Lexicon (as above). Complete, with the Gramm 

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GREEK CLASSICS. With Explanatory Notes in Englis 
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2, 3. Xenophon's Anabasis ; or, The Retreat of the Ten The 
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4. Lucian's Select Dialogues. The Text carefully revise 

Grammatical and Explanatory Notes, by H. Young, zs. 6d. 

5-12. Homer, The Works of. According to the Text of Baku] 

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The Iliad: Parti. Books i. tovi., is.6d. Part 3. Books xiii. to xviii. 

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Critical and Explanatory, by the Rev. John Milnbr, B.A. 2s. 
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OSBY LOCKWOOD AND CO., 7, STATIONERS' HALL COUR' 



7, Stationers* Hall Court, London, E.C. 
October, 1886. 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

INCLUDING MANY NEW AND STANDARD WORKS IN 

^.NGINEERING. AROHITEGTURE, MECHANICS, 

MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS, 

AGRICULTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, 

GARDENING, &c. 

PUBLISHED BY 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, etc. 

T7ie neater Supj}ly of Cities and Towns, 

A COMPREHENSIVE TREATISE on the WATER-SUPPLY 
OF CITIES AND TOWNS. By William Humber, A-M. Inst. C.E., and 
M. Inst. M.E., Author of "Cast and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction," 
&c., &c. Illustrated with 50 Double Plates, i Single Plate, Coloured 
Frontispiece, and upwards of 250 Woodcuts, and containing 400 pages of 
Text. Imp. 4to, £6 6s. elegantly and substantially half-bound in morocco. 

List of Contents. 



I. Historical Sketch of some of the means 
that have been adopted for the Supply of Water 
to Cities and Towns. — II. Water and the Fo- 
reign Matter usually associated with it.— III. 
Ramfall an'l Itvaporation.— IV. Sprinjjs and 
ihe watcr-hcarin.i,' fonnations of various dis- 
tricts. — V. Measurement and I-stimation of the 
lk>w of Water — VI. On the Selection of the 
Source of Supply.— VII. WcUs— VIII. Reser- 
rciirs.— IX. The Purification of Water.— X. 
Pumps. — XI. Pumping Machinery — XII. 



Conduits. -XIII. Distribution of Water.— XIV 
Meters, Service Pipes, and House FittinjfS. — 

XV. The I^w and Economy of Water Works. 

XVI. Constant and Intermittent Supply. — 

XVII. Description of Plates.— Appendices, 
Kivinuf Tables of Rates of Supply, Velocities, 
«c. Ac, tofi^ether with Specifications of several 
Works illustrated, among;^ which will be found : 
Aberdeen, Eideford, Canterbury, Dundee. 
Halifax, Lambeth, Rotherham, Dublin, and 
others. 



•• The most systematic and valuable work upon water supply hitherto produced in Eng^lLsh, or 
in any other lan>^ag^e. ... Mr. I lumbers work is characterised almost throughout by an 
e&haustiveness much more distinctive of French and German than of English techniad treatises.** 

" We can congratulate Mr. Humber on having been abl^ to give so large an amount of infor- 
mation on a subject so important as the water supply of cities and towns. The plates, fifty in 
Buuiber, arc mostly drawings of executed works, and alone would have commanded the attentioa 
of evcr>' en^jinecr whose practice may lie in this branch of the profession."— .^M(/rfrr. 

Cast and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction. 

A COMPLETE AND PRACTICAL TREATISE ON CAST 
AND WROUGHT IRON BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION, including Iron 
Foundations. In Three Parts — Theoretical, Practical, and Descriptive. By 
William Humber, A-M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E. Third Edition, Re- 
vised and much improved, with 115 Double Plates (ao of which now first 
appear in this edition), and numerous Additions to the Text In Two Vols., 
imp. 4to, £6 iGs. 6d. half- bound in morocco. 

"A very valuable contribution to the standard literature of civil engineering. In addition to 
elevatioas. jilans and sections, large scale details are given whichvery much en&nce the instruc- 
tive worth (jf these illustrations. No engineer would willingly be without SO valuable a fund of 
Infunn .tion. —C:vU Eu^nMeer aitd Architect's youmaU 

"Mr. H J m!>cr's stately volumes, lately issued— in which the nost impoftant brid|rM erected 
during the last five years, under the direction of the late Mr. Braael, Sir W. Cubitt, Mr. Hawlc- 
ttiaw. Mr. Pa^'e, Mr. Fowler, Mr. Hemans, and Others snoonif OUT SMMt eminent engineer* are 
drawn aiid specified in great detail."— f«fi'/<rrr. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD &■ CO.'S CATALOGUE 



NUMBER'S GREAT WORK ON MODERN ENGINl 

Complete in Four VoUimes, imperial 4to, price /12 12s., balf-moroc 

Volume sold separately as follows : — 

A RECORD OF THE PROGRESS OF MODERN ENC 
ING. First Skkies. Comprising Civil, Mechanical, Marine, 
Railway, Bridge, and other Engineering Works, &c. By Willia] 
A-M. Inst. C.E., &c. Imp. 4to, with 36 Double Plates, drawn to a 
Photofiraphic Portrait of John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S., &c., a 
descriptive Letterpress, Specifications, &c., £3 35. half-morocco. 

List of the Plates and Diagrams, 



Tliames. West I^ndon Eztensi< 
plates); Armour Ilates: Suspci 
Thames (4 plates); The Allen : 
pension Briasre. Avon (3 plates) ; 
Railway (3 i>lates). 



Victoria Station and Roof, J,. B. & S. C. R. 
(R plates); Sinitl>i>i>rt I'iiT (2 platrs): Victoria 
Statioaaiul Roof, 1.. C. & I), and C. W. R. (6 
pLitusV, Koi>r of Crcinornc Music Hall; Bridge 
over (;. N. Railvkay ; Roof of Station. Dutch 
Klicuish Kail [2 pl.itcb) ; Bridge over the 

" Handsomely litho^rmphod and printed. It will find favour with many who desi: 
in a pi-nnancnt form copies of tlie plans and specifications prepared for tlie {fuidaoi 
tractors for nuiny important enirinecrin}|^ works. '—Jift£ineer. 

NUMBER'S RECORD OF MODERN ENGINEERING, 
Skrirs. Imp. 4to, with 36 Double Plates, Photographic Portrait 
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List 0/ the Plates and Diagrams. 

and Alicreavenny R^dlway ; El 

Mcrthyr, Tredccrar, and Alieru 

way ; Cullc^ Wood Viaduct. ( 

Northern Railway ; Roliliery Wood Viaduct, way; Dubkn Winter Palace Ko 

(>rcat Northern Railway: Iron reriuanent Bndifc over the Thames, L.. C. 1 

AVay: Clydach Viaduct, Mcrthyr, Tredutfar, (6 plates); Albert Harbour, Green 

" Mr. Hunibcr has done the profession |;on<l and true service, by the fine collectio 

he has here brought before the profession and the \mblic."— Practical AfechaHtc's ^t 

NUMBER'S RECORD OF MODERN ENGINEERING 
Srrirs. Imp. 4to, with 40 Double Plates, Photographic Portrs 
M 'Clean, Esq., late Pres. Inst. C.E., and copious descriptive L 
Specifications, &c., £1 3s. half-morocco. 

List of the Plates and Diagrams. 

Main Drainacr, Metropolis.— A'«7rM 1 Sewer, Reservoir and Outlet (4 pi 

Side, — Map showinjf Interception of Sewers; ■ Sewer, Filth Hoist; Sections ofS 

Middle Level Scw«r (2 plates) ; Outfall Sewer, and South Sides). 

Bridge over River I-ea (3 plates); OutfallSewer, 1 TlIAMKS l^MBANKMEKTr.— Set 

I)rid>;e over Marsh Lane. North Woolwich Wall ; Steamboat Pier, Westminst 



Birkcniicad Docks, T.ow Watrr Basin (is 

Elates); C'haiini; Cross Station Roof, C C. 
Lailway (^ plates); Diifswell Via<l ict, (ireat 

Rod 



I binding' Stairs tietween Charin 
Waterloo Bridfifes; York Gate (2 f 
flow and Outlet at Savoy Street Sev 
Steamboat Pier. Waterioo Bridg 
Junction of Sewers, Plans an 
Gullies, Plans and Sectioas; Rt 
Granite and Iron Forts. 



Railway, and Bow and Barking; Railway June- 
tion ; Outfall Sewer, Bridge over Bow and 
liarking Railway (3 plates) ; Outfall Sewer. 
Bridge over liast London Waterworks' Feeder 
(3 plates) ; Outfall Sewer, Reservoir (3 plates) ; 
Outfall Sewer, Tumbling Bay and Outlet ; Out- 
fall Sewer. Penstocks. South 5»rf^.— Outfall 
Sewer, Bermondscy Branch (2 plates) ; Outfall 

" The drawings have a constantly increasing value, and whoever desires to posses 
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volume." — Engineer. 

NUMBER'S RECORD OF MODERN ENGINEERING, 
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List of the Plates and Diagrams. 



Abbey Mills Pumping Station, Main Drain- 
age, Metropolis (4 plates) ; Barrow Docks U 
plates) ; Manquis Viaduct, Santiago and Val- 
paraiso Railway (3 plates); Adam's Locomo- 
tive, St. Helen's Canal Railway (3 plates) ; 
Cannon Street' Station Roof. Channg Cross 
Railway (3 plates) ;Jioad Bridge over the River 
>fa 



Mesopotamia; Viaduct over the 
Midland Railway (3 plates) ; St. ( 
duct, Cornwall Railway (3 uLites 
Iron Cylinder fur Diving Bell ; Mi 
(6 plates) : Milroy's Patent Excavi 
poiitan District Railway (6 plates, 
Ports, and Breakwaters (3 plates). 



Moka (3 plates) ; Telegraphic Apparatus for 

>," We gladly welcome another year's issue of this valuable publication from the 

Humber. The accuracy and general excellence of tiiis work are well known, wh 

- giving the measurements and details of some of the latest examples of enj 

2^t by the most eminent men in the profession, cannot be too highly prized."- 

CROSBY . 



NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, NAVIGATION, etc, 19 



NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, ITAVIGATION, etc. 



, 



Chain Cables, 

CHAIN CABLES AND CHAINS, Comprising Sizes and 
Curves of Links, Studs, &c., Iron for Cables and Chains, Chain Cable and 
Chain Making, Forming and Welding Links, Strength of Cables and Chains, 
Certificates for Cables, Marking (Sables, Prices of Chain Cables and Chains, 
Historical Notes, Acts of Parliament, Statutory Tests, Charges for Testing, 
List of Manufacturers of Cables, &c., &c. By Thomas W.Traill, F.E.R.N., 
M. Inst. C.E.,the Engineer Surveyor in Chief, Board of Trade, the Inspector 
of Chain Cable and Anchor Proving Establishments, and General Superin- 
tendent, Lloyd's Committee on Proving Establishments. With numerous 
Tables, Illustrations and Lithographic Drawings. Folio, £2 2S. cloth, 
bevelled boards. 

" The author writes not only with a full acquaintance with scientific formula? and details, but 
also with a i)rofo-ind and fully-instructed sense of tlie importance to the safety of our ships and 
sailors of ridelity in the manufacture of cables. We heartily recommend the book to the specialists 
to whom it is addressed." — Athenautn, 

"It contains a vast amount of valuable information. Nothing seems to be wanting to make 
a complete and standard work of reference on the sulyect." — Nautical Magazine. 

JPocket'Book for Naval Architects and Shipbuilders. 

THE NAVAL ARCHITECT'S AND SHIPBUILDER'S' 
rOCKET-BOOK of Formula, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and 
Surveyor's Handy Book of Reference. By Clement Mackrow, Member of the 
Institution of Naval Architects, Naval Draughtsman. Third Edition, Re- 
vised. With numerous Diagrams, &c. Fcap., 12s. 6d. strongly bound in 
leather. 

"Should he used by all who are pngag^cd in the construction or design of vessels. . . . Will 
be found to contain the most useful tables and fornmlie required by shipuuilders, carefully collected 
from the best authorities, and put tojjether in a popular and simple form." — Engineer. 

ih "The professional .shii)bui!der has now, in a convenient and accessible form, reliable data for 

§ sohinjj many of the numerous problems that present themselves in the course of his work." — Iron. 

"There is scarcely a subject on which a naval architect or shipbuilder can require to refresh 
his memory wliich will not be found within the covers of Mr. Mackrow's book." — Engiish Mechanic, 

JPockct-Boolc for Marine Engineers. 

A POCKET-BOOK OF USEFUL TABLES AND FOR» 
MULM FOR MARINE ENGINEERS. By Frank Proctor, A.I.N.A. 
Third Edition. Royal 32mo, leather, gilt edges, with strap, 45. 

" \Vc recommend it to our readers as going far to supply a long-felt vrdint."—Xaval Science. 
"A most useful companion to all marine engineers."-- L'ni/ed Service Cazette. 

Lighthouses, 

EUROPEAN LIGHTHOUSE SYSTEMS. Being a Report of 
a Tour of Inspection made in 1873. By Major George H. Elliot, Corps of 
Engineers, U.S.A. With 51 Engravings and 31 Woodcuts. 8vo, 215. cloth. 

^^'^ The following are published in VJeklk's Rudimentary Series. 
MASTING, MAST-MAKING, AND RIGGING OF SHIPS, By 
Robert Kipping, N.A. Fifteenth Edition, ismo, 25. 6d. cloth boards. 

SAILS AND SAIL-MAKING. Eleventh Edition, Enlarged, with 
an Appendix. By Robert Kipping, N.A. Illustrated. i2mo, 3s. cloth boards. 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, By Tames Peake. Fifth Edition 

with Plates and Diagrams. i2mo, 4s. cloth boards. 

MARINE ENGINES AND STEAM VESSELS (A Treatiss on). 
By KoHiiRT Murray, C.E., Principal Officer to the Board of Trade for the 
East Coast of Scotland District. Eighth Edition, thoroughly Revised, with 
considerable Additions, by the Author and by George Carlisle, C.E., 
Senior Surveyor to the Board of Trade at Liverpool. i2mo, 55. cloth boards. 

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION, Consisting of the Sailor's Sea- 
Book, by James Greenwood and W. H. Rosser ; together with the requisite 
Matlieniatical and Nautical Tables for the Working of the Problems, by 
Henry Law, C.E., and Professor J, R. Young, xamo, 7s., half-bound. 



20 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &* CO.'S CATALOGUE. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENOE. 



*-■. 



Text Book of Electricity. 

THE STUDENTS TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICITY. B; 

Henry M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. New Edition, carefhlly Revisad. 

With an Introduction and Additional Chapters, by W. H. Prbbcb, M.I.CB., 

Vice-President of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, Ac With 470 Illnstn 

tions. Crown 8vo, izr. 6d. cloth. 

" The oriGrinal plan of this book has t)een carefully adhered to 90 as to make it a reflax of ttl 
existincr state of electrical science, adapted for students. . . . DiscoTery seems to bats pn* 
C[ressca with marvellous strides ; nevertheless it has now apparently ceased, and practical ip gto 
tions have commenced their career ; and it is to give a faithful account of these that this ndk 
edition of Dr. Noad's valuable text-book is launched forth."— Extraa/rvm iMtrttiMCtimt Ig^W^B. 
Pretce, Esq. 

" We can recommend Dr. Noad's book for clear style, gfi^eat range of sublect; a good 
and a plethora of woodcuts. Such collections as the present are indispensable.*— .t^MMuntM. 

"An admirable text-book for every student— l}^^er or adranced— of ekctiidti;' 

" Dr. Noad's text-book has earned for Itself the reputation of a tndy sdentific nramal ftr At 
student of electricity, and we gladly hail thus new amended edition, wliich tarings it once moctli 
tlie front. Mr. Preece as reviser, with the assistance of Mr. H. R. Kempe and Hr. f. P. Edwavda 
has added all the practical results of recent invention and research to tlie admiraple tlteutetita 
expositions of the author, so tliat the book is about as complete and advanced as it is poarilils b> 
any book to he within tlie limits of a text-hook."— Tei^gra/hic youmal. 

Electricity. 

A MANUAL OF ELECTRICITY : Including Galvanism, Mif 
netism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dynamics, Magno-Electricifyf and the Eluirit 
Telegraph. By HENRr M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. Fourth Edition. 

With 500 Woodcuts. 8vo, £1 4s. cloth. 

"The accounts f^ven of electricity and galvanism are not only complete in a •^•^♦Hk \ 
but, which is a rarer t\\\\\g, are popular and iutercstinf?." — Lancet. 

"It is worthy of a place in the library of every public institution."— if i»^^ y^ummt. 

Electric Light* 

ELECTRIC LIGHT : Its Production and Use. Embodying Plain 
Directions for the Treatment of Voltaic Batteries, Electric T^tpp*, all 
Dynamo-Electric Machines. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E., Author of " Electric 
plating : A Practical Handbook." Edited by F. C. Webb, M.I.CE-, M.S.TJL 
Second Edition, Revised, with large Additions and 128 Illusts. ys. 6d. dotb, 

" The book is by far the best that we have jjet met with on the subject." — Ath€Htn$»», 

" It is the only work at present available wmch gives, in language mtdligible for the n , 

to the ordinary reader, a general but concise historv of the means which have been ad^itadiVli 

the present time in producing the electric \\sht,"—Metrofolitan 

Electric Lighting. 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRIC LIGHT- 
ING. By Alan A. Campbell Swinton, Associate S.T.E. Crown 8fa 
IS. 6d. , cloth. i^ust publiM 



As a stepping-stone to treat'ises of a more advanced nature, this little work will be 
most efficient.' — BookselUr. 

"Anyone who desires a short and thoroughly clear exposition of the demetttary 
electric-lighting cannot do better than read this little ^noi^tJ^-Brad/ord Observer, 

I>r. Lardner^s School Sandbooks. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY FOR SCHOOLS. ByDr.UatDiiU 

328 Illustrations. Sixth Edition. One Vol., 3s. 6d, cloth. 

" A very convenient class-book for junior students in private schools. It is t«»«H^4f)4 to 
in clear and precise terms, general notions of all the prucipal divisions of Fhjrsical " ' 
British Quarterly Review. 

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY FOR SCHOOLS. By Dr. LardhUi 

With 190 Illustrations. Second Edition. One Vol., 3s. 6d, cloth. 
" Clearly written, well : rra.iged, and excellently illustrated."— ^rfcniSeiMrV ObrwsMb 

Ih*. Lardner^s Electric Telegraph* 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. By Dr. Lardwml Re- 
vised and Re-written by £. B. Bright, F.R.A.S. 140 IllustnUioat, Sm^ 
8vo, 2s.6d. cloth. 
" One of the most readable books extant on the Electric Telegraph."— iB^v^A iAi 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. zi 

Storms, 

STORMS : Their Nature, Classification^ and Laws; with the Means, 
of Predicting them by their Embodiments, the Clouds. By William 
Blasius. With Coloured Plates and nmnerous Wood Engravings. Crown 

8vo, xos. 6d. cloth. 

" A useful repository to meteorolosists in the study of atmospherical <Ustiirbaiices. Will repay 
lerusal as being the production of one who gives evidence of acute absemtion,"'— Nature, 

rhe Blowpipe, 

THE BLOWPIPE IN CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, AND 
GEOLOGY. Containing all known Methods of Anhydrous Analysis, many 
Working Examples, and Instructions for Making Apparatus. By Lieut- 
Colonel W. A. Ross, R.A., F.G.S. With 120 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
3s. 6d. cloth. 

"The student who goes conscientiously through the course of experimentation here laid down 
vin gain a better insight into inorganic chemistry and mineralogy than if he bad 'got up' any of 
he best text-books 01 the day, and passed any numt>er of examinations."— -ClA^MtfoM News, 

The Military Sciences, 

AIDE-MEMOIRE TO THE MILITARY SCIENCES, Framed 
from Contributions of Officers and others connected with the different Ser^ 
vices. Originally edited by a Committee of the Coriw of Royal Engineers. 
Second Edition, most carefully revised hy an Officer oi the Corps, witn many 
Additions; containing nearly 350 Engravings and nnuiy hundred Woodcuts. 
Three Vols., royal 8vo, extra cloth txmrds, and lettered, £4 los. 

" A compendious encyclopaedia of military Icnowledge, to which we are gready Indebtttd."— 
Edinburgh Revira;. ' 

" The most comprehensive work of reference to the military and coDateral sdenoes.' — f^>AM« 
Jew Service Gazette. 

Field Fortification* 

A TREATISE ON FIELD FORTIFICATION, THE ATTACK 
OF FORTRESSES, MILITARY MINING, AND RECONNOITRING, Br 
Colonel I. S. Macaulay, late Professor of Fortification in the R.M.A., Wool- 
wich. Sixth Edition, crown 8vo, doth, with separate Atlas of xa Plates, xsi. 

Conchology, 

MANUAL OF THE MOLLUSC A : A Treatise on Recent and 
Fossil Shells. By Dr. S. P. Woodward, A.L.S. With Appendix by Ralph 
Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S. With numerous Plates and 300 woodcuts. Cloth 
boards, ys. 64, 

"A most valuable storehouse of conchological and geokgical infonBatkMi."'-*ilSaniMEBi»V 
ieience Gossip. 

Astronomy, 

A STRONOMY. By the late Rev. Robert Maik, M. A. , F.R.S., 
formerly Radcliffe Observer at Oxford. Third Edition, Raviaed and Cor- 
rected to the present time, by William Thynns Lynn, B.aI, PJULS^ formorly 
of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, iimo, as. cloth limp. 

" A sound and simple treatise, carefully edited, and a c^'al book fbr beiiMMn."— JDw«A<|V 
" Accurately brought down to the requirements of the present tj—.*^ Sehumilgitmi TVwmt. 

Qeology, 

RUDIMENTARY TREATISE ON GEOLOGY, PHYSICAL 
AND HISTORICAL, Consisting of "Physical Geology," which tets forth 
the leading Principles of the Science ; and ** HiMCMrioal Gedk>gy," which 
treats of the Mineral and Organic Conditions of the Barth at each aucoesaive 
epoch, especial reference being made to the Britiah Smiea of Rocka. Bj 
Ralph Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S., oc., &c. With t^ Illuatratiotta^ xamo^ 5*. 
cloth boards. 

•' The fulness of the matter has elevated the book into a maaaaL Its {nfomaiSoa b t i hiaHl f e 

Ad well arranged."— 5cA«0/ Board ChroieicU, 

Geology and Genesis. 

THE TWIN RECORDS OF CREATION; or. Geology tmd 

Genesis: their Perfect Hamnom and Wonderful CcHCOrd, ByGaoaosW, 

Victor lb Vaux. Numerona lUustrationa. Fcq>. 8to^ s^, doth. 

"A valuable contribution to tiieevldeiioes of revaibtioiLSMi i lhii m i l veiy VM i ih m M tr at tfce 
irgnments of those who wouM set God^ Works agymt God's Woid. Mo rial dMkiilf is adrfiitf. 

ind no sophistry is left unexposed.**— 7*Ar Rack, 



22 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &■ CO.' S CATALOGUE. 



Dr. LARDNER'S HANDBOOKS of NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

*^* The following five volumes^ though each is complete m itself , and to he^r- 
chased separately, form A Complktb Course of Natural Philosophy. The 
style is studiously popular. It has b.en the author's aim to supply Manuals for the 
Student, the En ivieer, the Artisan, an-i the superior classes in Schoois, 

THE HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS, Enlarged and almost re- 
written by Bknjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S. With 378 Illastrationt. Post Syo^ 

6s. cloth. 

" The i)ersnicuity of the nrifj^nal has b«en re'ained, and chap*CTB wMch had be c owe obaokM 
have be<*ii ri'iiLKoil by others of more modem character. The explanat oos dirouKboat an 
stiuliously nopulnr. and care has Iwcn taken to show the ap|»Ucatloo of the varioni bmicfaH ■ 
{•h>sics tu the iiuiustnal arts and to the practical business of hie."— iy^M^air y^timmL 

"Mr. Locwy lias carefully revised the book, and brought tt up to moden reqniranieiita.i*''- 

Nature. 

" Natural nhilDsnphy has had few exponents more aUe or better sklDed In tfie art of paa» 
larisiiiif the subji-ct than Dr. l^ardmr ; and Mr. I^oewy b doiity |(ood serrice in fittiflVtUitMlMh 
and the others uf the bcrius, fur u%c at the present tune,"— ^HcpesiMaH. 

THE HANDBOOK OF HYDROSTATICS AND PNEUMATICS. 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, by I.knjamin Lobwy, F.R.A.S. With 

236 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

"I'or thiiM; '\\}ir) ilfsin* to attain a'l accurate knuwiedfpe of phytli'al science without the pi> 
-found nieth(Hii o. ii..itli-.-ii.;<ti(.al iii\i-.stit;a.iun.' ihU uuik is not merely Uttcmled, but veil adapUdi* 
— Chfuiiial \etvs. 

"I'he volume bcOtre us has been carefully edited, augmented to neary twice the bulk of te 
fi>rni(>r edition, and all the inubt recent matter ha.s Itecn added. . . . It is a valuable text-book." 
— \ature. 

" Candidates for pass examinations will find it. we think, specially suited to their recpdremeBt*.' 
/•'"ir/is/i Media uit\ 

THE HANDBOOK OF HEAT. Edited and almost entirely re- 
written by Benjamin Luewy, F.R.A.S., &c. 117 lllusirations. PostSvOfft. 

<'oth. 

I'lie stylo is alwavs riear and i>rcc!se, and conveys instructioa without leaviiiflf aay dowflMM 

or lt'i!:inj; doubts beliind." — h.U}iittferiug. 

"A most exhaustive liook on the subject on which it treats, and is so arranged that keen be 
understood by all who ticsirc to attain an accurate knowled);u o' physical science. .... Mi. 
Kouwy has iiicludi-d all thr- latest disiovcries m the varieJ laws and elfccts of heat.**— Stowdkn/. 

"A complete and hanJy tcxt-buok fur the use of students aad general readen.**— IfuViliUI 
Mechanic. 

THE HANDBOOK OF OPTICS, By Dionysius Lardner,D.C.L. 
formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in UniTenity 
College, London. New Ediiion. Edited byT. Olvkr Harding, B.A. Lond, 
cf University College, London. With 298 Illustrations. Small 8to^ 448 

pages, 5s. cloth. 

" Written by one of the ablest HnKlish scientific writers, l>oautifuUy and elaborately Hustsated.'* 
—.Mechanics' Ala^uzine. 

THE HANDBOOK OF ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND 
>lCOL-Sr/CS. Hy Dr. Lardnkr. Ninth Thonsand. Edit, by Gkoroe CassY 

t'osTER, B.A., P.C S. With 400 Illustrations. Small »vo, 5s. cloth. 



"The book couUl not have been entrusted to anyone bt tier calculated to preserve the 1 

lucid style of 1-ardner. while correLliiiK his errors and btiiigmK up his work to the present Stati 01 

•scientific knowltdtfe."— /'«»/«/«»/• .SViV«< e Kevieiu. 

Ih\ I^ardner^H Handbook of Astronomy* 

THE HANDBOOK OF ASTRONOMY, Forming a Compankm 
to the " Handbook of Natural Philosophy." By Dionysius Lardnbr, D.CL., 
formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in Univanity 
College, London. Fourth Edition. Revised and Edited by Edwih DuiiKiil. 
F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich. With 38 Plates and upwards 01 
100 Woodcuts. In One Vol , small Svo, 550 pages, gs. 61. cloth. 
" Probably no other book contains the same amount of information in so compendious and w«S» 

arranged a lorm — certainly none at the price at which thi> is ofiered to the public.' —^iMtP u m m . 
"We can do no other than pronounce this work a most valuable manual of astronomy, and wa 

strongly recommend it to all who wish to acquire a general— but at the same tUne correct—aoquaiat* 

ance with this sublime science. "—j^Kar^ifr/y Joumat qf Science. 

"One of the most deservedly popular iKwks on the subject . . . We would recaamieiid not 

only the student of the elementary principles of the sciem:e^ l>ut he who MOis at mas*— «-- "^ 

higher and mathematical branches of ablro;io:ny, not to be without this »ork beside him. 

cai Magazine. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. 23 



DR. LARDNER'S M USEUM OF SC IENCE AND ART. 

THE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND ART, Edited by 
DioNYsius Lardner, D.C.L., formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and 
Astronomy in University College, London. With upwards of 1,200 Engrav- 
ings on Wood. In 6 Double Volumes, £1 is., in a new and elegant cloth bind- 
ing ; or handsomely bound in half-morocco, 31s. 64. 

Contents : 

The Planets: Are tV.ey Inhabited Worlds?— motive — Thermometer — New Planets : Le- 

eather Prognostics — Popular Fallacies in verrier and Adams's Planet — Maf^itude and 

Jcstions of Physical Science— Latitudes and Minuteness — Common Things : The Almanack 

ongitudes — Lunar Influences — Meteeric — Optical Images— How to observe the Heavens 

Ones and Shooting Stars— Railway Ace dents — Common Things: The Looking-glass — 

Light— Common Things: At— Locomotion Stellar I'niverse— The Tides— Colour — Com- 

the United Slates— Cometary Influences — mon Things: Man — Magnifying Glasses — In- 

>imnon Things: Water— The Potter's Art— stinct and Intelligence — The Solar Microscopfc 
>mmon Things : Fire — Locomotion and ' — "The Camera Lucida — The Magic Lantern— 

ransport, their Influene and Progress— The The Camera Obscura — The Microscope — The 

oon— Common Things: The Earth — The White Ants: Their Manners and Habits— The 

lectric Telegraph — Terrestrial Heat — The Surface of the tarth, or First Notions of 

«n— Earthquakes and \'oIcanocs—Rarometer, Geography— Science and Poetry — The Bee — 

tfety Lamp, and Whitworth's Micronietric Steam Navigation — Electro- Motive Power -^ 



pparatus— Steam— The Steam Engine— The 
ye — The Atmosphere — lime — Common 
liings: Pumps— Common Things : Spectacles, 
« Kaleidoscope — Clocks and Watches — 
Ikroscopic Drawing and Engraving— Loco- 



Ihunder, Li({htninsf, and the Aurora Borealis 
—The Printing Press— The Crust of the Earth 
—Comets— The Stereoscope— The Pre-Ada- 
mile Earth — Eclipses — Sound. 



Opinions of the Press, 

"This series, besides affording popular but sound instniction on scientific subjects, with which 
he humblest man in the country ou>jht to be acquainted, also undertakes that teaching of * Com- 
mon Things ' which every well-wisher of his kind is anxious to promote. Many thousand copies of 
"is sersiceabie publication have been printed, in the belief and hope that the desire for instruction 
ind inij/rovement wide'y prevails ; and we have no fear that such enlightened faith will meet with 
"Sapiwintment.*— Times. 

" A cheap and interesting publ'cation. alike informing and attractive. The papers combine 
ittojects of imj)ortaiice and great scientific knowledge, considerable inductive powers, and a 

Poputir style of treatnient."— i/^rfa/^jr, 

"The • Museum of Science and Art' is the most valuable contribution that has ever been 
jade to the Scientific Instruction of every class of society."— Sir DAVID BREWSTER, in the 
yort/t British Rnie-v. 

" Whetlier we consider the liberality and beauty of the illustrations, the charm of the writing, 
" the durabe interest of the matter, we must express our belief that there is hardly to be found 
iinong the new hooks one that would be welcomed by people of so many ages and classes as a 
'valuable present." — Iixa>ni)ter. 

*♦* Separate books formed from the above, suitable for Workmen^ s Libraries, 

Science Classes, &c. 

Common Tilings Explained, Containing Air, Earth, Fire, Water, Time, 
Man, the Eye, Locoiiioiion, Colour, Clocks and Watches, &c. 233 Illus- 
trations, cloih gilt, 5s. 

The 3Tieroscoj)e, Containing Optical Images, Magnifying Glasses, Origin 
and Description of the Microscope, Microscopic Objects, the Solar Micro- 
scope, Microscopic Drawing and Engraving, &c. 147 Illustrations, cloth 

gilt, 2S. 

Voptdnr Geology, Containing Earthquakes and Volcanoes, the Crust of 
tUe Earth, &c. 201 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 25. td. 

J*opu7ar Pfit/sirs, Containing Magnitude and Minuteness, the Atmo- 
sphere, Meteoric Stones, Popular Fallacies, Weather Prognostics, the 
1 hennometer, the Barometer, Sound, &c. 85 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. 

Steam and its Uses. Including the Steam Engine, the Locomotive, and 

Steam Navigation. 89 Illustrations, cloth gilt, Z3. 

J*opn1ar Astronomij, Containing How to observe the Heavens^The 
Eartli, Sun, Moon. Planets, Light, Comets, Eclipses, Astronomical Influ- 
ences, &.C. 182 Illustrations, 4s. 6d. 

The Bee and White Ants: Their Manners and Habits. With Illustra- 
tions of Animal Instinct and Intelligence. 135 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 2S. 

The Electric Telegraph Poptdarised, To render intelligible to all who 
ran Reai, irrespective of any previous Scientific Acquirements, the various 
lorms of Telegraphy in Actual Operation. 100 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 
IS. Od. 



24 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- CO,' S CATALOGUE. 



MATHEMATIC S, GEOMETRY , TABLES, etc. 

JPractical Mathematics, 

MATHEMATICS FOR PRACTICAL MEN. Being a Com- 
mon-place Book of Pure and Mixed Mathematics. Designed chiefly for the 
Use of Civil Engineers, Architects and Surveyors. By Olinthus Gkeg* 
CRY, LL.D., F.R.A.S., Enlarged by Henry Law, C.E. 4th Edition, care- 
fully Revised by J. R. Young, formerly Professor of Mathematics, Beliast 
College. With 13 Plates, 8vo, £1 is. cloth. 

" The cn^'necr or architect will here find ready to his hand rales for solvfaisr nenrtv ewciy 
matlicmatical difficulty that may arise in his practice. The rules are in all cases exi^amed bf 
means of examples, in which every step of the process is clearly worked out." — Builder. 

" One of the most serviceable books for practical mechanics. . . . It is an instructive bo^ 
for the student, and a Text-book for him who, having^ once mastered the subjects it treats fl( ■ 
needs occasionsdly to refresh his memory upon ihtm."—BuildiH£r News. 

Metrical Units and Systems^ etc* 

MODERN METROLOGY: A Manual of the Metrical Units 
and Systems of the Present Century. With an Appendix containing a propoeed 
English System. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, A.M. Inst. C.E., AuthOT of " Aid 
to Survey Practice," &c. Large crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"The author has brougfht tog'ether much valuable and interesting^ hiformatioii. . . . Ws 
cannot but recommend the work to the consideration of all interested in the practical refonn of (W 
weights aj\d njcasurcs." — Nature. 

"For exhaustive tal>Ics of equivalent weights and measures of all sorts, and tor dear demonsti^ 
tionsof the effects of the various systems that have been proposed or adopted, Mr. Jackaoali 
treatise is without a rival." — Academy. 

The Metric System, 

A SERIES OF METRIC TABLES, in which the BniUh Stand- 
ard Measures and Weights are compared with those of the Metric System atpraeni 
in Use on the Continent. By C. H. Dowling, C.B. 8vo, ios. 6d. sirongly boiind. 
"Their accuracy has been certified by Professor Airy, the Astronomer-RoyaL" — BttiUer. 

" Mr. Dowlin^'s Tables are well put tojrether as a ready-reckoner for the conveisiMi of ona 
system into the other." — A(he>taum 

Geometry for the Architect^ Engineer ^ etc. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY, for the Architect, Engineer and 
Mechanic. Giving Rules for the Delineation and Application of varioiii 
Geometrical Lines, Figures and Curves. By E. W. Tarn, M.A., Architect 
Author of "The Science of Building," &c. Second Edition. With Appeih 
dices on Diagrams of Strains and Isometrical Projection. With lyziuxiM- 
trations, demy 8vo, 9s. cloth. 

" No book with the same objects in view has ever been published in which the deamen of At 
rules laid down and the illustrative diaj^ams have been so satisfactory." — Scotsfnau. 

" This is a u)anual for the practical man, wheth<'r architect, engineer, or mechanic. ... Tts 
object of the author being to avuid all abstruse formula: or complicated methods, and to emfcli 
persons with but a moderate knowledge of geometry to w ork out tiie problems required."— J?ntfKcl 
Mechanic. 

The Science of Geometry. 

THE GEOMETRY OF COMPASSES; or, Problems ResoM 

by the mere Description of Circles and the use of Coloured Diagrams tmi 

Symbols, By Oliver Byrne. Coloured Plates. Crown 8vo, 3$. 6a. cloth. 

" The treatise is a good one, and remarkable— like all Mr. Byrne's contributions to dM trkliri ; 
of geometry— for the lucid character of its teaching." — Building News. 

Iron and Metal Trades^ Calculator, 

THE IRON AND METAL TRADES' COMPANION. For. 

expeditiously ascertaining the Value of any Croods bought or sold by Wei^ 
from 15. per cwt. to 1125. per cwt., and from one farthing per pound tooM 
shilling per pound. Each Table extends from one pound to 100 tons. Tb 
which are appended Rules on Decimals, Square and Cube Root, Mentontiaa 
of Superficies and Solid?, &c. * Tables of Weights of Materials, and otber 
Useful Memoranda. By Thos. Downie. 396 pp., 95. Strongly boond leather. 

" A most useful set of tables, and will supply a want, for nothings like them belbfv < 
Building A'ews. 

" Althou(;h specially adapted to the iron and metal trades the tables will be found 
every other business in which merchandise is bought and sold by -weighx."— Railway Newt, 



MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY^ TABLES, etc, 25 



Calculator for Ntnnhers and Weights Combined. 

THE COMBINED NUMBER AND WEIGHT CALCU- 

LA TOR. Containing upwards of 250,000 Separate Calculations, showing at 
a glance the value at 421 different rates, ranging from i^th of a Penny to 20s. 
each, or per cwt., and £"20 per ton, ol any number of articles consecutively, 
from I to 470.— Any number of cwts., qrs., and lbs., from i cwt. to 470 cwts. — 
Any number of tons, cwts., qrs., and lbs., from i to 23% tons. By William 
Chadwick, Public Accountant. Imp. 8vo, 30s., strongly bound. 
tS" This comprehensive and entirely unique and original Calculator is adapted 

'or the use of Accountants and Auditors, Railway Companies, Canal Companies^ 

ihippers. Shipping Agents, General Carriers, &c. 

Ironfounders, Brassfoiinders, Metal Merchants, Iron Manufacturers, Iron' 

nongers, Engineers, Machinists, Boiler Makers, Millwrights, Roofing, Bridge and 

"iirder Makers, Colliery Proprietors, &c. 

Timber Merchants, Builders, Contractors, Architects, Surveyors, Auctioneers^ 

Valuers, Brokers, Mill Owners and Manufacturers, Mill Furnishers, Alerchants and 

jencral Wholesale Tradesmen. 



* * Opinions of the Press. 



•» 

"The book contains the answers to questions, and not simply a set of ingenious puzzle 
nethocl-> of arriving at results. It is as easy of reference for any answer or any numl>er ot answers 
IS a dictionary, aiui tl.e references are even more quickly made. For making up accounts or esti- 
■nates, the honk must prove invaluable to all who have any considerable quantity of calculations 
nvolvinjj price and measure in any combination to do." — Engineer. 

" 'Ihe most complete and practical ready reckoner which it has been our fortune yet to see. 
It is difiicult to ima£;ir.e a trade or occupation in which it could not be of the greatest use, either 
n saving^ human labour or in checking work. The publishers have placed within the reach of 
!very commercial man an invaluable and unfailing assistant." — The Miller. 

Vomprehem^ive Weight Calculator. 

THE WEIGHT CALCULATOR. Being a Series of Tables 
upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at One Reference the exact 
Value of any Weight from i lb. to 15 tons, at 300 Progressive Rates, from id. 
to i68s. per cwt., and containing 186,000 Direct Answers, which, with their 
Combinations, consisting of a smgle addition (mostly to be performed at 
sight), will afford an aggregate of 10,266,000 Answers; the whole being calcu- 
lated and designed to ensure correctness and promote despatch. By Henry 
H.^RBEN, Accountmt. An entirely New Edition, carefully Revised. Royal 
8vo, strongly lialfbound, £1 5s. 

"Of priceless value to business men. Its accuracy and completeness have secured for it a 
reputatifi!! v. hiJi renders it quite unnecessary for us to say one word in its praise. It is a necessary 
x>ok in all mercantile o.'hces." — Sheffield Independent. 

Coinprchcnsive Discount Guide, 

THE DISCOUNT GUIDE. Comprising several Series of 

Tables for the use of Merchants, Manufacturers, Ironmongers, and others, 
by which niay be ascertained the exact Profit arising from any mode of using 
Discounts, cither in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, and the method of either 
Altering a Rate of Discount or Advancing a Price, so as to produce, by one 
operation, a sum that will realise any required profit after allowing one or 
more Discounts : to which are added Tables of Profit or Advance from i\ to 
go per cent.. Tables of Discount from i\ to 98} per cent., and Tables of Com- 
miss on, &c , from \ to 10 per cent. By Henry Harben, Accountant, Author 
of " The Weight Calculator." New Edition, carefully Revised and Corrected. 
Demy 8vo, 544 pp. half-bound, £i ss. 

"A book such as this can only be appreciated by business men, to v^hom the saving of time 
ncans saving of money. We have the high authority of Professor I. R. Young that the tables 
hroiigliout the wirk are constructed upon strictly accurate principles. The work must prove 
•f tfreal value to ujcrchants, manufacturers, and general traders." — British Trade youmal 

Iron Shipbuilders^ and Iron Merchants^ Tables. 

IRON -PLATE WEIGHT TABLES: For Iron Shipbuilders, 
Engineers and Iron Merchants. Containing the Calculated Weights of up- 
wards of 150,000 different sizes of Iron Plates, from i foot by 6 in. by \ in. to 
10 leet by 5 leet by i in. Worked out on the basis of ^o lbs. to the square 
foot of Iron of i inch in thickness. Carefully compiled and thoroughly Re- 
vised by II. BuRLiNSON and W. H. S'MPSOn. Oblong 4to, 255. half-bound. 

"This work will be found of great utility. The authors have had m''ch practxal experience 
•if what is wantinjtf in rr-akini; estimates; and' the use of the book uill save much time in making 
elaborate calculatioub." — Ji>ij,^'iih Ueihiinic. 



2G CROSIiY LOCKWOOD &> CO.' S CATALOGUE 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 

Soa))-in a/khif/, 

THE ARi OF SOAP-MAKING: A Practical Handbook of the 
M::in fiuiHK of Hard and Soft Soaps. Toilet Soaps, &c. Including many New 
I'll <■ -s- s, an<i ;i Chipter on the Recovery of Glycerine from Waste Levs. 
I',- A: I wMiKK Watt. Author of "Electro-Metallurgy Practically Treated," 
iVc. With uuniurous Illustrations. Second Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 
<r. <'l>)tli. 

" 1 I." w<>»k wi'l jifivp VIT5' usoful. not iiipr*»ly to the technolnjjir.il student, but to thepractici 
«i,.i. ".•■■..• I w'lix wisli<-, ti iiiiilf.T-il iiid the theory of his art." — Chemu'ai .\'nvs, 

"I. I- r.-.iMv an ••>ii'll<'m pxaiiijilp of a technical manual, entering, as it does, thorouglilj" and 
«-v!. .;i 1 ■•> ;. l.iiih mill tlu' thror) .iml piaoticc of soaj) niaoufucturc." — Knowledge. 

•■ ^' I \\ .lit s 1 I. Ilk is a thofnu'lily pMCliral treatise on an art which has almost no literatutein ■ 

< -ir 1 1 -..; I.:'-. \V(> <-i>:i){r.i;ii<.itu the author on the success of his endeavour to fill a void in En{^ 
ti'. :.•., .il ii i-i,itiiri'."- -Auture. 

JjvafUvv Mftunfacture. 

THE ART OF LEATHER MANUFACTURE. Being a ' 
I'l.iciical H.indbook, in which the Operations of Tanning, Currying, and . 
L<;iilwr I)n i,siiig are fully Described, and the Principles of Tanning Ex- 
I'l.iiiU'.l, and many Recent Processes introduced; as also Methods for the 
J'.siim.K'Dn of Tannin, and a Dt-scription of the Arts of Glue Boiling, Got 
l)t( s-iii;,'. &c. liy Ai.KXANDER Watt, Author of " Soap-Makiug." " Electro- 
Met. illur^y," &c. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, I2S. 6d. cloth. 
*' Mr. W ■•', Ii.is n-ndori'il an important service to the trade, and no Icsj to the student of 

'.••■ ]'.■!■ 1 'H'. .' I nrtr.iiiil .\>Tfi. 

"A .11.1. I Miiiprflu-n^ivo trc.itiso. The hook is an eminently valuable production which re- 
«l'H!:i ■'. :.. ii.c . ii-ilit 111 l> itli ;iii!linr anil piib'ishers." — Chemical Un-i'tu. 

'• 1 ■ ■. \-'i;iiic IS tfilini. .tl witliiiut licinjj tedious comprehensive and complete without b«ng 
; ri'«\ . .ii.ii 1- ;.. .us on cmtv p.i.:i' thf i npr«'ss of a mjister hand. We hiive never comeacrossa 
lM-t<r T I I • :i<> I'l .«•. n<ir mu; t.i.it so thoroutfhly supplied an absolute want." — Shoe and lAothtr 
J • .i.i'i J I . » . >:t. if. 

Hoot and Shoe Mahhig, 

THE ART OF BOOT AND SHOE-MAKING. A Practical 
H.iii'llx ok. includint; Measurement, Last-Fitting, Cutting-Out, Closing and 
M.ikint;, with a Dt'scription of the most approved Machinery employed. 
r.y IciiN r>. Li;no, iati; Kditor of St. Crispin, and The Boot a ltd Shoe- Maker. 
With nu:m.ious Illustiations. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

'■ riii'- i\ ill nt triMliso is by f.ir the best work ever written on the subject. Anewwoik, ; 
*'Ti.!'r.i 1 114 .I'l ri,.,irrii i;i;.r >v<"!ii-nts, \v,i-, much wanted. Tliiswant is now s.'Jtisfied. The chapter 
■ li .il ^ \N '..; li '.li'f.x 4 li.>w \s.i-,tc may be prevented, will s.ive lifty times the price of the boo*- 
■. ..'.';>'! I ftithfr 1 rader. 

J>rntistt'if, 

MECHANICAL DENTISTRY: A Practical Treatise on tht 

Construction of the various kinds of Artificial Dentures. Comprising also Use- 
ful Koniiulin, Tables and Receipts for Gold Plate, Clasps, Solders, &c. &c. 
J'.v (^H\Ki,i;s IIiNTKR. Second Edition, Revised. With upwards of 100 
Wo-^d ICngiavinus- Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. cloth. 
" \\<' I .m sinm^lyreioninuMid Mr. Himter's treatise to all students preparing' for the proiissioB 

< f <l"-i;i-,iry. as well as to every meclianic.il dentist." — Dublin yournal of Medical Scitme. 

".\ vNork ill a concise form that few could read without gaining information from."— /frflit* 
j'cur'tai !_>/ Dental Si ienu. 

Jircivhiff, 

A HANDBOOK FOR YOUNG BREWERS. By Herbert 

KinvAKHS Wright, B.A. Crown 8vo, 3.S. 6d. cloth. 

'• 1 ":ii^ liiil"' vo'iiine, cont.iinintj such a larjj'i' amount of jfood sense in so small a compass, (flf(ht 
ti> ri-. ■.:iiiii'iul iisclf to every brewery pupil, and many wlio have passed that stage.* — Brewers' 

<,ll.n\r',,t)t. 

" Tin- l.iiok is very clearly written, and the author has successfully brought his scientific know- 
iiv'j^'c to lic.ir ii;ion the various processes and details of brewing." — Brewer. 

flood Knffravhtfj, 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL OF WOOD ENGRAVING. With 

a Brief Account of tlie History of the Art. By William Norman Brown. 

With numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo, 2S. cloth. 

" The autlior deals with the subject in a thorouyfhly practical and easy series of representatire 
lessens." — J\it<'r and Pri)ttif^ Irades" jfoHrnal, 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 27 



rolysis of Gold, Silver, Copper, £'c. 

ECTRO-DEPOSITION : A Practical Treatise on the Electrolysis 
rold. Silver, Copper, Nickel, and other Metals and Alloys. With descrip* 
s of Voltaic Batteries, Magnets and Dynamo-EIectiic Machines, Ther- 
>iles, and of the Materials and Processes used in every Department of 
Art, and several Chapters on ELECTRO-METALLURGY. By Albx- 
ER Watt, Author of "Electro-Metallurgy," "The Art of Soapmaking.'* 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Z2s. 6</., cloth. 

lently written by a practical man who has spent a loiu^ period of time in dectro-plate 
s. The information given respecting the details of workshop manipulation is remarkably 
. . . Mr. Watt's book will prove of great vataie to elecbttMleposibMrs, Jewdbm, and 
her workers in metal." — l^atnre. 

inently a book for the practical worker in electro^eposition. It contains. ndmite and 
de<;criptions of methods, processes and materials as actually pursued and used in the 
. Mr. Watt's book recommends itself to all interested in its subjects. — Engineer, 



tains an enormous quantity of prtctical information ; and there are probaUy few items 
hich could be of any possib'e utility to workers in galrano-pli«sty. As a {Ha* tical waiwial 
can be tecommended to all who wish to study the art of eleciro<^position.'' — HngHth 



r opiating f etc, 

ECTROPLA TING : A Practical Handbook. By J. W. Urqu- 

T, C.E. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 55. cloth. 

! infomintion given appears to be based on direct personal Icnowledge. • • Its sdenc* 
nd the style is always dear." — Athfuuusn, 

rot f /ping, etc. 

ECTROTYPING : The Reproduction and Multiplication of PHnt- 
Surfaces and Works of Art by the Electro-deposition 0/ MetiUs, ByJ, W. 
jUHAKT, C.E. Crown 8 vo, 5s. cloth. 

book is thoroughly practical. The reader is, therefore; conducted througli liie leading 
sctricity. then through the meuls used by electrotvpers, the apparatus aadthe deposition. 
, up to the final preparacion of the woric." — j4rt yintmal, 

can recom-nend this treatise, not merely to amateurs, but to those actuaUy engaged in tbe 

'.heniical A'rzvs. 

ro-3Ietalliirgy, 

ECTRO-METALLURGY : Practically TreaUd. By Alexander 
IT, F.R.S.S.A. Eighth Edition, Revised, with Additional Matter and 
strations, including the most recent Processes. z2mo, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 

n this !>ook both amateur and artisan may learn everytliing necessary for the successful 

»n of electroplatinjj."— /r(»«. 

nnitJis' Work, 

E GOLDSMITH'S HANDBOOK, By George E. Gee, 

eller, &c. Third Edition, considerably Enlarg^. i2ino, 3s. 6d. cloth 

■ds. 

ood, sound, technical educator, and will be generally accepted as an authority. It is 
' a book fur the workshop, and exactly fulfils the purpose intci^ed."—Noroiifgical 

speedily become a standard book which few will care to l>e without."— y<nne0Sir and 

ker. 

• 

rsmiflis^ Work, 

E SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK. By George E. Gee, 
3ller, &c. Second Edition, Revised, with numerous Illnstrations. i2mo 

d. cloth boards. 

chief merit of the work is its practical character. . . The w oik eis in the trade wfll 
liscover its merits when they sit down to study it." — En/^tish Mechanic. 
\ work forms a valuable sequel to the author's 'Goldsmith's Handbook.' "—Siiver sm itks 
unial. 

*^* The above two works together, strongly half-bound, price ys. 

le Manufacturers^ Tables, 

I VERSA L TABLES OF TEXTILE STRUCTURE. 
the use of Manu facturers in every branch of Textile Trade. By Joseph 
lONDsoN. Oblong folio, strongly Dound in cloth, price ys. €d. 
These Tables provide what has long been wanted, a simple and easy means 
ting yarns to " reeds " or " setts,** or to "picks " or ** shots" and vice versa, 
fabrics may be made of varying weights or fineness, but havit^ the sam* 
r and proportions. > 



28 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S- CO.'S CATALOGUE. 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES & COMMERCE/ 



The Alkali Tirade, Manufacture of Sulphuric Acidf 
etc, 

A MANUAL OF THE ALKALI TRADE, including the 
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, Sulphate of Soda, and Bleaching PonvdflT., 
By John Lomas, Alkali Manufacturer, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ana Londoij;^ 
Witn 232 Illustrations and Working Drawings, and containing 390 pages oTj 
Text. Second Edition, with Additions. Super-royal 8vo, £x zos. cloth. 

*^^* This work provides (i) a Complete Handbook for intending AlkaU lad 
Sulphuric Acid Manufacturers, and for those already in the field who desire to! 
improve their plant, or to become practically acquainted with the latest procer"^ 
and developments of the trade: (2) a Handy Volume which Manu£u;tnrer8 
put into the hands of their Managers and Foremen as a useful guide in their daSf-! 
rounds of duty. 

" The autlior has ^vnn the fullest, most practical, and. to all concerned in the alkaiB trade. I 
raluable mass of iiiforniation that, to our knowledge, lias been pubUshed."—Jitigineer. 

This book is written by a manufacturer for manu'iacturers. The vnxking detaih <tf tliei 
ved forms of njiparntus arc given, and these are accom})anied byno less than 4«i wooi 
gravings, all of which may be used for the purposes of construction. JEvery step in tat nilin*Wl 
ture is very fully described in this manual, anci each improvement explained. Ererythini^ vfelal 
tends to introduce economy into the technical details of this trade receives tlw fiiUest a ttent ion .^ " ^ 



approved forms of njiparntus are given, and these are accom})anied byno less than a^ wood 
'1 of which may be i:sed for the purposes of construction. Every step in rae 

fully d< 
roducc ( 

" Tlie author is not one of those clever compilers who, on short notice, will • read np * any < 
able subjfct, but a practical man in the best sense of the word. We find here not mer^ a i 
and luminous cxplnnarion of the chemical principles of the trade, but a notice of numerous m 
which have a most important bearing on the successful conduct of alicali worics, but irtlldi tM 
generally overlooked by even the most experienced technological authois.''—CA<»MSn[t/JK<vriinp. 

Coniniercial CJieinical Analysis, 

THE COMMERCL-iL HANDBOOK OF CHEMICAL ANA- 
LYSIS; or, Practical Instructions for the determination of the Intrinsic or, 
Commercial Value of Substances used in Manufactures, in Trades, and intbt 
Arts, hy A. Normandy, Editor of Rose's "Treatise on Chemical Analwi." 
New Edition, to a great extent Re-written, by Henry M. Noad» PbJX*, 
F.R.S. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 12$. 6d. cloth. 

"We stroncfly recommend this book to our readers as a guide, alike indisp e nsabl e to tba hoo^i 
wife as to the pharmaceutical practitioner." — Medical Times. 

"Iisscntial to the analvsts appointed under the new Act. The most recent results arcglft%, 
and the work is well edited and carefully written." — Nature. 

I>ye-Wares and Colours, 

THE MANUAL OF COLOURS AND DYE-WARES : TiHr 
Properties, Applications, Valnatiottf Imburities, and Sophistications. For At 
use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, &c. By J. W. Slatbr, 
Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth. 

"A complete encyclopaedia of the materia tinctoria. The information given 
article is full and precise, and the methods of determining the value of articles sudi 
liable to sophistication, are given with clearness, and are practical as well as vahiaUe.* 
and Drtt};^ffiit. 

•* There is no other work which covers precisely the same ground. To students ^, , 
for examinations in dyeing and printing it will prove exceedingly useful."— CAM»»<at/A'Srwf. 

JPignients. 

THE ARTIST'S MANUAL OF PIGMENTS. Sbowiitf 
their Composition, Conditions of Permanency, Non- Permanency, and Adf ^ 
tcrations; Effects in Combination with Each Other and with Vehiclea; anl 
the most Reliable Tests of Purity. Together with the Science and Alli 
Department's Examination Questions on Painting. By H. C. Stamuh^ 
Small crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 

" This work is indeed multum-iu-farvo, and we can, with good conscience, recooraMnd It M 
all who come in contact with pigments, whether as makers, dealers or users."— CA^wrini/ JU w k m , 

"This manual cannot fau to be a very valuable aid to all painters who wish thcib woricl* ' 
endure and be of a sound character ; it is complete and comprehensive." — S^tctat»r. * 

"The author supplies a great deal of very valuable information and memoranda as to thi 
chemical qualities and artistic effect of the principal pigments used by painters.'*-^«AUkr. 



AGRICULTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, etc. 29 

AGRICULTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, etc. 



Votiatt and Burn's Complete Gruzier* 

THE COMPLETE GRAZIER, and FARMER'S and CATTLE- 
BREEDER'S ASSISTANT. A Compendiiim of Husbandry; especially in 
the departments connected with the Breeding, Rearing, Feeding, and General 
Management of Stock ; the Management of the Dairy, &c. With Directions 
for the Culture and Management of Grass Land, of Grain and Root Crops, 
the Arrangement of Farm Offices, the use of Implements and Machines, and 
on Draining, Irrigation, Warping, &c. ; and the Application and Relative 
Value of Manures. By William Youatt, Esq., V.S. Twelfth Edition, En- 
larged, by Robert Scott Burn, Author of " Outlines of Modem Fanning," 
" Systematic Small Farming," &c. One large 8vo Volume, 860 pp., with 244 
Illustrations, £1 is. half-bound. 
" The standard and text-book with the fanner and graaer."— Farm«rx' Magajti$i€. 

" A treatise which will remain a standard work on the subject as long as British agricaltnre 
indures. "—A/ar-t Lane Express (First Notice). 

The book deals with all departments of aericulture, and contains an fanmense amount of 
taluable information. It is, in fact, an encydopaema of ajpiculture put into loadable form, and it 
li the only work equally comprehensive brougrht down to present'date. It .deserves a place in the 
Ibrary of everj' agriculturist."— Afar>t Latu Express (Second Notice) 

" This esteemed work is wcU worthy of a place in the librazles of agricultnrists.'*— JV<wt4 
BriXish Agriatlturist. 

Modern Farming. 

OUTLINES OF MODERN FARMING. By R. Scott Burn. 

Soils, Manures, and Crops — Farming and Fanning Economy — Cattle, Sheep, 
and Horses— Management of the Dairy, Pigs and Poultry — Utilisation ot 
Town-Sewage, Irrigation, &c. Sixth Ecution. In One Vol., 1,250 pp., half> 

bound, profusely Illustrated, its. 

" The aim of the author has been to make his work at once compr^ensiTe and tr ust wor thy, 
uid in this aim he has succeeded to a degree which entitles him to much credit.*'— Jf«rM^^ 

Advertiser. 

"Eminently calculated to enliehten the agricultural community on the TSried Mbjects of 
which it treats, and hence it should find a place in every farmer's Ubnuy.**— C^ Prut, 

StnaU Farming. 

SYSTEMATIC SMALL FARMING; or. The Less(ms of my 
Farm. Being an Introduction to Modern Farm Practice for SmaU Fanners 
in the Culture of Crops ; The Feeding of Cattle ; The Management of the 
Dairy, Poultry and Pigs ; The Keeping of Farm Wcnrk Records ; The Ensilage 
System, Construction of Silos, and other Farm Buildings; The Impn>ve- 
ment of Neglected Farms, &c. By Robert Scott Burn, Author of *' Out- 
lines of Landed Estates' Manaeement/' and " Outlines of Farm Manage- 
ment," and Editor of '* The Complete Grazier." With numerons Illustrations, 
crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. [Just pnblWud. 

• ' This is the completes! book of its class we have seen, and one iHUch every amatenr £umn 
iriU read with pleasure and accept as a guide, "^/^ir/iil 

•* Mr. Scott Burn's pag^es are severely practical, and the tone ci the {Mractical nan b ftk 
throughout. The book can only prove a treasure of aid and suggestion to the small £ua«r of 
■teliigence and energy."— Briiish QuarUrty Xetfiew, 

Agricultural Engineering. 

FARM ENGINEERING, THE COMPLETE TEXT-BOOK OF. 
Comprising Draining and Embanking; Irrigation and Water Supply ; Farm 
Roads, Fences, and Gates; Farm Btuldings, their arrangement and con- 
struction, with plans and estimates : Barn Implements and Madiinesj Fitid 
Implements and Machines; Agricultural Surveying, LevelUng; Ac ByProi^ 
John Scott, Editor of the Farmers* GaietU, late Professor of Agricaltara 
and Rural Economy at the Royal Agrictiltural Odilege, Cirencester, Ac Aqi 
In.One Vol., 1,150 pages, half-bound, with over 600 Dlostrationt, las. 



Written with great care, as well as with knowledge and ability. The mathot hw dooe hb 
vork well ; we have found him a very tnistworthy guide wherever we have teatad Idt alaM 
rbe volume will be of great value to agricultural student^ and we hum anch plMtnie Im 
nending it."— AfarJk Latu Express. 

• • For a young agriculturist we know of no 1uui4y TOhnas 10 BMy to be 
.^Btlts H'€€kly Messenger. 



30 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- CO.'S CATALOGUE. 

En fflitth A grictiltare. 

THE FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAIN : A Text-Book o 

Agriculture, adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and Art Department 

For Klcinrntary and Advanced Studeuts. By Hugh Clements (Board o 

Trade)' i8ino, 2S. 6d. cloth. 

"A most CDuiprcheiisivo volume, giving a mass of lnforTa:ation."^-^gricit//urai Eevpto/Htst. 

" It is .1 lon^ time since we have seen a book which has pleased us more^ or which contais 
such a v.ist aiul uMiful fund of knowledge."— ift/jMU^Mo/ Times. 

Hudson's Land Valuer's Pocket^Book* 

THE LAND VALUER'S BEST ASSISTANT: Being Table 
on a very much Improved Plan, for Calculating the Value of Estates. Witl 
Tables lor reducing Scotch, Irish, and Provincial Customary Acres to StatuU 
Measure, &c. By K. Hudson, C.£. New Edition. Royal 32mo, leathei 
elastic band, 45. 

" This new oditiun includes tables for ascertaining the Talue of leases for any term of years 
and for sh-iwin^ how to Liy out plots of uround of certain acres in fomia, square, round, &c., «it! 
\alualjle rules for tiscvrtauiin^ the prol>abIe worth of standing timber to auy amount; and is 
incakiilnMc v.iluu to the country gentleman and professional maa."— Farmers yoHmal. 

EwarVs Land Improve^^s JPocket^Book* 

THE LAND IMPROVER'S POCKET-BOOK OF FORMULM, 
TABLES and MEMORANDA reauired in any Computation relating to tk 
Permanent Improvement of Landed Property. By John JEwart, Land Surveyoi 
and Agricultural Engineer. Second Edition, Revised. Royal 32mo, obloDg 
leather, gilt edges, with elastic band, 45. 
" A cutnitcndious and handy little volume." — SpecteUor, 

Complete Agricidtxiral Surveyor's JPocket^Book. 

THE LAND VALUER'S AND LAND IMPROVER'S COM 
PLETE POCKET-BOOK. Consisting of the above Two Works bound to 
gcihcr. Leather, gilt edges, with strap, ys. 6d. 

"lliulsun's book is the best ready-reckoner on matters relating to the vahaaf on of land an 
crops, and its combination with Mr. Ewart's work greatly enhances the value and usefulness of th 
attur-incatiuncd. . . . It is most useful as a manual for reference.'— .^V^r/Aa^^x^^Mtf/arjin^. 

Farm and Estate Book-keeping, 

DOCK-KEEPING FOR FARMERS <S ESTATE OWNERS 
A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a Svstem adapted to al 
Classes of Farms. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. Crow] 
bvo, 3s. 61/. cloth. 

" Will b<; found of great assistance by those who intend to commence a system of book-keop 
irg, the aiiilior's cxaniplt-s being clear and explicit, and his explanations, while fuU and accutat< 
buin^ to a larjjc ext»*ut free fnini technicalities." — Live Stock yournal. 

" The young fanner, land ai;ent and surveyor will find Mr. Woodman's treatise more tha 
repay its cost anJ ^imXy."— Build if ig^ Xews. 

WOODMAN'S YEARLY FARM ACCOUNT BOOK. Givin; 
a Weekly Labour Account and Diary, and showing the Income and Eipend 
til re under each Depaitment of Crops, Live Stock, Dairy, &c. &c. Wit 
Valuation, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance Sheet at the end of th 
Year, and an Appendix of Forms. Folio, ys. 6d. halfboun^. 

"Contains every rciiuisiiu fonn for keeping farm accounts leadily and accuratoly."— •^^'''' 

cu/tJire. 



GARDENING, FLORICULTURE, etc. 

Early Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables. 

THE FORCING GARDEN ; or, How to Grow Early Fruits 
Mowers, and Vegetables. With Plans, and Estimates for Bailding Glass 
houses, Pits and Frames. Containing also Original Plansfor DoubleGlazin^ 
a New Method cf Growing the Gooseberry under Glass, &c. Ac, and on Venti 
lation, Protecting Vine Borders, &c. With Illustrations. By Samubx, Wooe 
Crown 8vo, 3s. Gd. cloth. 

"A good book, and fairly fills a i>Iace that was in some degree vacant.' — Gardemrf Maguxin^ 
" Mr. Wood's l)Ook is an orieinal and exhaustive answer to the questioa *How to Grow Earl 
Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables r"—Za;«fa«rf Water, 



GARDENING. FLORICULTURE, etc, 31 

Good Gardening, 

A PLAIN GUIDE TO GOOD GARDENING ; or, How to Grow 

Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers. With Practical Notes on Soi's, Manures^ 
Seeds, Planting. Laying-out of Gardens and Grounds, &c. By S. Wood. 
Third Edition, with considerable Additions, &c., and numerous Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 
" A very g-ood book, and one to be highly recommended as a practical guide." — Athenaum. 

" May be recommended to young gardeners, cottagers, and specially to amateurs, for the plain 
and trustworthy information it givts on matters too often neglected." — Lardetiers' Chronicle, 

Gainful Gar^dening, 

MULTUM-IN-PARVO GARDENING; or. How to make One 
Acre of Land produce £620 a-year by the Cultivation of Fruits and Vegetables ; 
also, How to Grow Flowers in Three Glass Houses, so as to realise 5^176 per 
annum clear Profit. By Samuel Wood, Author of "Good Gardening," &c. 
Fourth and cheaper Edition, Revised, with Additions. Crown 8vo, is. sewed. 

" We are bound to recommend it as not only suited to the case of the amateur and gentleman's 
gardener, but to the market grower." — Gardeners' Magazine. 

Gardening for Ladies, 

THE LADIES' MULTUM-IN-PARVO FLOWER GARDEN, 

and Amateurs' Complete Guide, With Illustrations. By Samuel. Wood, 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

" This volume contains a good deal of sound, common-sense instruction." — Florist. 
" I-'ull of shrewd hints and useful instructions, based on a lifetime of experience." — Scotsman, 

Heceipts for Gardeners, 

GARDEN RECEIPTS. Edited by Charles W. Quin. i2mo, 

IS. 6d. cloth limp. 
"A useful and handy book, containing a good deal of valuable information." — AtAetueum, 

Kitchen Gardening, 

THE KITCHEN A ND MA RKET GARDEN. By Contributors 
to " The Garden." Compiled by C. W. Shaw, Editor of " Gardening Illus- 
trated." i2mo, 3s. Gd. cloth boards. 
"The most vakiable compendium of kitchen and market-garden work published." — Farmer, 

Cottage Gardening, 

COTTAGE GARDENING; or, Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables for 
Small Gardens. By E. Hobday. lamo, is. 6d, cloth limp. 

"Contains much useful information at a small charge." — Glasg-ow Herald, 



AUCTIONEERING, E STAT E AGENCY, etc. 

Auctioneer's Assistant, 

THE APPRAISER, A UCTIONEER, BROKER, HOUSE AND 
ESTA TE AGENT AND VALUER'S POCKET ASSISTANT, for the Valua- 
tion for Purchase, Sale, or Renewal of Leases, Annuities and Reversions, and 
of property generally; with Prices for Inventories, &c. By John Wheeler. 
Fifth Edition, "Extended by C. Norris, Valuer, &c. Royal 32ino, 5s. cloth. 

" Contains a large quantity of varied and useful information as to the valuation for purchase. 
sale, or renewal of leases, annuities and reversions, and of property generally, with prices for 
iiventorics, and a guide to determine the value of interior fittings and oitier effects." — Builder. 

Auctioneering, 

AUCTIONEERS : Their Duties and Liabilities. By Robert 

Squibbs, Auctioneer. Demy 8vo, los. 6d, cloth. 

" The position and duties of auctioneers treated com{>endiousIy and diSZT\y."— Builder, 
•' Hv«ry auctioneer ought to possess a copy of this excellent work."— /rw«»i#»y<r 

Jfoiv to Invest, 

HINTS FOR INVESTORS : Being an Explanation of the Mode 
of Transacting Business on the Stock Exchange. To which are added Com- 
ments on the Fluctuations and Table of Quarterly Average prices of Consols 
since 1759. Also a Cop^ of the London Daily Stock and Share List. By 
Walter M. Playford, Sworn Broker. Crown 8vo, zs. cloth. 
" An in\aluable guide to investors and speculaton,"^BultiaHist. 



32 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- CO.' S CATALOGUE. 

A Complete Epitome of the Latvs of this Country. 

EVERY MAN'S OWN LAWYER: A Handy-book of the 
Principles of Law and Equity. By A Barrister. Twenty-third Edition. 
Carefully Revised and brought down to the end of the last Session, including 
Summaries of the Latest Statute Laws. With Notes and References to the 
Authorities. Crown 8vo, price 6s. Hd. (saved at every consultation), strongly 
bound in cloth. 

Comprising TlIR RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF Txr>IVIDUAT.S— MERCANTILE AND COM- 
MERCIAL I-Aw— Criminal Law— Parish Law— County Court Law— Gamf. and 
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— KI.UCTIONS AND REGISTRATION— LNsURANCE—LI BEL AND SLANDER— MARRIAGE AND 

Divorce— MERCHANT Shii'imng—Mortgages— Settlements— Stock lixcHANcr. 
pRAci ICE- Trade Marks and Pati^ni-s— Trespass— Nuisances, &c.— Transfer of 
LAND, &c.— Warranty— Wills and Agreements, &c. &c. 

Opinions of the Press. 

" Xo J^nj^liskman pug^ht to be without this hook. . . . Any person perfectly uninrormed on 
Ie{^I matters, who may ruiiuire sound mfonnation on unknown law points, will, by reference to this 
l>uok, acciuirc the necessary infonuation, and thus on many occasions save the expense and loss of 
lime of a visit to a lawyer." — Ung-ineer, 

" It is a complete code of En^rlish Law, written in plain languag^e, wliich all can understand."— 
IVeekly Times. 

" A useful and concise epitome of the law, compiled with considerable care." — Law Magazine. 

" What it professes to be — a complete epitome of the laws of this country, thoroug^hly intclli- 
^tlik to non-professional readers. The book is a bandy one to have in readiness when some knotty 
pijinl rcciuires ready solution." — Be/fs Lift. 

Metropolitan Itatiuf/ Aj^peals. 

REPORTS OF APPEALS HEARD BEFORE THE COURT 
OF GENERAL ASSESSMENT SESSIONS, from the Year 1871 to 1885. 
By Edward Rvdk and Arthur Lyon Ryde. Fourth Edition, brought t'owa 
to the Present Date, with an Introduction to the Valuation (Metropolis) A<;t, 
1869, and an Appendix by Walter C. Ryde, of the Inner Temple, Barrister- 
at-Law. 8vo, i6s. cloth. 

House Property, 

HANDBOOK OF HOUSE PROPERTY : A Popular and Practical 
Guide to the Purchase, Mortgage, Tenancy, and Comptdsory Sale of Houses and 
Land. By E. L. Tarbuck, Architect and Surveyor. Third Edition, i2mo, 
3s. 6d. cloth. 

** The advice is thoroughly practical."— Zaw yournai. 

"This is a well-written and thougfhtful work. We commend the work to the careful studj' of all 
interested in questions affectintf houses and land."— Land j-l^^^ents' Record. 

Inwood's Estate Tables, 

TABLES FOR THE PURCHASING OF ESTATES, Freehold, 
Copyhold, or Leasehold; Annuities, A dvowsons,&c.. And for the Renewing ot 
Leases held under Cathedral Churches, Colleges, or other Corporate bodies, 
for Terms of Years certain, and for Lives ; also for Valuing Reversionary 
Estates, Deferred Annuities, Next Presentations, &c. : togetherwith Smart's 
Five Tables of Compound Interest, and an Extension of the same to Lower 
and Intermediate Rates. By W. Inwood. 22nd Edition, with considerable 
Additions, and new and valuable Tables of Logarithms for the more Difficult 
Computations of the Interest of Money, Discount, Annuities, &c., by M. Fkdor 
Thoman, of the Soci^te Credit Mobilier of Paris. i2mo, 8s. cloth. 

"Those interested in tne purchase and sale of estates, and in the adjustment of compen<Hition 
cases, as well as in trausiictions in annuities, life insurances, dec, will find the present edition uf 
euiinent service."— /^«i''j>/^^ri;/^. 

" 'Inwood's Tables ' still maintain a most enviable reputation. The new issue has been enriched 
by larjre additional contributions by M. Todor Thoman, whose carefully arransod Tables cannot 
fail to DC of the utmost utility."— .Wt;«t;/^ yournai. 

Agricultttral and TenanURIght Valuation, 

THE AGRICULTURAL AND TENANT-RIGHT-VALUER'S 

ASSISTANT. By Tom Bright, Agricultural Survevor, Author of "The 

Live Stock of North Devon," &c. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6rf. cloth. [Just published. 

" Full of tables and examples in connection with the valuation of tenant-right, estates, labour i 

contents, and wei^iits of timber, and farm produce of all kinds. The book is «^ calculated ti \ 

assist the valuer in the discharge of his duty. — Agricultural Gasette. 



J. OGDEN AND CO. LIMITED, PRINTERS, GREAT SAFFRON HILL, B.C. 



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